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THE former edition of Propertius, with English notes, was pub- 
lished in 1853. Though the work was composed under rather 
unfavourable circumstances, and with but few books available 
for reference or consultation; and though Propertius then was, 
as he even now is, but little read, compared with the contemporary 
poets Horace, Ovid, and Virgil, yet it gradually made its way, 
and in fact, has for some years been out of print. During the 
long interval since its first appearance, it may be supposed that 
I have been enabled to make many important improvements. 
To the fifth book especially, which is at once the most difficult 
and the most interesting, I have written nearly a new commentary, 
and with much fuller explanations than before. While I adhere 
to the opinion I formerly expressed, that it is “a reproach to 
the scholarship of this country that one of the most beautiful, 
interesting, and historically important of the Augustan Poets 
should remain unheeded and almost unknown,’ I may yet 
venture to think that some little advance has been made in 
the favourable estimate of the merits of Propertius by the 
mere fact of the poet having been edited in the present con- 
venient form. I still feel some surprise that none of our English 
scholars have undertaken the work in a more thorough way, 
and with the painstaking minuteness that characterise the com- 
mentaries of Conington, Mayor, Ellis, and Munro. For I am 
not only quite unable myself to devote the necessary time and 
research even to the attempt at such a task, but I am now more 
fully aware of the extreme difficulties, both critical and exe- 
getical, that beset this author. - Of good MSS. there are but two, 
the Naples and the Groningen, neither of great antiquity, and both 

1 Preface to Ed. 1, p. i. 


often very corrupt. The style of the poet too is obscure, abrupt, 
replete with affected Grecisms, and perplexed by sudden tran- 
sitions and apostrophes. Some of the peculiarities in his Latinity 
may possibly be due to his Umbrian descent. For these and 
other reasons, (such as the great variety of the mythology, the 
large field of history and archeology, and the uncertainty as to 
the right division of the elegies, lacuna, &c.,) a really complete 
edition of Propertius with English notes would form a much 
larger work than I have the power or the time to execute. I 
have therefore been content to record briefly the principal readings 
and conjectural emendations, and to offer in all cases the best 
explanation that I could give, avoiding superfluous discussion. 

Of course I cannot expect that all students will have the same 
fondness for Propertius as a poet which I have long felt for him, 
and which only increases by time. There is truth in the remark 
of Lucian Mueller) “Est sane difficilis Propertius, cujus sensus 
ac rationes nisi diligentissimo pariter ac longissimo studio perspicere 
non possis, sed ut eos quo magis penetraris, hoe vehementius te 
alliciant ; plane sicut Tacitus, cum quo in quantum materia sinit 
diversitas, mirum in modum illi convenit.” I can only wish he 
were more generally studied than he is; for though in some few 
places his elegies are, as may be expected, lax in their morality, 
they are nowhere coarsely indecent. And while Horace and 
Juvenal are read in schools, it is vain to exclude Propertius on 
that score.2 He was a poet of thorough genius and (in spite 
of his fondness at a later period for Greek models) originality ; 
a perfect master of pathos, which may be called the soul of 

Flebilis indignos Elegeia, solve capillos ; 
Ah nimis ex vero nunc tibi nomen erit.$ 4 

As Horace boasted that he introduced the lyric, so Propertius 
claimed to be the Roman Callimachus,t and to have brought 
the elegiac Muse from her Heliconian heights into the Italian 
plains. Thus, though Catullus had used the elegiac verse to some 

1 Pref. ad Propert. ad init. (Lips. 1870). 

2 Selected Elegies from Propertius have been published, with brief notes for school- 
boys, by the Rey, A. H. Wratislaw, in the ‘“‘Grammar-School Classics.” 

3 Ovid, Am. iii. 9, 2. 

4 ‘Umbria Romani patria Callimachi,’ y. 1, 64. 


extent before, and Tibullus had carried it to a high degree of 
perfection, to Propertius may fairly be attributed the first success- 
ful effort to take up this metre uniformly, as the best for narrative 
as well as for poetic sentiment.’ It is rather singular that 
Propertius nowhere alludes to Tibullus; and it is probable that 
he was not acquainted with his writings. Neither Catullus nor 
Tibullus however,—nor indeed even Ovid—used elegy alone. 
Tibullus had exquisite taste, and very many of his verses are truly 
charming. But the elegiacs—not very numerous—of Catullus 
are so utterly rough and archaic—I had almost said, semi- 
barbarous, but I must speak with respect of ‘doctus Catullus,— 
that they can bear no comparison with those of his successors. 
Take a brief example of his style: 

Quem neque sancta Venus wolli requiescere lecto 
Desertum in lecto celit perpetitur, 
Nee veterum dulci scrip’ am carmine Muse 
Oblectant, cum mens anxia pervigilat, 
ς Id gratum est mihi, me quoniam tibi dicis amicum, 
Muneraque et Musarum hinc petis et Veneris. 

Propertius was not, perhaps, as popular among his contemporaries 
as Tibullus; probably because he was not so conversant with 
the great, though he seems to have known Mecenas.* Yet he 
was evidently the model that Ovid proposed to himself, as is plain 
from the very numerous imitations that occur in his works.° 
Generally harmonious and smooth, he now and then adventures 
a word of four and even five syllables, or two spondees, at the 

1 In its origin, and in the hands of such early composers as Solon, Theognis, and 
Tyrtaeus, elegy took rather a gnomic than a sentimental turn. Its use for epitaphs, in 
the hands of such a master as Simonides, perhaps tended to its after use for the ex- 
pression of deep feeling. To the thoughtful student and practised composer, elegy will 
appear to be, as it is, a metre admirable for its versatility and almost endless power 
of combination and yariety. A piece of English verse, given to 500 students at an ex- 
amination, to turn into Latin elegiacs, would not be done by any two of them in 
precisely the same way. The genius of Martial shows to how many subjects, and 
with what success, it may be applied. 

2 The heroic poem in praise of Messalla, commonly given as the fourth book of 
Tibullus, is of rather uncertain authorship. 

3 Catull. 68, 5—10. 

4 See iv. 8, 57—60. 

5 These have been collected at considerable length by Dr. Anton Zingerle, in three 
parts. Innsbruck, 1871. 


end of his hexameters.!. As Pliny the younger said? of his friend 
Pompeius Saturninus, “inserit sane, sed data opera, mollibus 
levibusque duriusculos quosdam, et hoe quasi Catullus aut Calvus.” 
His habit of using largely words of four, five, or even three 
syllables at the end of the pentameter gives a character (not, in 
my judgment, an unpleasing one) to the Propertian as contrasted 
with the more polished and equable Ovidian distich. Take the 
opening lines of the first book as an illustration : 
Cynthia prima suis miserum me cepit ocellis, 
Contactum nullis ante cupidinibus. 
Tum mihi constantis dejecit lumina fastus, 
Et caput impositis pressit Amor pedibus, 
Donec me docuit castas odisse puellas 
Improbus, et nullo vivere consilio. 

Here the fourth verse alone, metrically considered, is not 
pleasing. But let the following passage? be examined with at- 
tention, and it cannot fail to strike the reader of taste and 
judgment as singularly beautiful: 

Ille sub extrema pendens secluditur ala, 
Et volucres ramo submovet insidias. 

Jam Pandioniz cessat genus Orithyie : 

* Ah dolor! ibat Hylas, ibat Hamadryasin. 

Hic erat Arganthi Pege sub vertice montis, 
Grata domus Nymphis humida Thyniasin : 

Quam supra nulle pendebant debita cure 
Roscida purpureis poma sub arboribus; 

Et circum irriguo surgebant lilia prato, 
Candida purpureis mixta papaveribus; 

Que modo decerpens tenero pueriliter ungui 
Proposito florem pretulit officio ; 

Et modo formosis incumbens nescius undis 
Errorem blandis tardat imaginibus. 

It cannot be doubted that the long words at the end of the 
pentameters in the above passage were studiously imtroduced. 
Every distich is elaborately constructed on that principle. And 
those who would object to such verses as inharmonious must have 
a very limited or a very erroneous conception of the capabilities of 
descriptive elegiac verse. 

' See instances collected by L. Miiller, De Propertii Arte Metrica, pp. xlvii—viii. 
2 Ep. i. 16. 3 Book i. El. 20, 29—42. 


But one of the chief beauties of Propertius’ style consists in his 
habit of balancing the concluding noun of the pentameter by its 
epithet in the first half of the verse. The following lines are 
a good example :? 

Tu pedibus teneris positas fulcire pruinas, 
Tu potes insolitas, Cynthia, ferre nives ἢ 

O utinam hiberne duplicentur tempora brume, 
Et sit iners tardis navita Vergiliis, 

Nec tibi Tyrrhena solvatur funus harena, 
Neve inimica meas elevet aura preces, 

Et me defixum vacua patiatur in ora 
Crudelem infesta seepe vocare manu. 

Atque ego non videam tales subsidere ventos, 
Cum tibi provectas auferet unda rates. 

Sed quocumque modo de me, perjura, mereris, 
Sit Galatza tuze non aliena via, 

Ut te felici preevecta Ceraunia remo 
Accipiat placidis Oricos equoribus. 

It would seem, from the style of the historical poems in the 
fifth book, which appear to be amongst his earliest efforts, that 
the dissyllabic word at the end of the pentameter was generally 
preferred by him at first. These poems were professedly in 
imitation of the Altia of Callimachus, but, the subjects being 
strictly national, they do not exhibit so much of the Greek 
learning as his later compositions. 

Propertius began to write verses early in life, and as soon as 
he had taken the toga virilis, v.e. about 16. 

Mox ubi bulla rudi demissa est aurea collo, 
Matris et ante deos libera sumpta toga, 
Tum tibi pauca suo de carmine dictat Apollo, 

Et vetat insano verba tonare foro.? 

Born circa 50 B.c., two or three years after Tibullus, and nearly 
forty after Catullus, he lived in the very best period of Roman 
literature. He has an interesting reference to the then forth- 
coming Aineid of Virgil? which he appears to have heard pub- 

eG 1 Ξ 50: 2 ¥. 1. 181. 
3 πὶ. 26, 63. The ending of an hexameter in iv. 7, 49, Oricia terebintho, may have 
been borrowed, as L. Mueller suggests, Pref. p. xlviii., from 4”. x. 136, where the 
same words occur in the same position. 


licly or privately recited. His first Book, entitled ‘Cynthia,— 
the first that was published, if not the first written—is also 
a work of his early life, as indeed is attested by the ardour of 
feeling that pervades it. It is distinctly so called by Martial.t 

Cynthia, facundi carmen juvenile Properti, 
Accepit famam, nec minus ipsa dedit. 

His birthplace was Mevania? (Bevagna) in the south of Umbria, 
near to Asisium and the sources of the Clitumnus. Pliny the 
younger twice mentions® Propertius in connection with one Passen- 
nus Paullus, a writer of elegies, and at once an imitator and a 
descendant, as well as fellow-townsman (municeps) of Propertius. 
It has hence been inferred that Propertius married and had 
legitimate children after Cynthia’s death‘ It seems that his 
position in life was what we call of middle class; for he supposes 
Cynthia to say of him (111. 16, 21): 

Certus eras, heu heu, quamvis nec sanguine avito 
Nobilis, et quamvis haud ita dives eras. 

The literary questions connected with the life and writings of 
Propertius have so fully been discussed by others® that I shall 
not here attempt to repeat them at length. An account of the 
numerous (but mostly late and interpolated) MSS. and early 
editions may also be found in the prefaces of Barth, Lachmann, 
Hertzberg, and others. L. Mueller, who again collated the Naples 
MS., hitherto regarded as of the xuith century, inclines to think 
it is not really earlier than sec. xv.6 In respect of its critical 
value, he comes to a conclusion opposed to the judgment of 
Lachmann, and says, “longe superat bonitate Groninganum.” 
This latter, the Groningen MS., is thought to have been derived 
from an independent source; its readings are often unique, but 

1 Ep. xiv. 189. 

2 y. 1, 1283—5. Plautus, also an Umbrian, but a very pure Latinist, was born at 
Sassina or Sarsina in the north of Umbria. 

3 Pp. vi. 15 and ix. 22. “In litteris veteres @mulatur, exprimit, reddit, Pro- 
pertium in primis, e quo genus ducit, vera soboles, eoque simillima illi in quo ille 
precipuus. Si elegos ejus in manum sumpseris, leges opus tersum, molle, jucundum, 
et plane in Propertii domo scriptum.” 

4 His connexion with Cynthia (supposed to be Hostia, a descendant of Hostius, 
whose name is known as a poet), was illicit, and in ii. 7 he expresses his satisfaction at 
the relaxation of the law enforcing marriage on Roman citizens. 

5. Hertzberg and L. Mueller especially. 6 Pref. ἢ. ix. 


whether or not due to an early emendator, it seems impossible 
to say... But the Naples MS., according to Mueller, “est certe 
omnium qui jam extant longe optimus.”? Lachmann? upholds 
the Groningen MS. as first in authority; “Codicem Groninganum, 
qui veram multorum locorum lectionem unus omnium indicat, 
proxime subsequuntur membrane Neapolitane.” 

The German editions of Propertius are numerous ; it is evident 
that the poet has long held a far higher place in their estimation 
than it has in our comparatively indolent universities. I have 
consulted throughout the following: 

1. Frid. Gottlieb Barth, Lips. 1777, in 1 vol. 8vo., a laborious 
work, with a copious apparatus criticus and a full index; the 
text is a reprint from the second Gottingen edition of 1762. 

2. Christian Theophilus Kuinoel, Lips. 1805. 2 vols. 8vo. 
The text of this edition, like the preceding, is founded too much 
on conjectural emendation and the readings of the interpolated 
MSS. The commentary however is copious, and often useful. 

3. Car. Lachmann, Lips. 1816. 1 vol. 8vo. This, the first 
edition, was reprinted in 1829 with Catullus and Tibullus. The 
second edition I have not used; but of the first I have not formed 
quite so high an opinion as that generally held by his numerous 
admirers. Many of his alterations seem to indicate a want of 
poetic taste; but he was the first to reject a number of readings 
introduced since the time of the Scaligers, and to show what 
MSS. should be chiefly taken as a guide. 

4. Frid. Jacob, Lips. 1827. 1 vol. 12mo. An unpretending, 
but excellent work, and the first that can be considered as founded 
wholly on MS. authority. The critical notes at the end of the 
volume are brief, but show sound judgment and knowledge of 
the idioms of the author. His tendency, like that of some of 
his successors, is to follow Lachmann. 

5. Guil. Hertzberg, Halis, (Halle,) 1843. 4 vols. 8vo. This is by 
much the most complete edition that has appeared. It is furnished 
with a complete collation of all the good MSS., followed by an 
elaborate commentary, extending to about 500 pages, in two 
volumes. To these he has added a volume of Queestiones, of 

1 See L. Mueller, Preef. p. v.—vii. 
2 Ib. Pref. p. 10: 3 Preef. p. x. (ed. 1816). 


great value and research, in which he treats of the personal 
history of the poet and his friends, his relations to Cynthia, the 
idioms, diction, genius and principles of his composition, the 
dates and historical allusions, the MSS., early editions, and other 
collateral points. To this work the present edition owes the 
greatest obligations. 

6. Henr. Keil, Lips. 1850. 1 vol. 12mo. A carefully revised 
text, chiefly following Lachmann and Jacob. Some new emen- 
dations of his own or others are admitted; and the orthography 
is generally brought up to a uniform and more correct standard. 
Generally, he says,! he preferred to leave in the text readings 
which he felt sure were corrupt, rather than to adopt conjectures 
where several had a chance of being right. 

7. Lucian Mueller, Lips. 1870. 1 vol. 12mo. This is an im- 
portant edition, and I have made good use of it throughout. The 
text is carefully revised, and though the emendations introduced 
are rather frequent and violent, they are generally ingenious, and 
deserving of consideration. The volume contains also Catullus 
and Tibullus, each with a learned and useful Preface, and each 
accompanied by a brief critical commentary. 

These seven editions—to which I might add Mr. Wratislaw’s 
small volume as an eighth,—are all that I have regularly examined 
throughout. The editions of Weise, Haupt, and Rossbach, I have 
not had before me, though I have occasionally inspected that of 
Weise. In truth, the work of editing is so hard, and presses 
so severely on those whose time is fully occupied with other 
engagements, that I may hope for some consideration on the 
score both of errors and oversights, as well as of omissions. 

So long as the writing of Latin verse is kept up in our public 
schools and colleges, Propertius ought to be, and will be, studied 
by some. I recommend him especially as a model for imitation ; 
and I repeat that, as an Augustan poet of the earlier period, he 
deserves a great deal more attention than in this country he has 
hitherto obtained. 

1 Preef. p. iv. fin. 

October, 1872. 




care peel Cy diz hna “ΦΑ 
a (06 70,2“: «4. 
tw 8 



In most of the MSS. the first book is inscribed ‘Cynthia, Monobiblos;’ 
and under this title the poet himself appears to allude to it, iil. 15, 2: 
‘Et tua sit toto Cynthia lecta foro.’ It was both written and published 
by its author a.v.c. 728, probably at the early age of twenty years. 
Hence Martial, xiv. 189: ‘Cynthia, facundi carmen juvenile Properti.’ 
Ib. viii. 7, 5: ‘Cynthia te vatem fecit, lascive Properti.’ It has all the 
freshness and ardour of early genius, before it suffered from the pedantry 
of the Greek learning that was becoming more and more fashionable. 
The fondness of the poet for Greek mythology is even here apparent; but 
he was not yet an avowed rival and imitator of Philetas and Callimachus 
(iv. 1,1). The agnomen Nauta which is commonly given to the poet 
in the MSS. is thought to have originated from the false reading Navita 
for non ita in iii. 16, 22. So Plautus was sometimes known by the 

agnomen ‘Asinius,’ probably from his birthplace Sassina in Umbria. 





YNTHIA prima suis miserum me cepit ocellis, 
Contactum nullis ante cupidinibus. 

Tum mihi constantis dejecit lumina fastus, 
Et caput impositis pressit Amor pedibus, 

Donec me docuit castas odisse puellas 

1.1 Cynthia. That this name is feigned 
by the poet, as Delia was by Tibullus, and 
Lesbia by Catullus (Ovid, TZrist. 11. 428: 
‘Femina, cui falswn Lesbia nomen erat,’) 
is evident. Her real name is said to have 
been Hostia (Schol. ad Juven. Sat. vi. 7. 
Apuleius, Apolog. p. 279, quoted by Hertz- 
berg). Of her birth and family nothing is 
known beyond the few hints to be collected 
here and there from the elegies, all which 
have been diligently examined by Hertz- 
berg, Questiones Propertiane, p. 31—46. 
It is probable that she was a Jlibertina 
(compare the details of her humble funeral, 
v. 7, 25, &c.), not indeed a woman of 
virtue, but highly accomplished, and even 
talented as a poetess (i. 2, 27). A parti- 
cular description of her personal charms is 
given ii. 2,5. She was, however, as may 
be supposed, faithless and profligate; and 
the poet’s jealous temper continually finds 
in this a subject of complaint. See, for 
instance, ii. 5 and 6, and iii. 7. On a 
correct estimate of her character, which 
none of the editors before Hertzberg seem 
to have formed, the true interpretation of 
many passages depends. How, on any 
other supposition, could the poet with pro- 
priety introduce (ii. 6) the parallel between 
Cynthia and the most notorious courtesans 
of antiquity, Lais, Thais, and Phryne? 
And this circumstance was probably the 
real obstacle to their lawful union. See 
note on ii. 7,1. Cynthia seems to have 
been by some years older than Propertius, 



iii. 9, 20, unless we should rather under- 
stand anus futura haud longa die of the 
more transient nature of female beauty 
under a southern climate. The passage in 
ili. 24, 6, would be conclusive, were the 
reading anum certain. 

ibid. cepit, ‘took captive,’ εἷλε. The me- 
taphor is continued in the next three lines. 
—contactum, ἁλόντα, caught by none of the 
‘Veneris pueri,’ v. 1,138. The sense of 
this is determined by a circumstance in 
his early life recorded iy. 14,5. Cynthia 
was his ‘first love,’ ὦ. 6. the first who had 
ever really possessed his affections. 

8.7 lumina, ete., then Love made me 
cast down the eyes of resolute pride with 
which I had, as it were, bid him defiance. 
This appears to be the genitive of quality, 
but the expression is a remarkable one. 
Fastus is a word peculiarly used (1) as the 
boast of being superior to love, inf. i. 13, 
27. (2) of those who reject the advances 
of others, as Penelope, iv. 12, 10. Com- 
pare iv. 18, 11; iii. 5,13; iii.17, 21. So 
Ovid, Fast. i. 419, ‘Fastus inest pulcris, 
sequiturque superbia formam.’ 

4.] Caput. ‘Trampled on my neck as 
a conqueror on a prostrate enemy.’ This 
seems to have been a favourite subject in 
ancient paintings. (Kuinoel on ii. 30, 8). 
So Tac. Germ. § 37, ‘infra Ventidium de- 
jectus Oriens.’ 

5.] Odisse, to dislike chastity in women, 
to speak and think of it as mere prudery 
and affectation, and to disparage it as pre- 


Improbus, et nullo vivere consilio. 
Et mihi jam toto furor hic non deficit anno, 
Cum tamen adversos cogor habere deos. 
Milanion nullos fugiendo, Tulle, labores 

Qeevitiam dure contudit Tasidos. 


Nam modo Partheniis amens errabat in antris, 
Ibat et hirsutas ille videre feras ; 

Ille etiam Hyli percussus volnere rami 
Saucius Arcadiis rupibus ingemuit. 

Ergo velocem potuit domuisse puellam ;— 


Tantum in amore preces et benefacta valent. 
In me tardus Amor non ullas cogitat artes, 

senting an obstacle to possession.—Nw/lo 
consilio, i.e. temere, ‘recklessly ;’ without 
any fixed object or principle; without re- 
gard to reputation or interests. 

7.] The sense seems to be, ‘And now 
a whole year has passed, and this madness 
ceases not, though all that time I have 
been unable to have the gods in my favour.’ 
Cum tamen, ei καὶ, even though I have 
had to endure the hard fate of not securing 
my mistress’ affections. Inf. 31, ‘quibus 
facili deus annuit aure.’ 

9.] Tulle, see on vi.1. The argument 
is this. Some suitors, by persevering at- 
tentions and devotedness, have softened 
the obdurate hearts of their mistresses ; 
but in my case Love is slow to suggest 
any such method of gaining my object 
(vy. 17).—Milanion was the lover of Ata- 
Janta, daughter of Iasius. The form Jas?s 
is, however, from Jasus, and this is the 
name given by Apollodorus, iii, cap. 9. 
Another form, used by /Blian, is Jasion. 
The history of Atalanta is given by the 
last-mentioned writer in a very beautiful 
narrative, Var. Hist. xiii. 1. He does not 
mention Milanion, but records her success- 
ful contest against two centaurs, Hyleus 
and Rhecus, who came to serenade her. 
Apollodorus, l.¢., is more concise : Ἰάσου 
καὶ Κλυμένης τῆς Μινύου ᾿Αταλάντη ἐγέ- 
νετο. Ταύτης ὁ πατὴρ, ἀρρένων παίδων 
ἐπιθυμῶν, ἐξέθηκεν αὐτήν. “Apkros δὲ 
φοιτῶσα πολλάκις θηλὴν ἐδίδου, μέχρις 
οὗ εὑρόντες κυνηγοὶ παρ᾽ ἑαυτοῖς ἀνέτρεφον. 
τελεία δὲ ᾿Αταλάντη γενομένη, παρθένον 
ἑαυτὴν ἐφύλαττε, καὶ θηρεύουσα ἐν ἐρημίᾳ 
καθωπλισμένη διετέλει. Βιάζεσθαι δὲ αὐ- 
τὴν ἐπιχειροῦντες Κένταυροι Ῥοῖκος καὶ 
'Yralos κατατοξευθέντες ὑπ᾽ αὐτῆς ἀπέθανον. 
According to this writer, Milanion ob- 

tained her in marriage by the well-known 
expedient of dropping golden apples when 
matched with her in a foot-race. See 
Theocr. iii. 40. The offspring was the 
Parthenopeus of Aschylus, Zheb. 542. 
Other accounts represent him as attending 
on Atalanta in the chase, and as having 
been wounded by the centaur in her de- 

fence. Ovid, Ars Amat, ii. 185: ‘Quid 
fuit asperius Nonacrina Atalanta? Sue- 
cubuit meritis trux tamen illa viri. Spe 

suos casus, nec mitia facta puelle, Flesse 
sub arboribus Milaniona ferunt.’ 

11.] Partheniis in antris. ZBlian, V. H. 
xiii. 1. ὁ δὲ (πατὴρ) ἐκθεῖναι λαβὼν, οὐκ 
ἀπέκτεινεν, ἐλθὼν δὲ ἐπὶ τὸ Παρθένιον 
ὄρος, ἔθηκε πηγῆς πλησίον. Καὶ ἣν ἐν- 
ταῦθα ὕπαντρος πέτρα, καὶ ἐπέκειτο συ- 
νηρεφὴς δρυμών. This was ἃ mountain in 
Arcadia—ibat videre. The Grecism is ob- 
vious. Cf. i. 6, 338. On antrum see Vv. 
4. 9 

13.] The MSS. have psii or psilli, 
There can be no doubt of the truth of the 
correction made in the Ed. Rheg. 1481. 
Milanion, says the poet, was even wounded 
by a blow from the club of the Centaur 

15.] domuisse, δαμάσαι, ‘he was able to 
subdue the fleet-footed maid,’ ἡ. 6. to over- 
take her in the race of love. In velocem 
there is an elegant allusion to her being 
matched with her lover in the foot-race, 
on which ancient custom see Pindar, Pyth. 
ix. 114—22, Domare would probably mean 
‘he might have vanquished her’; but the 
poets are not always consistent in the use 
of the present and the perfect infinitive. 

16.] benefacta, viz. the assistance given 
against the Centaurs. 



Nec meminit notas, ut prius, ire vias. 
At vos, deductz quibus est fallacia lune, 

Et labor in magicis sacra piare focis, 


En agedum, dominz mentem convertite nostre, 
Et facite illa meo palleat ore magis. 

Tune ego crediderim vobis, et sidera et amnes 
Posse Cyteis ducere carminibus. 

Et vos, qui sero lapsum revocatis, amici, 

Querite non sani pectoris auxilia. 
Fortiter et ferrum, szevos patiemur et ignes; 
Sit modo libertas, quee velit ira, loqui. 
Ferte per extremas gentes et ferte per undas, 

18.] Notas vias. ‘Sunt ex, quibus ille 
deus insinuare se pectoribus puellarum 
solitus erat.’ (Hertzberg). 

19.] Atvos. He appeals to magic aid, 
i.e. that of philtres and charms.—fadlacia, 
ars fallendi. There seems no reason to 
alter this into fiducia, or in the next line 
sacra into astra, with Miller. As easy 
a guess would be pedlacia, a word used by 

20.] Sacra piare. An unusual express- 
ion, not signifying ‘sacra facere expiandi 
causa,’ but ‘sacra pie solemnique ritu 
peragere. Nihil amplius.’—Kuinoel. ‘Sacra 
nostro loco significant res sacrificio ob- 
latas, sive victimas, sive latices et herbas 
Magicas, que certis carminibus certoque 
ritu Diis adolentur.’— Hertzberg. Piare is 
ἁγνίζειν, καθαγίζειν. Propertius frequently 
uses the word, as v. 1,50; 7, 34; 9, 25. 

24.] There is great difticulty about the 
reading of this verse. The ed. Rheg. has 
cytheinis ; the best MSS. eytallinis or ey- 
thainis. Jacob reads Cytainis, Hertzberg 
and Miiller Cytaines, Kuinoel, Barth, and 
Lachmann Cyte@is, the conjecture of 
Guyet. Medea is supposed to be meant, 
so called from Κύτη or Κυταία, a town of 
Colchis; compare ii. 4, 7: ‘non hic herba 
valet, non hic nocturna Cyteis.’ The 
forms Κυταιίς and Καταιεὺς occur in Apoll. 
Rhod. ii. 399, 403, and Κυταῖος 7b. 1095; 
ef. iv. 511. But it does not appear by 
what analogy Kurdivos could be formed 
from Κύτη or Kurata, with the « long. 
Hertzberg compares Nerine (Virg. Eel. vii. 
37) from Nereus; but this fails, for Nerine 
is simply contracted from Νηρηΐνη or 
Nnpelvn. More appropriate would have 
been the feminine heroina from heros. Cf. 
i. 19, 13. The termination in mus is 

generally used in the case of persons born 
in Greek towns, but out of Greece (es- 
pecially of those in Magna Grecia). The 
only way of defending the long « would be 
to compare Homer's use of émwpivds for 
émwpivds, on which see note on Aisch. Cho. 
1038. Κυταιαῖος might be formed from 
Kutala, as Aiatos from Aia. The conjec- 
ture of Hertzberg is very plausible, ‘ Cytz- 
neis, i.e. Thessalicis. Steph. Byz. 8. v. 
Κύτινα, inquit, πόλις Θεσσαλίας, ws Θέων 
ἐν ὑπομνήμασι Λυκόφρονος (1389: Λακμώ- 
νίοι τε καὶ Κυτιναῖοι Κόδροι), ὃ πολίτης 
Κυτιναῖος. The principal argument in his 
favour is that the Thessalian witches are 
especially mentioned by the Latin poets as 
being able to draw down the moon by their 
incantations. So perhaps ‘Sinuessanum- 
que Petrinum’ in Hor. Zp.i. 5, 5, may 
have been so called from πέτρινον, ‘rocky.’ 

25.] Et vos, i.e. vos etiam. AZ, the 
reading of one MS. (Groning.) seems ob- 
jectionable from v.19 beginning with at 
vos. 1 am surprised that Lachmann, 
Hertzberg, Miiller, and Kuinoel should 
have admitted, and Jacob approved, aut 
vos, the conjecture of Hemsterhuis. With 
Barth, I fellow the Naples MS. 

27.) Ferrum et ignes. ἤτοι κέαντες ἢ 
τεμόντες εὐφρόνως πειρασόμεσθα πῆμ᾽ ἄπο- 
στρέψαι vécov.—Aisch. Ag. 822. ‘ Docte 
ab arte chirurgica metaphoram duxit.’— 

29.] The sense is, ‘Nay, even banish 
me by way of cure, far from the sight of 
women.’ There is much pathos in these 
beautiful lines. The only condition he 
imposes is freedom in expressing his sense 
of Cynthia’s cruelty (v. 28); that is, he 
will not desist from writing verses to her. 


Qua non ulla meum femina norit iter. 


Vos remanete, quibus facili Deus annuit aure, 
Sitis et in tuto semper amore pares. 

In me nostra Venus noctes exercet amaras, 
Et nullo vacuus tempore defit amor. 

Hoc, moneo, vitate malum: sua quemque moretur 

Cura, neque assueto mutet amore locum. 
Quod si quis monitis tardas adverterit aures, 
Heu, referet quanto verba dolore mea! 


Quid juvat ornato procedere, vita, capillo, 
Et tenues Coa veste movere sinus ? 

Aut quid Orontea crines perfundere myrrha, 
Teque peregrinis vendere muneribus, 

Naturzeque decus mereato perdere cultu, 


Nee sinere in propriis membra nitere bonis ? 

31.] Vos remanete. This may mean, 
in opposition to the preceding, ‘It is for 
you to stay at home, whose vows are heard 
by the gods’ (sup. 8); but it may also be 
explained, ‘remain constant to each other; 
a sense peculiar to Propertius, and rather 
implied by the next verse. See below, 
el. 10, 29, and on ii. 9, 8. 

33.] amaras. See v. 8, 29, ‘at mihi 
cum noctes induxit vesper amaras.’ 

35.] Hoe malum, 1. 6. hoc extremum 
remedium, sc. exilium.—J/utet amore locum, 
ὦ. ὁ. discedat a domina sua. This distich 
contains advice to others to be constant, 
and so to avoid a quarrel (discidium) as 
the greatest of evils. But here also the 
sense is ambiguous; the lines may mean, 
‘stay at home, you who haye gained the 
affection you aspired to.’ 

38.] referet, ‘he will recal,’ or, ‘he will 
repeat to others.’ 

II. This beautiful elegy conveys advice 
to Cynthia not to be too fond of dress. 
We may suppose it written after meet- 
ing her in public more richly attired 
than he thought becoming her position. 
He cannot suppress a suspicion that she 
wishes to please others beside himself. 
Hence a tone of ill disguised jealousy 
throughout the poem. 

2.1 Coa veste. The silk from Cos was 

celebrated in the time of Aristotle, Hist. 
An.v.19. ἐκ δὲ τούτου τοῦ ζῴου καὶ τὰ 
βομβύκια (the cocoons), ἀναλύουσι τῶν γυ- 
ναικῶν τινὲς ἀναπηνιζόμεναι, κἄπειτα ὑφαί- 
νουσιν: πρώτη δὲ λέγεται ὑφῆναι ἐν Κῷ 
Παμφίλη Πλάτεω θυγατήρ. (Kuinoel).— 
tenues, so called from their thin and pellucid 
texture. Whence Martial, vili. 67, says, 
‘femineum lucet ceu per bombycina cor- 
pus.’ Infra. 11. 3,15. ‘Nee si qua Arabio 
lucet bombyce puella.’ This distich is 
repeated in y. 8, 65. The ablative, Coa 
veste, is rather irregular; either induta 
may be supplied, or the ablative of material 
may be meant.—movere sinus alludes to 
the thin and fluttering folds of the dress, 
probably the tunica which the poet appears 
to have particularly admired in Cynthia: 
see li. 8, 15; iii. 21, 25; iv.9,15. In this 
passage he speaks of it with a jealous dis- 
like, as too fascinating to other eyes than 
his own. 

8.7 Orontea, with Syrian (eastern) per- 
fumes.—vendere, ‘to set yourself off by the 
produce of foreign lands,’ perfumes and 
silk dresses, ete. 

5.] perdere, to spoil nature’s grace by 
purchased ornaments. The past participles 
of many deponent verbs are used both 
transitively and intransitively; as medi- 
tatus, comitatus, expertus, sortitus, oblitus, 
partitus, &e. 


Crede mihi, non ulla tue est medicina figure: 
Nudus Amor forme non amat artificem: 
Aspice quos summittit humus formosa colores ; 

Ut veniant hederz sponte sua melius, 


Surgat et in solis formosius arbutus antris, 
Et sciat indociles currere lympha vias. 
Litora nativis collucent picta lapillis, 
Et volucres nulla dulcius arte canunt. 

Non sic Leucippis succendit Castora Phebe, 

7.1 medicina, ‘there is no appliance 
that can improve your natural shape; 
Cupid is naked, and likes not the maker 
of an artificial beauty.’ 

8.7 Kuinoel reads formam, which is a 
wanton corruption of the text. Compare 
li. 1, 58; ‘solus amor morbi non amat 
artificem.’ Artifex does, however, occa- 
sionally mean artificial, as inf. 111. 23, 8; 
and artificem vultum, Pers. v. 40. 

9.7 Submittat is the reading of Kuinoel, 
from the Naples MS. Miiller gives guo 
submittat. The others have summittat, 
In the next line all MSS. agree in 
et, for which Kuinoel, Barth, and Lach- 
mann give wt. This is a question of 
considerable difficulty. The indicative in 
the first line may be taken either for sub- 
mittat, according to the lax poetical usage 
sanctioned by Virgil, Georg. 1, 56, ‘nonne 
vides croceos ut Tmolus odores, India 
mittit ebur» cf. inf. 17, 6, and especially 
111. 7, 29, and 26, 85; or we may under- 
stand aspice flores, quos humus submittit. 
Or again, if with Jacob and Lachmann we 
consider sponte sua to belong to submittit 
as well as to veniant, and so retain ef, we 
must have recourse to the ‘laxior orationis 
junctura’ with which Jacob cuts the knot. 
I agree with Hertzberg in reading wt, and 
understanding gwos as the relative, not as 
the indirect interrogative, and also in his 
judgment that ‘et hac sede non modo 
durum est, sed ne Latinum quidem.’ Swd- 
mittere is properly used of the earth which 
sends up (ὑποφύει) plants. So Lucretius, 
i. 7, ‘tibi suaves dedala tellus submittit 

11.] Formosior Kuinoel against all the 
MSS. Felicius Miiller after Lachmann, 
as formosa occurred just before. In these 
beautiful verses the emphasis is of course 
to be placed on the words implying the 
absence of art; viz., sponte swa,—solis,— 
indociles,—nativis,—nulla arte, and the 

corresponding comparatives; antris is here 
used as i. 1, 11, ὦ. 6. ‘mountain dells.’ 

12.] indociles, in reference to the water 
conducted in pipes from the aqueducts. 
So nativis aquis, v. 4, 4. 

13.] Collucent. This is the reading of 
MS. Gron. and ed. Rheg. 1481. Cf. Cic. 
de Nat. D. ii. § 99, ‘insulae littoraque col- 
lucent distincta tectis et urbibus.’ The 
Naples MS. has perswadent, from which 
the ingenious and plausible reading per se 
dent, the correction of Scaliger, has been 
admitted by Barth and Kuinoel, with the 
change of canunt into canant in the next 
line. This, however, not only involves 
the correction of Japillis into lapillos, but 
introduces a sort of tautology by adding 
per se to nativos, as Lachmann has well re- 
marked. The fact is, the construction 
here passes from the oblique to the direct, 
z.e. it no longer depends on aspice. Per- 
suadent is not hastily to be rejected, since 
it is found in the oldest of all the existing 
copies. The sense would be, ‘litora picta 
nativis lapillis persuadent tibi non nimis 
laborandum esse in cultu.’ But the more 
regular word would be swadent ; while 
collucent seems altogether appropriate and 
natural to the context. Palmer proposed 

persqualent. Miller reads prelucent after 
15.] It was not thus, ὦ. 6. by dress, 

that Phoebe and Hilaira, daughters of 
Leucippus, attracted Castor and Pollux. 
Apollodor. iii. 10, 8. Λευκίππου δὲ καὶ 
Φιλοδίκης τῆς Ἰνάχου θυγατέρες ἐγένοντο 
Ἱλάειρα καὶ Φοίβη. Ταύτας ἁρπάσαντες, 
ἔγημαν Διόσκουροι. The maids had pre- 
viously been betrothed to Lynceus and 
Idas. Ovid, Fast. v. 700. Apollodor. 1]. 
2. Theocrit. Jd. xxii. According to Pau- 
sanias, lib. iii. cap. 16, there was a temple 
in Sparta to Hilaira and Phoebe, with 
certain priestesses attached who were 
called Λευκιππίδες. 


Pollucem cultu non Hilaira 
Non, Ide et cupido quondam 


discordia Phoébo, 

Eveni patriis filia litoribus ; 
Nec Phrygium falso traxit candore maritum 

Avecta externis Hippodamia rotis: 


Sed facies aderat nullis obnoxia gemmis, 
Qualis Apelleis est color in tabulis. 

Non ills studium vulgo conquirere amantes; 
Ills ampla satis forma pudicitia. 

Non ego nunc vereor, ne sim tibi vilior istis: 


Uni si qua placet, culta puella sat est. 
Cum tibi preesertim Phoebus sua carmina donet, 
Aoniamque libens Calliopea lyram ; 
Unica nec desit jocundis gratia verbis, 
Omnia, queque Venus queeque Minerva probat; 80 
His tu semper eris nostre gratissima vite, 
Tedia dum misere sint tibi luxurie. 

18.] Eventi jilia, 1.6. Marpessa. See 
Hom. 17]. ix. 560, seq. Apollodor. i. 7, 8. 
Εὔηνος μὲν οὖν ἐγέννησε Μάρπησσαν, ἣν, 
᾿Απόλλωνος μνηστευομένου, Ἴδας ὁ ᾿Αφα- 
péws ἥρπασε, λαβὼν παρὰ Ποσειδῶνος ἅρμα 
ὑπόπτερον. “Idas δὲ εἰς Μεσσήνην παρα- 
γίνεται, καὶ αὐτῷ ὁ ᾿Απόλλων περιτυχὼν 
ἀφαιρεῖται τὴν κόρην. It would seem, 
however, from an inscription on the carved 
chest of Cypselus, at Elis, preserved by 
Pausanias, lib. y. cap. xviii, that Iadas 
eventually regained his bride, ‘nothing 
loath :’ Ἴδας Μάρπησσαν καλλίσφυρον, ἥν 
οἱ ἀπόλλων ἅρπασε, τὰν ἐκ ναοῦ ἄγει πάλιν 
οὐκ ἀέκουσαν. LPatriis litoribus, because 
the river Evenus was named after her 
father, who drowned himself therein, being 
unable to overtake Idas in the pursuit. 
Litus is therefore improperly used for vipa. 

20.) externis rotis, by the stranger, 
Pelops in the chariot-race, Pind. Οἱ. 1, 70. 

21.] Obnoxia, ‘indebted to.’ So Virg. 
Georg. 1, 396. ‘Nec fratris radiis obnoxia 
surgere luna.’ 

22.] Apelles, the famous painter of Cos, 
is mentionedalso in iv. 8,11. ‘In Veneris 
tabula summam sibi ponit Apelles.’ This 
passage shows that his figures were ad- 
mired for their simplicity and subdued 

26.) Ne sim tibi. ‘It is not that at 
present I have fear lest I should be held 

by you in less esteem than your other ad- 
mirers are; (I only mean to remark) a girl 
is dressed well enough who pleases the 
eyes of one lover.’ Jstis is said with con- 
tempt of his real or supposed rivals. Cf. 
inf. 8, 3, ii. 9,1. Kuinoel and Barth have 
perverted the sense by reading ne sis mihi 
with Scaliger and some later copies of no 
authority. But it may be questioned if 
we should not read interrogatively, ‘Non 
ego nune verear, ne sim,’ &c., ‘Have I 
not now cause to fear, that I am held in 
less regard than those lovers of yours?’ 
He thus goes on to say, ‘If you love me, 
dress only to please my eyes.’ 

27.] Especially, he adds, is dress un- 
necessary in the case of one who has such 
mental endowments as Cynthia. See ii. 
8, 19—22. It seems best to connect these 
lines with 31—382, rather than with the 
preceding, which is the ordinary punctua- 
tion, Either however gives a fair sense. 

32]. dum, dum modo, ‘so long as (pro- 
vided that) you hold in dislike finery that 
brings no happiness.’ Luxuri@. He in- 
directly warns her against being ‘too gay,’ 
ὦ. ὁ. inconstant to him. With all his ro- 
mantic expression of regard, it is quite 
clear that neither Propertius was faithful 
to her (see next elegy, v. 36), nor she to 
Propertius (v. 8, 16, and ii, 5, 2). 

LIBER 1. 9 


Qualis Thesea jacuit cedente carina 
Languida desertis Gnosia litoribus, 
Qualis et accubuit primo Cepheia somno, 
Libera jam duris cotibus Andromede, 
Nec minus assiduis Edonis fessa choreis 5 
Qualis in herboso concidit Apidano, 
Talis visa mihi mollem spirare quietem 
Cynthia, non certis nixa caput manibus, 
Ebria cum multo traherem vestigia Baccho, 

Et quaterent sera nocte facem pueri. 
Hane ego, nondum etiam sensus deperditus omnes 



Molliter impresso conor adire toro. 
Et quamvis duplici correptum ardore juberent 
Hac Amor hac Liber, durus uterque deus, 

Subjecto leviter positam temptare lacerto, 

Osculaque admota sumere +et arma manu, 
Non tamen ausus eram dominz turbare quietem, 

III. Few will have any difficulty in 
assenting to Kuinoel’s introductory re- 
mark: ‘Est profecto hee elegia propter 
orationis dilectum et ornatum, picturarum 
colorumque prestantium, et dramaticam 
quasi representationem suavissimis annu- 
meranda.’ It is an exquisite composition, 
and a finished picture. At the same time, 
it conveys the plainest proof that Pro- 
pertius was a libertine, and that Cynthia 
knew it. He describes his feelings when, 
warmed with wine, he found his Cynthia 
asleep, and hesitated whether to wake or 
to watch her; not omitting to add her re- 
proaches when she was aware of his late 
return to her. 

2.1 Languida, weary with watching 
and worn out with grief, as Andromeda 
was by terror and constraint.— Gnosia, the 
Cretan Ariadne. 

4.1 Cotibus is the reading of all good 
copies, and is here the same as cautibus, 
which Lachmann, Barth, and Kuinoel have 
edited. Compare codex and caudex. Cautes 
is a lengthened form of cos (cots), as plebes 
is of plebs. 

5.] Edonis, ᾿Ηδωνὶς, a Bacchanal. 

10.] Quaterent facem. See on iv. 16, 16. 

1] The MSS. agree in reading et arma, 

except that one of the best (MS. Gron.) 
omits ef. Kuinoel has admitted the in- 
genious, but violent correction of Grono- 
vius, ad ora. This, as Lachmann remarks, 
would leave it ambiguous whether manu 
meant Cynthia's hand, kissed by Propertius, 
or that of the latter raised to the face of 
Cynthia. On the other hand, in νυ. 4, 34, 
‘dum captiva mei conspicer arma Tati,’ we 
should probably read ora for arma. It 
must be confessed that et arma is difficult 
to explain. The best commentators agree 
in understanding it in a metaphorical 
sense; us a soldier swmit arma for battle, 
so the lover, who serves under the standard 
of Venus. Compare iv. 20, 20. ‘Dulcia 
quam nobis concitet arma Venus.’ Sumere 
must thus be taken in a slightly different 
sense, 7. 6. carpere oscula, swmere arma. 
Perhaps the original reading was some 
epithet as larga, or amara, a word which fre- 
quently bears the sense of πικρὰ, ¢.e. ‘kisses 
to my cost;’ and this might be supported 
by v.18. The obvious antithesis to the 
more natural epithet dulcia, would at once 
suggest this meaning. Miiller reads cara, 
quoting from Tibull. i. 4, 53, ‘rapias tum 
cara licebit oscula.’ 



Experte metuens jurgia seevitiee : 
Sed sic intentis herebam fixus ocellis, 

Argus ut ignotis cornibus Inachidos. 


Et modo solvebam nostra de fronte corollas, 
Ponebamque tuis, Cynthia, temporibus ; 
Et modo gaudebam lapsos formare capillos ; 

Nune furtiva cavis poma dabam manibus, 

Omniaque ingrato largibar munera somno, 

Munera de prono spe voluta sinu. 

Et quotiens raro duxti suspiria motu, 
Obstupui vano credulus auspicio, 

Ne qua tibi insolitos portarent visa timores, 

Neve quis invitam cogeret esse suam. 


Donec diversas percurrens luna fenestras, 
Luna moraturis sedula luminibus, 

Compositos levibus radiis patefecit ocellos. 
Sic ait, in molli fixa toro cubitum: 

Tandem te nostro referens injuria lecto 

18.] Verbera is the reading of Kuinoel, 
from a late and worthless MS. All good 
copies agree in jurgia, which is perfectly 

21.] Corollas. Chaplets were worn at 
the banquet, and generally by the comes- 
santes (kwud(ovres) after a feast. In Plat. 
Symph. p. 213, A., Alcibiades in the same 
way takes the ribbands from his own 
chaplet and crowns the head of Socrates. 

24.] dabam, ete., I stealthily placed 
apples in the hollow of her hand as she lay 
on the couch. 

25.] Munera. Though omnia is poeti- 
cally added, the apples are meant, which 
(as Kuinoel remarks) were the favourite 
offerings of lovers. ‘The choice of epithets 
in this exquisite passage deserves attention. 

27.] Duvit is the reading of the Naples 
MS. In any other poet than Propertius, 
who is fond of sudden transitions of this 
kind, the third person would be hardly 
compatible with tii iny. 29. The mean- 
ing of the passage is this :—from Cynthia’s 
sleeping sigh he derived a groundless omen 
that she was dreaming of violence offered 
to her by some importunate admirer, whom 
he supposes to be one of his rivals. 

31.] Diversas, ‘lectulo Cynthiw ex ad- 
verso oppositas,’ Kuinoel. See inf. on 10, 
15. Or it may mean, ‘first one window 

and then another.’ Sedula, ‘officious;’ in 
a bad sense, or possibly, ‘lighting on,’ 
ἐφιζάνουσα, in its literal sense from the 
root sed, ἐδ. Compare the use of desidia, 
‘a sitting down,’ 15, 6. Moratura lumina 
are Cynthia’s eyes, which would have 
slept on if the moonlight had not opened 
them. Compare ‘victura rosaria Pesti,’ 
v. 5, 61. 

34.] Fixa cubitum, like deperditus sensus 
in y. 11, ‘having my senses destroyed.’ 
So nixa caput, v. 8, and fusa brachia, iii. 
7, 24. This verse, like sup. 10, is faulty, 
not so much from ending with a word of 
three syllables, as from having no counter- 
balancing epithet in the former part. Cf. 
i. 4, ii. 22, vi. 16, 20, 22. 

35.] The meaning appears to be,—‘So 
then, you have only come to me at last, 
because you have been expelled by another.’ 
Injuria, i.e. tibi ab alia puella illata. The 
editors find some difficulty in the word 
expulit, which may mean that he was ex- 
cluded, or refused entrance, and so had to 
spend the night, as was the custom with 
importunate lovers, at the door in the open 
street, or (as the epithet Janguidus rather 
implies) that he was turned out, and the 
door shut against him, after haying spent 
the greater part of the night in the house 
of another. 



Alterius clausis expulit e foribus ? 

Namque ubi longa mez consumpsti tempora noctis, 
Languidus exactis, hei mihi, sideribus ? 

O utinam tales perducas, improbe, noctes, 

Me miseram quales semper habere jubes ! 


Nam modo purpureo fallebam stamine somnum, 
Rursus et Orpheze carmine fessa lyre ; 

Interdum leviter mecum deserta querebar 
Externo longas szepe in amore moras: 

Dum me jocundis lapsam sopor impulit alis. 

Illa fuit lacrimis ultima cura meis. 


Quid mihi tam multas laudando, Basse, puellas 
Mutatum domina cogis abire mea ? 

Quid me non pateris, vitae quodcumque sequetur, 
Hoc magis assueto ducere servitio ? 

Tu lcet Antiopz formam Nycteidos et tu 


Spartane referas laudibus Hermione, 
Et quascumque tulit formosi temporis tas: 
Cynthia non illas nomen habere sinet; 

Nedum, si levibus fuerit collata 

39.] Miiller reads producas from the 
edition of 1551. 

41.] Purpureo stamine. Cf. v. 8, 34. 
‘Et Tyria in radios vellera secta suos.’ So 
Arete, the mother of the amiable Nausicaa, 
sate at the hearth ἠλάκατα στρωφῶσ᾽ ἅλι- 
πόφυρα, Od. vi. 53.—fessa, t.e. when tired 
of spinning. 

43.] Leviter, ‘submissa et quasi sup- 
pressa voce.’—Hertzberg. This is the 
reading of all the good copies. Kuinoel 
and Lachmann give graviter: the latter, 
I think, rather through inadvertency than 
from deliberate choice. 

46.] The meaning of this gerse, as 
Hertzberg has explained it, is, that the 
last subject of care to her grief, before she 
fell asleep, was the infidelity of Propertius. 
Andrews, in his Dictionary, takes cura 
here for medicina, curatio. But the sense 
is simple and natural, ‘sweet sleep at last 
brought an end to my cares ;’—‘ beyond 
this, I had no care to cry about.’ 



IV. To Bassus. He was a man of 
noble birth, and a writer of iambics, 
Ovid. Zrist. iv. 10, 47. ‘Ponticus heroo, 
Bassus quoque clarus iambo.’ It is pro- 
bable that Bassus had endeavoured to draw 
away his friend from his infatuated at- 
tachment to Cynthia, by disparaging her 
charms, and that not from disinterested 
motives, as may be inferred from vy. 20. 

4.1 magis assueto. Compare i. 36, 
‘neque assueto mutet amore locum.”— 
Ducere is the reading of the Naples MS., 
which Kuinoel and Hertzberg have adopt- 
ed. Others give vivere. 

5.] Antiope, daughter of Nycteus, was 
the mother of Amphion and Zethus, by 
Jupiter. She was ill-treated by Lycus, 
king of Thebes, and Dirce, his wife, and 
avenged by her sons. Apollodor. iii. 5, 5. 
Infra. iv. 15, 11. Hermione was the daugh- 
ter of Menelaus and Helen. Hom. Od. iy. 

9.1 ‘Still less, if she should be com- 
pared with ordinary figures, would she 


Inferior duro judice turpis eat. 



Hee sed forma mei pars est extrema furoris ; 
Sunt majora, quibus, Basse, perire juvat: 
Ingenuus color et multis decus artibus et qua 

Gaudia sub tacita dicere veste Ποῦ. 

Quo magis et nostros contendis solvere amores, 


Hoc magis accepta fallit uterque fide. 
Non impune feres: sciet hae imsana puella, 
Et tibi non tacitis vocibus hostis erit. 
Nec tibi me post hee committet Cynthia, nec te 

Queeret: erit tanti criminis illa memor ; 


Et te circum omnes alias irata puellas 
Differet: heu nullo limine carus eris! 

Nullas illa suis contemnet fletibus aras, 
Et quicumque sacer, qualis ubique, lapis. 

Non ullo gravius tentatur Cynthia damno, 

Quam sibi cum rapto cessat amore deus, 
Preecipue nostri: maneat sic semper, adoro ; 

Nec quicquam ex illa, quod querar, inveniam., 

come off with discredit as inferior in the 
estimation of even a harsh judge.’ Figura 
nearly corresponds with our familiar use 
of the word, as sup. 2, 7, iii. 17, 48. 
Turpis, like αἰσχρὸς, in its primary sense 
means ‘ugly.’ Kuinoel is scarcely correct 
in explaining it ‘victa, pudore suffusa 
decedet.’—duro judice, even by a harsh and 
ungracious judgment. 

13.] Keil and Miiller read calor for 
color.—artibus, supply quaesitum, unless 
this be a rather harsh use of the ablative 
of quality, ‘a grace of many winning 

14.] Sud tacita veste dicere, ‘to speak 
of with reserve.’ Ducere is a probable 
emendation, preferred by most of the 
editors; though Jiset is rather in favour 
of the vulgate. 

16.] ‘Hoc magis uterque nostrum te 
fallet, constantes manebimus data accepta- 
que fide,’—Kuinoel. 

19.] ‘Non permittet ut tua in posterum 
consuetudine fruar.’—Jd. 

22.] Differet, i.e, diffamabit. 
16, 48; iii. 14, 17. 

Cf. inf. 
So the Greeks use 

διαφέρειν and diacraparoew.—circum, cir- 

22.] ‘Nulla domo excipieris, janua cu- 
jusvis puell tibi claudetur.’—Auinoel. 

23.] Every altar and shrine, every sacer 
lapis, either Terminus or cippus, will be 
a witness to her denunciations of you. 
Qualis ubique, sc. in triviis stat. Cf. Tibull. 
i. 1,12. So ‘verbenis compita velo,’ v. 3, 
57. Keil and Miller read ‘qualis, ubique, 
lapis,’ ὁποῖός τε καὶ ὅπου by 7. 

25.] ‘Nothing distresses Cynthia so 
much as the feeling that she is slighted; 
and especially painful to her is the loss of 
my regard and the cessation of my visits.’ 
Rapto, zt. δ. per rivalis artes subrepto. 

27.] nostro, Keil and Miller. 

28.] Ex illa. The English idiom is, in 
her. he Latin language in these cases 
expresses a part out of the whole. So 
Tacit. eric. 4, ‘retinuitque, quod est 
difficillimum ex sapientia, modum.’ Where 
Ritter connects ‘ex sapientia modum re- 
tinuit.’ inveniam seems to be the future 
rather than the optative. 




Invide, tu tandem voces compesce molestas, 
Et sine nos cursu, quo sumus, ire pares. 
Quid tibi vis, insane? meos sentire furores ? 

Infelix, properas ultima nosse mala, 

Et miser ignotos vestigia ferre per ignes, 5 
Et bibere e tota toxica Thessalia. 

Non est illa vagis similis collata puellis; 
Molliter irasci non solet illa tibi. 

Quod si forte tuis non est contraria votis, 

At tibi curarum milia quanta dabit ! 


Non tibi jam somnos, non illa relinquet ocellos: 
Illa feros animis alligat una viros. 

Ah mea contemptus quotiens ad limina curres, 
Cum tibi singultu fortia verba cadent, 

Et tremulus mestis orietur fletibus horror, 15 

Et timor informem ducet in ore notam, 

VY. To Gallus. This man, who it ap- 
pears from y. 23, was of noble birth, was 
a rival, if not a friend or relation of our 
poet. Hertzberg has a long and learned 
dissertation (Lib. 1, cap. v. p. 21—2), to 
prove who ke was zot, which the reader 
may well be spared. Some have thought 
that he was the same as /#lius Gallus, 
whose wife is alluded to under the name 
of Arethusa, in the beautiful epistle to her 
husband, inf. vy. 3. An estimate of his 
moral character may be formed from i, 13, 
5. It would seem that he had made some 
proposals for an introduction to Cynthia, 
which were by no means agreeable to Pro- 

2.1 Pares, i.e. sub equo jugo. Cf.i. 1, 

3.] meos furores, the deep or mad at- 
tachment that I feel. Miiller reads meae, 
z.e. dominae, after Hemsterhuis; but this 
seems a tame and very unnecessary change. 

δ. Ignotos per ignes. ‘To tread on 
hidden fire.’ Hor. Od. ii. 1, ‘incedis per 
ignes suppositos cineri doloso.’ A danger 
familiar to those who lived in the volcanic 
regions of Italy. 

6.] ‘Thessalia ferax herbarum vene- 
natarum. Cf. Tibull. ii. 4, 55, seqq.’.— 
Kuinoel. (Quicquid habet Circe, quicquid 
Medea veneni, Quicquid et herbarum Thes- 
sala terra gerit). 

7.] ‘Do not infer, that because she is 
a mistress, she is therefore a common 
woman.’ Such is clearly the meaning. 
See supr.on 1. 1. For non solet, Barth 
gives non sciet, andso Kuinoel and Miiller, 
from a MS. of no authority. Tibi (as 
Jacob has noticed), may be understood 
ἠθικῶς, 1. ὁ. acquisitively, you will find it 
is her way not to be gentle in her resent- 
ments. So iv. 9,10, ‘exactis Calamis se 
mihi jactat equis.’ 

10.] Quanta, more usually guot milia. 

11.] Relinguet ocellos, ¢. e. tui juris esse 
non sinet. Cf. v.1, 143. Una for unice, 
as frequently. So v. 6, 28, ‘Nam tulit 
iratos mobilis una Notos.’ ‘She has a 
peculiar power in enslaving and taming 
the fierce-minded.’ The metaphor (as ap- 
pears from alligat), is derived from a wild 
animal. See ili. 26, 48. 

13.] contemptus, when on some occasion 
you have been slighted and spurned, 7. e. 
even though at other times she is not 
contraria votis. 

14.] Cadent, ‘shall fail of utterance.’ 
Singultus is the spasmodic stoppage of the 
voice, common in excitement. 

16.] Hor. Od. iv. 2, 59, ‘Qua notam 
duxit, niveus videri, cetera fulvus.’ Fear 
will ‘leave a mark,’ as we say: but the 
Latins use ducere (ἐλαύνειν) of anything 
extended in a line, as fossam, murum, ὅζο, 



Et quecumque voles fugient tibi verba querenti, 
Nec poteris, qui sis aut ubi, nosse miser. | 
Tum grave servitium nostra cogere puelle 

Discere, et exclusum quid sit abire domum ; 


Nec jam pallorem totiens mirabere nostrum, 
Aut cur sim toto corpore nullus ego. 

Nee tibi nobilitas poterit succurrere amanti: 
Nescit amor priscis cedere imaginibus. 

Quod si parva tue dederis vestigia culpz, 


Quam cito de tanto nomine rumor eris! 
Non ego tum potero solatia ferre roganti, 

Cum mihi nulla mei sit medicina mali; 
Sed pariter miseri socio cogemur amore 

Alter in alterius mutua flere sinu. 


Quare, quid possit mea Cynthia, desine, Galle, 
Queerere; non impune illa rogata venit. 


Non ego nunc Hadrizw vereor mare noscere tecum, 
Tulle, neque Aigeo ducere vela salo; 
Cum quo Rhipzos possim conscendere montes, 

20.) γιγνώσκειν οἷόν ἐστι τὸ ἀποκεκ- 
λῃμένον ἀπιέναι. Lachmann reads domo. 

21.] Nee jam....mirabere, ‘you will 
no longer, as so often before, express 
your surprise at,’ &c. 

22.] Toto corpore nullus, See iii. 13, 21. 

24.| Imaginibus. See on iii. 4, 19. 

25.] ‘If the slightest clue is furnished 
to your evil practices, how soon will you 
be in everybody’s mouth, and descend from 
your illustrious name.’ ‘De viro tanti 
nominis fies fabula et jocus.’— Barth. 
Culpe may perhaps mean in particular his 
adyances to Cynthia. wmor appears to 
be opposed to nomen, but the precise mean- 
ing is a little obscure. The sense may be, 
‘how soon from that illustrious name you 
will become a subject of common gossip,’ 
or, ‘how soon your high reputation for 
success with women will be damaged by 
a repulse from Cynthia.’ Inf. 13, δ, ‘de- 
ceptis augetur fama puellis.’ 

31.] Quid possit, i. e. ‘quas vires habeat 
exercendi amatores suos.’—Barth. Non 
impune rogata venit, t. e. venit et fert secum 
penam roganti, sollicitanti, tentanti, eam. 

But see inf. 10, 25, where ventt is nearly a 
synonym of est. The elision of impune is 
remarkable, and indicates an early stage in 
the art of elegy-writing. 

VI. To Tullus. Tullus was a friend 
and equal in age of Propertius; nephew 
of Lucius Volcatius Tullus, who was consul 
in the year 721 (consule Tullo, Hor. Od. iv. 
8, 12), and proconsul of Asia. Hertzberg 
is inclined to think that the nephew was 
appointed legate in the province by his 
uncle. It is probable that this Tullus was 
one of the friends who endeavoured to 
divert Propertius from his attachment by 
recommending him to travel. See i. 1, 29. 
This is a beautiful elegy, and one that 
presents little difficulty to the student. 

3.] Rhipeos montes, here put indefinitely 
for the extreme north, as domos Memnonias, 
JEthiopia, for the south. Hor. Od. i. 22, 6. 
‘Sive per syrtes iter estuosas, sive facturus 
per inhospitalem Caucasum,’—a proverbial 
method of expressing the confidence of 
friendship, as Barth observes. Memnon is 
well known in mythology as the son of 


Ulteriusque domos vadere Memnonias: 

Sed me complexe remorantur verba puelle, 5 

Mutatoque graves szepe colore preces. 
Illa mihi totis argutat noctibus ignes, 
Et queritur nullos esse relicta deos; 
Mla meam mihi jam se denegat; illa minatur, 

Que solet ingrato tristis amica ὙΠῸ. 


His ego non horam possum durare querellis; 
Ah pereat, si quis lentus amare potest! 
An mihi sit tanti doctas cognoscere Athenas, 

Atque Asiz veteres cernere divitias, 

Ut mihi deducta faciat convicia puppi 

Cynthia, et insanis ora notet manibus, 
Osculaque opposito dicat sibi debita vento, 
Et nihil infido durius esse viro ? 

Tu patrui meritas conare anteire secures, 

Et vetera oblitis jura refer sociis. 


Nam tua non etas umquam cessavit amori, 
Semper et armatz cura fuit patria ; 

Aurora and Tithonus, ὁ, 6. ‘a son of the 
east.’—ulterius domos is not a usual con- 
struction: the accusative appears to depend 
on the sense of wltra, while ulterius quam 
ad domes was in the mind of the poet. Or 
the sense may be, ‘or even still further 
away to the far east.’ Miiller, after Haupt, 
reads domo Memnonia.—nullos esse deos, &c., 
‘complains that if she be deserted after all 
my promises, there are no gods the ayen- 
gers of perfidy.’ 

7.1 Argutat. Another form of this 
rare verb is argutor. Properly, ‘speaks 
loudly of her love,’ ὦ. 6. vehemently pro- 
tests it, θρυλεῖ. From the analogy of 
argutus, it seems that the strictest sense is 
‘to talk in a shrill voice,’ ἀπολιγαίνειν. 
See on el. 18, 30. 

9.1 The sense is, ‘she tries various 
ways of moving me, by taunting me with 
indifference, and by the usual threats of an 
angry mistress.’—dicit mihi se non jam 
esse meam; she declares she is no longer 
mine, no longer reigns in my affections, if 
I relinquish her thus easily. Others under- 
stand denegat se ‘Veneris gaudia negat;’ 
but this would rather have been denegat se 
mihi, without meam.—ingrato is the read- 
ing of two inferior MSS. The better copies 
agree in trato, which seems destitute of 
any plausible sense. 

16.] Ora notet, ¢.e, sua ora. 

17.] Oscula, &c., ‘And should declare 
that she owes (and will pay) kisses to any 
wind which shall prevent me from sailing.’ 
Hertzberg correctly explains a passage 
about which difficulty has been causelessly 
made :—‘ Quid ait Cynthia? Oscula mea 
debentur a me vento, si se tibi opposuerit.’ 

19.] ‘Do you endeavour to surpass the 
well-earned honours of your uncle (L. Vol- 
catius Tullus), and in the capacity of 
legate, restore the laws to the allied cities 
in Asia which have forgotten them.’ Se- 
cures is put for the proconsulship. Hertz- 
berg understands antecre of the precedentia 
longt agminis officia, Juven. x. 44, 7. ὁ. of 
the ceremonious respect paid to the pro- 
consul by attendant friends and clients on 
public occasions. His note is a good one, 
as proving the custom; but the addition of 
conare seems fatal to this explanation, since 
there could be no effort in such service. 
The general sense is ‘Do you, whose pur- 
suits are so different from mine, go alone, 
and endeavour by your good conduct to 
rise to higher fame and dignity than even 
your uncle.’ 

22.] ‘Patriz armate, non Amori, ser- 
viebas; studium tuum omne in patria 
armis tuenda ac defendenda positum erat.’ 
Kuinoel.—cessavit, yacayit, indulgebat. 



Et tibi non umquam nostros puer iste labores 
Afferat, et lacrimis omnia nota meis. 

Me sine, quem semper voluit Fortuna jacere, 

Hane animam extreme reddere nequitie. 
Multi longinquo periere in amore libenter, 

In quorum numero me quoque terra tegat. 
Non ego sum laudi, non natus idoneus armis ; 

Hane me militiam fata subire volunt. 


At tu seu mollis qua tendit Ionia, seu qua 
Lydia Pactoli tingit arata liquor, 

Seu pedibus terras, seu pontum carpere remis 
Ibis, et accepti pars eris imperil ; 

Tum tibi si qua mei veniet non immemor hora, 

Vivere me duro sidere certus eris. 


Dum tibi Cadmex dicuntur, Pontice, Thebe, 
Armaque fraternz tristia militia, 
Atque, ita sim felix, primo contendis Homero,— 

23—30.] The depth of pathos contained 
in these fine verses shows the writer to 
have been a true poet. puer iste, Cupid; 
but puer hic is rather the sense required, 
and iste is sometimes laxly used in this 
sense, 6. 9. inf. viii. 46. ‘Fortune,’ says 
he, alluding to his comparatively humble 
birth (see ii. 16, 22, ib. 26, 55, v. 1. 128) 
‘has willed that he should ever lie pros- 
trate ;’ he begs, therefore, that his friends 
will not attempt to raise him. The meta- 
phor is from ἃ prostrate wrestler or 
gladiator.—mequiti implies a consciousness 
that the connection was illicit, and to be 
reprobated by his friends. 

27.] longinquo is here for longo, diu- 
turno; the confusion between words of 
time and space is sufficiently common. 

30.] ‘This is the only warfare fate has 
destined me to engage in,’ ὃ, 6. amoris. 

31.] Tendit, se extendit.—tingit, here 
in its proper use, being allied to the Greek 
τέγγει. Others refer it to the colour of 
the golden sands. 

34.] Ibis carpere, see sup. 1, 12. Hertz- 
berg’s explanation of the following words 

is satisfactory :—‘pars eris imperii grati 
tibi, utpote viro bellicoso: unus imperan- 
tium eris.’. Any one holding a situation— 
eyen a subordinate one—in a governor’s 
retinue is pars tmperii. Miiller, in part 
following Lachmann, reads ‘ ut accepti sors 
erit imperii.’ Compare inf. 21, 4.—accepti 
might perhaps be explained accepti a te, 
i.e. tébi commissi. So ‘acceptas comas’ (a 
vitta) v. 11, 34. 

VII. To Ponticus. This Ponticus was 
a writer of hexameter verses, and the 
author of a lost Thebaid. He is mentioned 
in Ovid, Zrist. iv. 10, 47, already quoted 
on El. IV. The poem appears to be a 
reply to the exhortation of his friend to 
resign elegiac for epic composition. 

2.1 Fraterne militie, Eteocles and 
Polynices, sons of (dipus.—tristia, be- 
cause fatal to themselves. The epithet is{ ἢ 
used however (as elsewhere durus) in op- 
position to mollis versus (v.19). See inf. 
9, 13, ‘I, queso, et tristes illos compone 
libellos, Et cane quod queyis nosse puella 



Sint modo fata tuis mollia carminibus,— 

Nos, ut consuemus, nostros agitamus amores, 5 

Atque aliquid duram querimus in dominam ; 
Nee tantum ingenio, quantum servire dolori 
Cogor et ztatis tempora dura queri. 
Hic mihi conteritur vite modus; hac mea fama est; 

Hine cupio nomen carminis ire mel. 


Me laudent doctz solum placuisse puelle, 
Pontice, et injustas szpe tulisse minas; 
Me legat assidue post hee neglectus amator, 

Et prosint illi cognita nostra mala. 

‘Te quoque si certo puer hic concusserit arcu, 15 

Quod nolim nostros evoluisse deos! 

Longe castra tibi, longe miser agmina septem 
Flebis in eterno surda jacere situ; 

Kt frustra cupies mollem componere versum, 

Nec tibi subiciet carmina serus Amor. 

Tum me non humilem mirabere spe poetam ; 

4.1 One might suspect a slight irony in 
this, as if in return for the fastus (vy. 25) of 
Ponticus, and as a contrast to the predic- 
tion of his own immortality (vy. 22). ‘You 
rival Homer, if only your verses are des- 
tined to survive.’ But the success of a 
poet is here spoken of as dependent on fate 
as much as on his own merits. 

5.] Consueo for consuesco is probably a 
ἅπαξ λεγόμενον. Oris it an equally unique 
instance of contraction for conswevimus 2— 
in dominam, t.e. ad expugnandam dominz 

7.] ‘I cannot, like you, indulge the 
bent of my poetical genius freely, but am 
obliged to make my verses (elegies) sub- 
servient to the expression of my grief, and 
in them to bewail my hard lot.’ 

11.1 Docte puelle, (dat.) i.e. Cynthia, 
herself a poetess and a musician, supra, 
2, 27.—solum placuisse, to have been 
preferred to my rivals through the elo- 
quence of my verses.—laudent, like aiva, 
for predicent. 

16.] The MSS. agree in eviolasse, which 
Jacob retains and attempts to explain. I 
cannot doubt that Lachmann, Barth, Hertz. 
and Kuinoel have rightly edited evolwisse. 
The sense is thus clear :—‘ If Cupid should 
hereafter strike you, as he has me; which 
however I trust that the gods who rule 

our destinies have not designed for you; 
then &c.’ Miiller reads, on his own con- 
jecture, ‘quo nolim nostros te violasse 
deos,’ explaining zostros deos to mean 
‘Love and Venus.’ Keil also retains evio- 
lasse. But the infinitive of evolvo is ap- 
propriate, the metaphor being taken from 
the thread spun by the Fates. Nor is 
there much force in Miiller’s remark, that 
Propertius does not elsewhere employ diae- 
resis in the perfects of solvo and volvo.— 
nostros dcos Barth and Kuinoel take for 
Venus and her attendant Cupidines. Ra- 
ther, I think, the Fates who iz common 
govern the destinies of friends. VPersius, 
Sat. iv. 45—0. 

17—20.] ‘You will then lament the 
late enslavement which forces you to lay 
aside your unfinished Thebaid, and to try, 
though without success, to write love 
ditties to your mistress.’—/ovge, 7. 6. longe 
abesse, in consequence of taking up a new 

18.] Situ, ‘neglect.’ Both sinus ‘a 
nook,’ and sztws in its various senses, are 
from sino (ἐᾶν as opposed to κινεῖν). The 
‘site’ of a building is the place where it is 
suffered to lie. The result of lying by is 
mouldiness or decay, the more usual sense 
of the latter word. 



Tunc ego Romanis preferar ingeniis ; 
Nec poterunt juvenes nostro reticere sepulcro : 
Ardoris nostri magne poeta jaces. 

Tu cave nostra tuo contemnas carmina fastu: 

Seepe venit magno fenore tardus Amor. 


Tune igitur demens, nec te mea cura moratur ? 
An tibi sum gelida vilior Illyria ? 

Et tibi jam tanti, quicumque est, iste videtur, 
Ut sine me vento quolibet ire velis? 

Tune audire potes vesani murmura ponti ? 


Fortis et in dura nave jacere potes ? 
Tu pedibus teneris positas fulcire pruinas ? 
Tu potes insolitas, Cynthia, ferre nives 7 
O utinam hiberne duplicentur tempora brume, 

Et sit iners tardis navita Vergiliis, 

22.) Preferar, i.e. tuo judicio. But, 
from the general sense which the words 
will bear, the poet passes to the prediction 
of his popularity with other youths in the 
same circumstances as Ponticus. 

24.] Jaces. An expression of regret, 
like ὦ φίλε, κεῖσαι, Theocr. xxiii. 44. 

25.] Cavé. Similarly used 1. 10, 21; 
ii. 4,41. In νυ. 4, 48, ‘tu cave spinosi 
rorida terga jugi,’ there is a variant ‘tu 

VIII. This elegy, which is rather diffi- 
cult, but very elegant, and full of feeling, 
is addressed to Cynthia (with what success 
appears from y. 27, &c.), to deter her from 
going a voyage to a half-civilised province 
with a certain Preetor, whom Propertius 
appears equally to hate and to fear as a 
rival. See on iii. 7,1. ‘Preetor ab Illy- 
ricis venit modo, Cynthia, terris.’ did. 
y. 8, he calls him ‘stolidum pecus.’ The 
circumstance affords us so clear an insight 
into Cynthia’s real character, that it is 
surprising the editors should haye generally 
failed to understand it. 

3.] Iste, ‘that lover of yours.’ 
sup. 2,25. Varronianus, p. 311, ed. 2. 

4.] Vento quolibet, z.e. without even 
waiting for a reasonable prospect of fair 

δι᾽] ἀνθ potes? ‘Have you the 
courage to bear all the dangers and dis- 
comforts of such a voyage?’ Cf. Pers, Sat. 



vy. 146, ‘Tun’ mare transilias? tibi torta 
cannabe fulto Cena sit in transtro>’—et, 
for etiam. The editions, except Barth’s, 
place no question at pont?. 

7.] Fulcire, ‘to press;’ ἐρείδειν, This 
is a remarkable use of a word which usually 
means to ‘support,’ as a pillar props a 
roof. It may be explained on the statical 
principle that resistance is equal to thrust, 
ὦ. ὁ. if the roof presses on the pillar, the 
pillar presents the same counter-thrust 
both to the roof above and to the earth 
below. The explanation given by Barth 
is absurd :—‘ qui enim per pruinas nivesque 
incedunt, eorum pedes hauriuntur, atque 
ita recte pruinas superjectas fulcire di- 
cuntur.’ This double sense of a verb, 
arising from the association of ideas, is not 
without examples. Thus arceo to keep off 
or away, means to keep in (coerceo) as a 
flock of sheep from a wolf: vecludo im- 
plies, as it were, the contrary action to 
claudo, not so much from its real meaning, 
as from the idea inseparable from it. 
Hertzberg reads ruinas with the best MSS. 
ἃ. ὁ. ‘omne quod e caelo ruit.’ 

9.1 Hiberna bruma is the stormy time 
of year at the winter solstice. 

10.] ‘That the sailor may remain in- 
active from the late rising of the Pleiads.’ 
This constellation rises in spring and sets 
in autumn, so that while it is invisible the 
season is unfayourable for sailing. 



Nec tibi Tyrrhena solvatur funis arena, 
Neve inimica meas elevet aura preces. 
Atque ego non videam tales subsidere ventos, 
Cum tibi provectas auferet unda rates, 

Et me defixum vacua patiatur in ora 

Crudelem infesta seepe vocare manu. 

Sed quocumque modo de me, perjura, mereris, 
Sit Galatea tuz non aliena vie; 

Ut te felici preevecta Ceraunia remo 

Accipiat placidis Oricos zquoribus. 


Nam me non ulle poterunt corrumpere tede, 
Quin ego, vita, tuo limine verba querar ; 

11.] Tyrrhena arena, i.e. from the west 
side of Italy. The rhyming sound of these 
words induced Scaliger (followed, as usual, 
by Kuinoel), to introduce the correction ix 

ora. They ought at least to have read αὖ 
ora. A similar instance is absenti—venti, 
i, 17. 5. 

12.] Elevet, ‘carry aloft,’ ὁ. 6. irrita 
reddat. The use of this verb for ‘to dis- 
parage,’ Persius, Sat. 1, 6; inf. iti. 26, 58, 
is slightly different, being a metaphor from 
the lighter scale of the balance. 

15.] Patiatur, i.e. unda. ‘undam poeta 
precatur, ne committere velit, ut in litore 
desertus ipse—amicam crudelem frustra 
vocet.’— Hertzberg ; who reads patietur on 
the conjecture of Passerat. Nothing can 
be more awkward than ‘non videam ventos 
subsidere, cum rates auferet unda et (cum) 
patietur,’ &c., nor is it easy to agree with 
him in explaining infesta manu by ‘des- 
pecta et ludibrio habita’ a Cynthia. It is 
quite natural, that a lover, when his 
mistress persists in leaving him in spite of 
all his entreaties, should make angry ges- 
tures to her with his hand, by way of 
finally denouncing her. The sense is :— 
‘may the roar of the sea and the breakers 
allow my voice to be heard as 1 stand on 
the shore, to reproach you and call you cruel 
many times over (se@pe vocare), before the 
ship can get clear of the land.’ Kuinoel’s 
reading ut me patiaris is without authority. 
Miiller, following Scaliger, transposes the 
couplet atgue ego &ce. to follow vocare 
manu; but it is difficult to see what ad- 
vantage we get by this, which gives awra 
instead of wnda as the subject of patiatur. 

19.] Prevecta is the vocative; accipiat 
te, Cynthia, prevecta Ceraunia. This is 
more frequently substituted for the nomin- 
ative than for the accusative, as Persius, 
γ. 124, ‘unde datum hoc sumis, tot subdite 

rebus?’ Jd. 1,123, ‘audaci quicunque 
afflate Cratino Iratum Eupolidem pre- 
grandi cum sene palles.’ Jd. iii. 29, ‘Stem- 
mate quod Tusco ramum milesime ducis, 
Censoremye tuum vel quod trabeate salu- 
tas.’ Barth quotes Tibullus, i. 7, 53, ‘sic 
venias hodierne.’ Jacob, for once depart- 
ing from the best MSS., admits the correct- 
tion of Pucci, as possibly from the Valla 
MS., wer seva. Miiller, who objects to 
the vocative for the accusative, and still 
more to the perfect participle instead of 
the present, reads post lecta Ceraunia. It 
does not however follow, because Jegere 
oram, litus, &e., is in use, that Jlegere 
montem would be correct. Oricos was a 
city of Epirus a little above Corcyra and 
the ‘infames scopuli Acroceraunia.’ (Hor. 
Od. i. 8, 20).---τὰ ἄκρα τῶν ὀρῶν ἃ Ke- 
ραύνια ὀνομάζουσι. Pausan. «4{{.1, 13. 

22.] The MSS. reading verba querar 
has been altered with much probability by 
Passerat, whom Miiller follows, into vera 
querar, which Lachmann labours to refute, 
and corrects fida for vita. The meaning 
is, ‘no new object shall engage my affec- 
tions in your absence, or preyent me from 
throwing myself on your threshold and 
giving utterance to my grief.’—verba quert 
is thus opposed to tacite guerit. We might, 
perhaps, read acerba querar, ‘bitterly 
complain,’ as we say. Hertzberg also 
admits vera; but his explanation of it is 
far-fetched:—‘non alienus amor me ita 
corrumpet, ut tibi injuriam faciam, et ante 
tuas fores (ut solet improba turba) inique 
querar,’ which, he adds, really means: 
‘querar quidem in limine, sed non nisi 
justa.” A simpler rendering would be, 
‘No other engagement shall prevent me 
from upbraiding you justly.’ For a new 
love would induce him to resign a former 
one with indifference. 



Nec me deficiet nautas rogitare citatos: 
Dicite, quo portu clausa puella mea est? 

Et dicam, licet Autaricis considat in oris, 


Et licet Eleis, ila futura mea est. 

Hic erit! 

Hic jurata manet! 
Assiduas non tulit illa preces. 

Rumpantur inmiqui! 

Falsa licet cupidus deponat gaudia livor : 

Destitit ire novas Cynthia nostra vias. 


Tlli carus ego, et per me carissima Roma 
Dicitur, et sme me dulcia regna negat. 
Illa vel angusto mecurh requiescere lecto, 
Et quocumque modo maluit esse mea, 

Quam 5101 dotate regnum vetus Hippodamie, 

Et quas Elis opes ante pararat equis. 
Quamvis magna daret, quamvis majora daturus, 

Non tamen illa meos fugit avara sinus. 
Hane ego non auro, non Indis flectere conchis, 

Sed potui blandi carminis obsequio. 


Sunt igitur Musz, neque amanti tardus Apollo; 
Quis ego fretus amo: Cynthia rara mea est. 
Nune mihi summa licet contingere sidera plantis: 

Sive dies seu nox venerit, illa mea est; 

23.] The impersonal use of deficiet is 
worthy of attention.—c?tatos, 7. 6. quamvis 
festinantes.—Hertz. Others understand it 
to mean vocatos et compellatos. I rather 
incline to the latter, on the ground of 
testem citare being a conventional phrase. 

25.] ‘Whether she is staying, from 
stress of weather, among the Autarii in 
Illyria, or on the coast of Elis, she will 
yet be mine.’ The common reading is 
Atraciis; but as Atrax was a mountain in 
Thessaly, and the Autarii are mentioned by 
Strabo vii. v., Ἰλλυριῶν δὲ Αὐταριᾶται 
καὶ ᾿Αρδιαῖοι καὶ Δαρδάνιοι, Hertzberg is 
probably right in admitting the shrewd 
conjecture of Pucci in the edition of 1481. 
Miiller reads Awutartis and Hylleis (MSS. 
hyleis, or hileis), With this verse Lach- 
mann and others conclude the present 
elegy, though in all the MSS. it is con- 
tinued as in the text. Jacob fancifully 
suggests that jwrata in the next line ap- 
pears to imply that the poet had just 

extorted from her own lips a promise to 
remain, as if the request had been preferred 
by him personally. The truth perhaps is, 
that the whole of the elegy was written 
after he had successfully dissuaded her, 
but in the former portion he sets forth the 
arguments used by him, in the form of 
a present appeal. 

29.] ‘My envious rivals may lay aside 
their mistaken joy at the expected sepa- 

35.] quam sibt, sc. dari; though it is 
good Latin to say nolo or malo mihi regnum, 

37.] Magna daret. It is clear from iii. 
7, 43, that the Praetor, whoever he was, 
endeavoured to bribe Cynthia by his great 

43.] Contingere sidera. A common way 
of expressing exultation. So Hor. Od. 1. 
1, ult. ‘Sublimi feriam sidera vertice.’ 
Theocr, y. 144, és οὐρανὸν ὄμμιν ἁλεῦμαι. 


Nee mihi rivalis certos subducet amores. 

Ista meam norit gloria canitiem. 


Dicebam tibi venturos, irrisor, amores, 
Nec tibi perpetuo libera verba fore: 

Ecce jaces, supplexque venis ad jura puellz, 
Et tibi nune quovis imperat empta modo. 

Non me Chaoniz vincant in amore columbe 5 

Dicere, quos juvenes queque puella domet. 
Me dolor et lacrimze merito fecere peritum: 
Atque utinam posito dicar amore rudis! 
Quid tibi nunc misero prodest grave dicere carmen, 

Aut Amphioniz meenia flere lyre ? 


Plus in amore valet Mimnermi versus Homero; 
Carmina mansuetus lenia querit Amor. 
I, queso, et tristis istos compone libellos, 

46.] Ista, i.e. hec mea gloria. See 

sup. 6, 23. 

IX. To Ponticus. This elegy announces 
the fulfilment of the prediction made in 
El. vii., that Ponticus with all his boasting 
would some day be overtaken by love. It 
appears that he was enamoured of a female 
slaye of his own familia. This kind of 
attachment was considered peculiarly dis- 
creditable in an ingenuus. Hor. Od. 1. 27, 

2.] Libera verba. ‘That you would 
not always speak as freely and haughtily 
as you were wont.’ The word libera in- 
troduces the metaphor which follows, and 
in which jura refers to the legal right of 
the master over the person of the slave. 
Cf.iy.11, 2. ‘Et trahit addictum sub sua 
jura virum.’ 

4.] Hertzberg alone defends the MSS. 
reading gue vis (quevis), understanding the 
sense to be ‘ quevis nuper empta nunc im- 
perat tibi.’ ‘You are now so susceptible 
that the last female slave purchased into 
your family (νεώνητος) has an influence 
over you which makes her the mistress, 
you the slave.” Jacob and Lachmann, 
with Keil and Miiller, adopt from Pucci 
quovis modo, ‘to any extent,’ ‘ad arbitrium 

5.] ‘The very doves of Dodona are not 
better prophets than I in foretelling what 

youths each maiden is likely to enslave.’ — 
domet must be for domitura sit, for other- 
wise there would be nothing to prophesy, 
but only something to observe. 

7—8.] A beautiful couplet. ‘I have 
learnt what love is in the school of ad- 
versity. O that I could unlearn it, and be 
again as a little child!’ 

9—10.] In allusion to the poem of the 
Thebaid which Ponticus was composing. 
See above, on El. vii.—Amphionie lyre. 
Hor. Od. iii. 11, 2, ‘movit Amphion lapides 
canendo,’ De Art. Poet. 394. Infra, iv. i. 
43, &c.—/flere, flebiliter canere. K. 

11.] ‘Elegiac verses have more influence 
in love than heroic.’ Mimnermus of Colo- 
phon lived about 600 B.c., and is said to 
have been the inventor of elegiac verse. 

13.] Hertzberg has interpreted this 
verse, ‘Go now and write those very 
poems (?. 6. elegies) which you used to call 
contemptuously ¢ristes.’ Others take com- 
pone for ‘lay aside,’ 1.6. in your scrinium, 
and tristes libellos for the dull Thebaid. 
But he well observes (1) that componere is 
the proper and conventional word for scr7- 
bere, συντιθέναι; (2) that ἐ nunc is often 
used in conveying a taunt; (3) that tstos 
is the word of contempt formerly used by 
Ponticus to Propertius, and now retorted 
by the latter. There is weight in his 
arguments: nevertheless, I think the an- 
tithesis both here and elsewhere (see on iii. 



Et cane, quod quavis nosse puella velit. 

Quid si non esset facilis tibi copia? nunc tu 


Insanus medio flumine queeris aquam. 
Necdum etiam palles, vero nec tangeris igni; 
Heee est venturi prima favilla mali. 
Tum magis Armenias cupies accedere tigres, 

Et magis infernz vincula nosse rote, 


Quam pueri totiens arcum sentire medullis, 
Et nihil irate posse negare tue. 

Nullus Amor cuiquam facilis ita preebuit alas, 
Ut non alterna presserit ille manu. 

Nec te decipiat, quod sit satis illa parata: 

Acrius illa subit, Pontice, si qua tua est; 
Quippe ubi non liceat vacuos seducere ocellos, 
Nee vigilare alio nomine cedat Amor; 
Qui non ante patet, donec manus attigit ossa. 

Quisquis es, assiduas ah fuge blanditias. 


Illis et silices possunt et cedere quercus; 

26, 44) between fristis or durus (epic) and 
mollis or lenis (amatory elegiac verse), so 
marked, and the verses immediately pre- 
ceding and following so strongly in favour 
of the old interpretation, ‘sepone, depone,’ 
that I have not ventured to depart from it. 
Hertzberg admits that omnes composui, ‘I 
have buried them all,’ Hor. Sat. i. 9, 28, 
justifies such a sense. 

15.] This seems a reply to a fancied 
objection made by Ponticus: ‘ You can’t 2 

hat would you do if a subject to write 
about were wanting, when eyen now you 
are puzzled what to say when over 
head and ears in loye?’—copia here, as 
Hertzberg has shewn, is seribendi materies. 
The passage is explained by 7, 19, 20, ‘et 
frustra cupies mollem componere yersum, 
nec tibi subiciet carmina serus amor.’ 
Ponticus had been warned, that he had 
better practise elegy-writing against the 
time when he might require the aid of its 
persuasive eloquence. 

17—18.] ‘And even what you now feel 
is but a foretaste of the pangs of real love.’ 

22.] Jrate tue, tue domine si quando 
tibi irascatur, iratam se ostendat. 

23—4.] The meaning of these beautiful 
lines is well given by Kuinoel: ‘nunquam 
Amor cuiquam amanti ita facilis est, ut 
non sepius eum tormentis et cruciatibus 
afficiat.’” The metaphor is taken from ‘a 

wanton’ who holds a bird in a silken 
thread, and lets it fly a little way only to 
pull it down again. I cannot believe that 
the poet had in mind the celebrated passage 
in the Phedrus, p. 251, 8.—alterna manu 
does not mean with the other hand, but ex- 
presses the alternate action of the same 
hand which holds the string. 

25.] ‘Do not be deceived by the idea 
that possession will allay the anguish you 
are beginning to feel.’ 

27.) Quippe ubi, ‘since in that case,’ 
like guippe qui.—vigilare alio nomine, ‘love 
does not allow you to be awake on any 
other account,’ ¢.e. ‘occupies all your 
waking as well as your sleeping hours 
with the thoughts of your mistress.’ Hertz- 
berg and others place an interrogation at 
the end of v.28. ‘Can love be expected 
to leave you, when your eyes hourly en- 
counter the object of your regard?’ thus 
making vgilare depend on Jiceat. 

29.] Manus attigit ossa. Theoer. iii. 17, 
ἔρως καὶ és ὀστίον ἄχρις ἰάπτει. Inf. v. 5, 
64, ‘per tenuem ossa mihi sunt numerata 
cutem.’—patet, viz. ipsi amanti. 

30.] The MSS. have aufuge, which does 
not admit of an accusative case :—ah fuge 
Kuinoel, Lachmann, and Hertzberg, with 
the approval of Jacob. 

31.] 718. Not to the dlanditiz, but to 
the assiduitas ; cf. y. δ, 20. 



Nedum tu possis, spiritus iste levis. 
Quare, si pudor est, quam primum errata fatere: 
Dicere quo pereas seepe in amore levat. 


O jocunda quies, primo cum testis amori 
Adfueram vestris conscius in lacrimis! 
O noctem meminisse mihi jocunda voluptas! 
O quotiens votis illa vocanda meis! 
Cum te complexa morientem, Galle, puella 5 
Vidimus, et longa ducere verba mora. 
Quamvis labentes premeret mihi somnus ocellos, 
Et mediis ccelo Luna ruberet equis, 
Non tamen a vestro potui secedere lusu ; 

Tantus in alternis vocibus ardor erat. 


Sed quoniam non es veritus concredere nobis, 
Accipe commissee munera leetitie : 

Non solum vestros didici reticere dolores ; 
Est quiddam in nobis majus, amice, fide. 

Possum ego diversos iterum conjungere amantes, 

32.] Spiritus... levis, i. e. cum isto levi 
spiritu. So an ill-natured man is called 
κακαὶ φρένες, Theocr. xiv. 31. 

33.] δὲ pudor est. ‘If you are ashamed 
of loving a slave, and feel inclined to con- 
ceal the fact, be advised by me, and boldly 
avow it.’—rrata, a word properly used 
in this sense, like the Greek ἁμαρτίαι, 
μάται, Asch. Cho. 904. Similarly error 
inf. 13, 35. 

34.] Quo in amore. ‘Conjungenda 
sunt hee verba.—Hertzberg. See on i. 
13, 7, ‘perditus inquadam.’ Miiller reads 
qua pereas, i.e. qua puella; and this seems 
very probable. ‘To say, with whom you 
are enamoured, often brings relief in love.’ 

X. To Gallus. See above, on El. 5. 
It will be observed that Propertius speaks 
of him here as a friend, while before he 
assailed him with the bitterness of a rival. 
The ardent expressions in this elegy refer 
to an interview which Gallus had with his 
mistress, probably at a banquet, in presence 
of Propertius as a friend. 

2.1 Conscius, ‘a witness.’—lacrimis, see 



13, 15, ‘vidi ego te—injectis flere diu 

5.] One MS. (Groning.) has longam 
moram, Perhaps the poet wrote ‘vidimus 
in longam—moram.’ 

11.] ‘Since you have not hesitated to 
make me a confidant, receive from me a 
return for having entrusted me with your 
This return is, the advice that Pro- 
pertius thinks himself competent to give, 
should a quarrel occur between lovers. 

13.] Fide, ‘the power to keep a secret.’ 

15.] Diversos, ‘separated.’ Properly 
said of two persons who start from the 
same point in opposite directions ; while 
varius or varus implies a path gradually 
diverging, like the letter Y. See Persius, 
Sat.iv.12. Hor. Sat. i. 3, 47, ‘hune va- 
rum, distortis cruribus.’ “ cornua vara’ 
Ovid, Amor. i. 8,24. Hence divaricare, 
‘to stretch asunder,’ as the legs of a com- 
pass; and puevaricari, said of a guide who 
deviates from the straight path, and so 
leads his follower wrong. ‘ Diverse fenes- 
tre’ i. 8, 31, are ‘opposite,’ ‘ex adverso 
patentes,’ Tacit. Ann, 111. 2, ‘etiam quo- 


Et domine tardas possum aperire fores : 
Et possum alterius curas sanare recentis, 

Nec levis in verbis est medicina meis. 
Cynthia me docuit semper quaecumque petenda 

Quzeque cavenda forent ; 


non nihil egit Amor. 

Tu cave ne tristi cupias pugnare puelle, 
Neve superba loqui, neve tacere diu; 
Neu, si quid petiit, ingrata fronte negaris ; 

Neu tibi pro vano verba benigna cadant. 

Irritata venit, quando contemnitur illa, 

Nec meminit justas ponere lesa minas: 
At quo sis humilis magis et subjectus amori, 
Hoe magis effecto seepe fruare bono. 

Is poterit felix una remanere puella, 

Qui numquam vacuo pectore liber erit. 



Ecquid te mediis cessantem, Cynthia, Baiis, 
Qua jacet Herculeis semita litoribus, 
Et modo Thesproti mirantem subdita regno 

Proxima Misenis equora 

rum diversa oppida, tamen obvyii—dolorem 
testabantur,’ ὦ. 6. towns away from which, 
rather than towards which, the funeral 
procession of Germanicus was directing its 

19.] que euique petenda Miiller, who ob- 
serves that the poet is here giving his own 
experience for the benefit of others. 

21.] tristi, iratee, when she happens to 
be cross or out of temper. 

23.] Verba benigna, t.e. puelle tue. 
‘Do not slight or treat with disregard her 
kind expressions towards you.’ —pro vano, 
as if they had no sincerity in them. The 
whole passage probably refers to a tristis 
puella; and he here advises Gallus to 
meet with frankness any symptoms of re- 
turning tenderness, which his repentant 
mistress may exhibit. 

25.] Quando, si quando, quotiens.— 
venit, see sup. 

29.] ‘That man will retain the object 
of his regard who shall prove himself at 
all times her devoted slave.’ Remanere, 
noticed in El. 1, 81, is frequently constans 
esse in Propertius. 


XI. Addressed to Cynthia while absent 
at Baie, and warning her, with all the 
earnestness of a jealous affection, to beware 
of the snares and gaities of that much fre- 
quented watering place. 

1.] Mediis Batis, midway between Mi- 
senum and Puteoli.—semita, ἕο. ‘Semita 
illa Herculis montis jugum erat velut alta 
mole in mare jactum.’—Hertz. See iv. 
18, 4. Strabo, lib. v. cap.iv., 6 δὲ Aox- 
pivos κόλπος πλατύνεται μέχρι Βαΐων, χώ- 
ματι εἰργόμενος ἀπὸ τῆς ἔξω θαλάττης 
ὀκτασταδίῳ To μῆκος, πλάτος δὲ ἁμαξιτοῦ 
πλατείας, ὕὅ φασιν Ἡρακλέα διαχῶσαι, τὰς 
βοῦς ἐλαύνοντα τὰς Γηρυόνου. 

4.1 For proxima Barth and Kuinoel 
read οὐ modo, which was first introduced 
into the text by Scaliger from a late MS. 
Lachmann well observes that suddita is 
only applicable to vegno. Modo would 
seem to imply that Cynthia occasionally 
made excursions from Baiw to enjoy fine 
sea-views from other points.  Zhesproti 
regno is believed to be Puteoli; but the 
ancient historians afford no direct testimony 
in confirmation of the opinion, Miiller 


Nostri cura subit memores ah ducere noctes ? 5 

Ecquis in extremo restat amore locus? 

An te nescio quis simulatis ignibus hostis 
Sustulit e nostris, Cynthia, carminibus ? 
Atque utinam mage te remis confisa minutis 

Parvula Lucrina cymba moretur aqua; 


Aut teneat clausam tenui Teuthrantis in unda 
Altern facilis cedere lympha manu, 
Quam vacet alterius blandos audire susurros 

reads te Protei, but te is certainly not 
wanted with the second participle, ecqguid 
te cessantem et te mirantem, &c. “Among 
the fifty sons of Lycaon, King of Arcadia, 
a Thesprotus is mentioned by Apollodorus, 
iii. 8, 1, but nothing further is recorded of 
him. The reader will probably be con- 
tented with the remark of Hertzberg: 
‘Ttaque non tam testimonio egere, quam 
testem ipsum Propertium esse credam, 
illam Italiz oram yel nescio cui Thesproto 
olim paruisse, vel a Thesprotis incolas ac- 
cepisse, fontes vero, unde doctrinam eam 
hauserit, perditos esse.’ The Roman poets, 
who delighted to exhibit their curious 
learning in Greek lore, had access to a 
number of writers whose works have long 
since perished, so that we can hardly ex- 
pect to adduce direct proofs for every 
statement advanced by them. This re- 
mark is applicable, as we shall have oc- 
casion to notice, to many passages in Pro- 
pertius.—A full account of Baiz is given 
by Becker, Gallus, p. 85—97. 

5.] The construction is, ‘ecquid cura 
subit te, cessantem Baiis, ducere noctes 
memores nostri?’ ¢.¢. numquid curas du- 
cere >—ah ducere is the correction of Scali- 
ger for adducere or aducere of the MSS. 

6.] All the MSS. have extremo, which 
Passerat, followed by Kuinoel, has changed 
to externo, i.e. alieno. This alteration, 
however, gives a sense far from satisfactory ; 
for not only does it too bluntly bring a 
charge of faithlessness against Cynthia, 
but it makes the poet ask the superfluous 
question, ‘have you any room for me in 
your new regard for another?’ Hertzberg 
suggests a meaning in which, in default of 
a better, I am inclined to acquiesce: ‘have 
you any room left for me i @ corner of 
your love?’ ‘In extremo certe angulo 
num sibi locus restet, modestius querit.’ 
Barth compares ‘extrema linea amare.’— 
Ter. Hum. iv. 2, 12. 

7.] Nescio quis. Said with marked 
contempt, as Kuinoel observes.—sustulit, 

has remoyed you from your place in my 
affections, and therefore from your place 
in my poems. Cf. vy. 7, 50, where Cynthia 
says ‘longa mea in libris regna fuere tuis.’ 

9.] Some commentators regard conjisa 
as the vocative for the accusative, as supr. 
8,19. To me it appears clearly to agree 
with cymba, since a gondola ‘ relies’ on its 
oars for safe guidance.—moretur, detineat, 
should amuse or engage your leisure-hours. 

10—14.] ‘I had rather you were cruis- 
ing in the Lucrine bay, or indulging in the 
retired baths of Cume, than listening to 
whispered vows while softly seated on the 
shore of Baie.’ It is altogether uncertain 
what is meant by Teuthrantis in unda: the 
reading itself is but a conjecture of Scali- 
ger’s for tentantis or teutantis of the MSS. 
Teuthras was a king of Mysia, where there 
was a city called Cumez, which, together 
with that near Baiw, was a colony of 
Chalcidians; hence both cities may have 
been called after this king. Hertzberg 
thinks Naples may be meant, which was 
originally a colony of Cumzans, (Strabo, 
v.iv. μετὰ δὲ Δικαιαρχίαν ἐστὶ Νεάπολις 
Κυμαίων: ὕστερον δὲ καὶ Χαλκιδεῖς ἐπῴ- 
κησαν, καὶ Πιθηκουσαίων τινὲς, καὶ ᾿Αθη- 
ναίων, ὥστε καὶ Νεάπολις ἐκλήθη διὰ τοῦτο), 
and contained, according to the same au- 
thority, baths not inferior to Baiw: whence 
clausam would mean ‘within a covered 
swimming-bath.’ This is by no means 
improbable; but I cannot concur in his 
opinion that Teuthrantis is an adjective, 
Τευθραντὶς, agreeing with lympha. Kui- 
noel, without quoting any ancient authority, 
makes Teuthras the name of a small river 
some distance from Baie. 

12.] Manu is for manut, the old, or 
rather the contracted, form of the dative, 
used occasionally even by Tacitus, as Ann. 
iii. 30, 33, 84; vi. 23, and others. 

13.] Susurros, ὀαρισμοὺς, ψιθυρισμούς. 
Words in both languages peculiarly used 
of lovers’ conyerse. 


Molliter in tacito litore compositam ; 

Ut solet amoto labi custode puella 

Perfida, communes nec meminisse deos; 
Non quia perspecta non es mihi cognita fama, 

Sed quod in hac omnis parte timetur amor. 
Ignosces igitur, si quid tibi triste libelli 

Attulerint nostri: culpa timoris erit. 


An mihi nune major care custodia matris, 
Aut sine te vite cura sit ulla mex? 

Tu mihi sola domus, tu, Cynthia, sola parentes, 
Omnia tu nostre tempora letitiz. 

Seu tristis veniam, seu contra letus amicis, 25 

Quicquid ero, dicam: Cynthia causa fuit. 
Tu modo quamprimum corruptas desere Baias; 
Multis ista dabunt litora discidium ; 
Litora, qua fuerant castis inimica puellis. 

Ah pereant Baiz crimen amoris aque! 

16.] Communes deos. The gods mutu- 
ally invoked as witnesses to vows made 
between two parties. 

17.] The sense is; ‘Not that my fears 
arise from any inconstancy in you; but in 
this place, viz. Baie, even the slightest at- 
tentions paid are to be dreaded.’ Amor is 
here on the part of men, whom the poet 
hinted at in συ. 13. Compare a similar 
irony supr. El. 2, 25. There seems no 
need to read veretur for timetur, with Lach- 
mann and Miiller. 

21.] The best MSS. have an mihi non, 
which Pucci in the ed. 1481, altered to au 
mihi sit, whence the corrected copies have 
an mihi sit—the reading of Kuinoel. Jacob 
gives from his own conjecture haud mihi 
sit, and in the next verse haud sine te, from 
one MS. (Groning.) Lachmann has ah 
mihi non major, and so Miiller; but ah non 
major sit, &c. reads strangely to the ear. 
Keil gives nam mihi non major, ἕο. The 
best correction, I think, is that of Hertz- 
berg, who reads nune for non, in the sense 
of the Greek enclitic νυν. The direct in- 
terrogative use of an, it must be observed, 
is very rare. 
mar, ΐ 1421) denies that it ever is so used. 
It occurs however sup. 6, 13, and iii, 17, 

Professor Key (Latin Gram- 


23.] Parentes. We know from y. 1, 
127, that Propertius lost his father while 
quite a boy. 

28.] All the MSS. have dabunt, which 
seems to bear the simplest sense, ‘ will 
give to many others beside myself.” Laeh- 
mann and Hertzberg read dabant with 
Burmann from a late MS., and even Jacob 
approves. The ground of the alteration is, 
that the past tense, fuerant, immediately 
follows. But why not understand, ‘ Bais 
will yet cause many quarrels, as it has 
heretofore.’ —discidium, the reading of the 
Naples MS., seems more appropriate to 
dabunt than dissidium, which the other 
editors prefer, Kuinoel excepted. 

29.] On the pluperfect fuerant Hertz- 
berg has a good note, in which he contends 
that the substantive verb may be so used, 
either alone or with a passive participle, 
for erant, but that the same licence does 
not extend to other verbs. —See inf. 12, 11. 

30.] Bate aque for Baiane is a bold 
expressiog. See note on y. 1, 36.—crimen 
amorts, ‘of which love has so often had to 
complain.’ Baie might be called crimen 
for criminose ; but the genitive is added to 
show in what particular respect it deserves 
the bad character attributed to it. See an 
amusing epigram in Martial, i. Lsiii. 





Quid mihi desidi#z non cessas fingere crimen, 
Quod faciat nobis conscia Roma moram ? 

Tam multa illo meo divisa est milia lecto, 
Quantum Hypanis Veneto dissidet Eridano, 

Nec mihi consuetos amplexu nutrit amores 5 
Cynthia, nec nostra dulcis in aure sonat. 

Olim gratus eram: non illo tempore cuiquam 
Contigit, ut simili posset amare fide. 

Invidiz fuimus. 

Num me Deus obruit, an que 
Lecta Prometheis dividit herba jugis? 
Non sum ego, qui fueram; 

mutat via longa puellas. 

Quantus in exiguo tempore fugit amor! 
Nunc primum longas solus cognoscere noctes 
Cogor et ipse meis auribus esse gravis. 

XII. To an anonymous friend, who 
had invited our poet into the country, and 
being unable to induce him to comply, had 
taunted him with his being a slave to 
Cynthia. The poet replies that she is far 
enough away, and laments that he has so 
far fallen from her affections. 

2.1 Conscia Roma, ‘que amores meos, 
Cynthiam inclusam quasi habeat. Conscia 
enim sepe poetis ea dicuntur, que aliquid 
in se continent, vel inclusum habent.’— 
Kuinoel. 1am satisfied with this explana- 
tion. Not so Hertzberg, who by an error 
in judgment unusual with him, labours to 
prove, at some length, that the true reading 
is conscio amore moram, and he has actually 
introduced this alteration into the text. 
Miiller so far follows him as to read Cynthia 
amore moram, the inferior MSS. giving 
Cynthia for conscia. The idea in the poet’s 
mind was this: ‘You accuse me of re- 

ining in Rome from some secret motive 
which does not exist, and you call me ‘a 
stay-at-home’ (deses) for not leaving a 
mistress who all the time is faggaway.’ 

3.] Ita, Cynthia. Here again Hertz- 
berg is at fault. lla, says he, can only 
tefer to Rome. The poet’s mind was s0 
fall of Cynihia, that he most naturally 
speaks of her as illa.—Hypanis, a river of 
Scythia; (the Bog.)—-Eridanus, a well- 
known name of the Po. The hyperbole in 
the distance is sufficiently manifest. 

6.] ‘Nor does the name Cynthia any 

longer sound sweet in my ears.’ Others 
understand it: ‘nor does she whisper 
sweetly in my ears,’ {. 6. prattle to me as 
before. Though this would more common- 
ly be dulce sonat, there seems no reason 
why the feminine might not stand for the 
adverbial neuter. The poet however pro- 
bably means, that he hears the name of 
his absent mistress with a pang, because it 
reminds him of lost affection. ‘Non am- 
plius mihi dulce est nomen Cynthiz.’— 
Barth. Similarly 11. 1, 2, ‘Unde meus 
veniat mollis in ore liber.’ Hertzberg 
thinks it alludes to an imaginary sound of 
the name, for which he ingeniously quotes 
Lucretius, iv. 1058, ‘si abest, quod amet, 
presto simulacra tamen sint Iilius, et 
nomen dulce obvorsatur ad aureis.’ 

9.1 Invidiz fuimus. ἐβάσκηνεν ἡμῖν 6 
θεός. This is generally read interrogatively, 
—the objection to which is that num would 
be out of place in the second question, ‘an 
(obruit me) herba, quz lecta &c., dividit 
(amantes)?’ Plants gathered on Caucasus, 
on which Prometheus was chained, ‘ex 
quo liquate solis ardore excidunt gutte, 
quz saxa assidue instillant, sch. frag. 
179, were particularly used in incantations. 

11.] Non sum di, qui fueram. 

13.] Nune primum, &c., ‘Now for the 
first time I am compelled to learn what it 
is to spend long nights alone, and to listen 

only to my own complainings. 


Felix, qui potuit presenti flere puelle ; 



Nonnihil aspersis gaudet Amor lacrimis: 
Aut si despectus potuit mutare calores ; 
Sunt quoque translato gaudia servitio. 
Mi neque amare aliam neque ab hac discedere fas est: 

Cynthia prima fuit, Cynthia finis erit. 



Tu, quod sepe soles, nostro laetabere casu, 
Galle, quod abrepto solus amore vacem ; 

At non ipse tuas imitabor, 

perfide, voces ; 

Fallere te numquam, Galle, puella velit! 

Dum tibi deceptis augetur fama puellis, 


Certus et in nullo queris amore moram ; 
Perditus in quadam tardis pallescere curis 
Incipis, et primo lapsus abire gradu. 

15.] ‘Happy he who has the chance of 
moving his mistress by the sight of a flood 
of tears.’ Nonnihil, ¢. 6. plurimum,— 
Barth. Wit. ‘Love likes a few tears 

17.] ‘Happy, too, if finding himself 
slighted, he can transfer his affections to 
another; for there is some pleasure even 
in a change of mistresses.’ Kuinoel has 
a full stop at the end of νυ. 16, making aut 
commence a new sentiment: ‘Or, (if that 
cannot be), should he be able to love 
another instead, there is some satisfaction,’ 

19.] Desistere Miiller, with Pucci, the 
Naples MS, giving dissistere. 

XIII. Addressed to Gallus (see on El. 
5), on his having conceived an attachment 
for a woman of higher character than those 
with whom he had hitherto boasted of his 
acquaintance (vy. 11). The person alluded 
to is the same as in El. 10, but certainly 
not Cynthia, as Hertzberg appears to sup- 

1.7 Letabere, ‘will exult:’ because 
Gallus had ridiculed the notion that Cyn- 
thia would prove as faithful to his friend 
as the latter had predicted. The absence 
of Cynthia at Baie is spoken of in the 
next verse, in which abrepto implies that 
a rival had supplanted him, in his (Gallus’) 
imagination if not in reality. 

8.1 Tuas voces. The taunt alluded to, 
that she would soon leave him. These 
are the voces moleste of El. 5, 1. 

7.1 In quadam. Hertzberg quotes 
many passages to prove that this is the 
usual form for expressing the strong deyo- 
tion of a lover. He might have added 
Hor. Od. i. 17, 20, ‘laborantes in uno Pe- 
nelopen yitreamque Circen.’ Quidam is 
here opposed to gquilibet; a particular 
person to any one. 

8.] Kuinoel and Lachmann with the 
inferior copies give abire. -Adire is the 
reading of the good MSS. The sense 
would be, ‘primo gradu lapsus, adis al- 
teram pugnam, non victus discedis;’ the 
alteram being naturally implied in the 
word primo. The metaphor is taken per- 
haps from the three throws which consti- 
tuted a defeat in wrestling. So Gallus, 
once repulsed, again returns to the attack ; 
so devoted is he to the new object of his 
affection. Hertzberg disapproves of this 
interpretat#n of adire, which is nearly 
that of Jacob, and says ;—‘ hoc vult: Tu, 
qui antea in lubrica amoris via hue illue 
desultare protervus solebas, nunc, dum 
adis puellam, primo gradu lapsus es, jaces, 
κεῖσαι, (ἱ. 6. vietus es). This however 
should rather have been ‘ incipis labi statim 
aggrediens,’ not ‘incipis aggredi statim 
lapsus.’ It may be urged that incipis 
refers to pallescere rather than to adire, 



Hee erit illarum contempti peena doloris: 

Multarum miseras exiget una vices. 


Hee tibi vulgares istos compescet amores ; 

Nec nova qurendo semper amicus eris. 
Hee ego non rumore malo, non augure doctus ; 

Vidi ego; me, quieso, teste negare potes? 

Vidi ego te toto vinctum languescere collo 15 

Et flere injectis, Galle, diu manibus, 
Et cupere optatis animam deponere labris, 
Et que deinde meus celat, amice, pudor. 
Non ego complexus potui diducere vestros ; 

Tantus erat demens inter utrosque furor. 

Non sic Hemonio Salmonida mixtus Enipeo 
Tzenarius facili pressit amore deus; 

Nec sic cxlestem flagrans amor Herculis Heben 
Sensit in CEteis gaudia prima jugis. 

Una dies omnes potuit preecurrere amantes ; 

Nam tibi non tepidas subdidit illa faces, 

which would have been adis had the metre 
allowed it. But this is so farfetched that 
I have preferred abire, ‘to give up,’ ‘leave 
the arena.’ And so both Keil and Miller 
have edited. 

10.] Multarum miseras vices, ‘retribu- 
tion for the unhappiness of many.’ 

11.] Compescet, will check, put a stop 
to, those amours of yours with common 
women, πανδήμους ἔρωτας. 

13.] Rumore malo, ‘ill-natured gossip.’ 

15—17.] See above, 10, 5, &c. Optata 
labra are simply the lips he had longed for, 
and of which he is unwilling, as it were, to 
resign the possession. If any alteration is 
necessary, aptatis is perhaps more probable 
than obtentis, Hertzberg’s conjecture, who 
quotes against Burmann’s emendation and 
in favour of his own, passages from the 
Greek poets which tell exactly the other 
way. The MSS. however agree in verbis, 
which is perplexing enougl® But the 
sentiment is so familiar with the Greek 
epigrammatists and amatory writers, that 
Hertzberg seems to have judged rightly in 
reading Jabris, especially as Passerat pro- 
fessed to haye found it ‘in libro vetusto.’ 
So also Keil and Miiller. 

21.] Neptune, assuming the form of the 
Thessalian river Enipeus, ravished Tyro, 
daughter of Salmoneus, who had been 

enamoured of the river-god. Miatus, 
‘miscuisse se deum marinum fluvio egregie 
dicit, ad significandam liquidam deorum 
naturam.’—Hertzberg. Apollodor. i. 9, 8. 
Τυρὼ ἡ Σαλμωνέως θυγάτηρ καὶ ᾿Αλκιδίκης, 
παρὰ Κρηθεῖ τῷ Σαλμωνέως ἀδελφῷ τρεφο- 
μένη, ἔρωτα ἴσχει ᾿Ενιπέως τοῦ ποταμοῦ" 
καὶ συνεχῶς ἐπὶ τὰ τούτου ῥεῖθρα φοιτῶσα, 
τούτοις ἀπωδύρετο. Ποσειδῶν δὲ εἰκασθεὶς 
Ἐνιπεῖ συγκατεκλίθη αὐτῇ. Tenarius deus, 
οὑπὶ Ταινάρῳ θεὸς, Arist. Acharn, 510. 
Pausan. iii. 12, ὅ. τούτων δ᾽ οὐ πόρρω 
τέμενος Ποσειδῶνος Ταιναρίου. Ταινάριον 
γὰρ ἐπονομάζουσιν. 

24. In CGteis. ‘Sic libri omnes. 
Scaliger correxit αὖ @teis, At ista vis 
est. Rectius Propertium dicas fabulam 
secutum esse, qua Hercules in ipso (ta, 
rogo evicto et mortalitate abdicata, Juvente 
nupsisse haud insulso commento narrare- 
tur.’—Hertzberg. Miiller reads ab @teis 
—-rogis, the last word being a conjecture 
(a very needless one, I think,) of Schra- 

25.] ‘Sententia: Tu una hac die omnes 
superare amantes potuisti.’—Hertzberg. 
‘Eleganter tempori tribuit quod erat homi- 
nis.’—Kuinoel. For amantes Keil and 
Miiller read amores, which seems the read- 
ing of the best copies. 



Nec tibi preteritos passa est succedere fastus, 
Nec sinet abduci: te tuus ardor aget. 
Nec mirum, cum sit Jove digna et proxima Lede, 

Et Lede partu, gratior una tribus, 


Tlla sit Inachiis et blandior heroinis, 
Illa suis verbis cogat amare Jovem. 

Tu vero quoniam semel es periturus amore, 
Utere: non alio limine dignus eras. 

Que tibi sit felix, quoniam novus incidit error ; 


Et quodcumque voles, una sit ista tibi. 


Tu licet abjectus Tiberina molliter unda 
Lesbia Mentoreo vina bibas opere, 

27.] Fastus. See on 1, 3.—succedere, 
‘to come over you again,’ ὁ, 6. she will not 
allow you to slight her as you have done 
others. Kuinoel takes the word in a very 
different sense: ‘bene et prospere tibi 
eyenire,’ ‘to succeed.’ — abduct, to be 
drawn away by any new attachment. 

30.] Miiller adopts the reading of the 
Naples MS., Jove digne proxima Lede. 
Hertzberg’s correction (Lede e partu) and 
explanation of this difficult passage appear 
to me equally unsuccessful. In defence of 
the former indeed he alleges the authority 
of one inferior MS., and argues that Pro- 
pertius would have used the Greek genitive 
Ledes unless constrained by metrical ne- 
cessity. The newly-found mistress of 
Gallus, whom he strangely conceives to be 
Cynthia herself, is called (he tells us) ‘a 
second Helen’ (una e Lede partu), who is 
handsomer than the real Helen, her sister 
Clytemnestra, and their mother Leda. 
Nothing, as it seems to me, can be more 
awkward than this. The poet says she is 
worthy to be, what Leda was, the consort 
of Jove; coming next after Leda in de- 
serving that honour, Leda’s own offspring 
from Jove being of course excepted, and 
more winning and agreeable (he does not 
say pulchrior) than all three. It is pro- 
bable, as Kuinoel observes, that Propertius 
here uses the very terms of commendation 
bestowed by his friend: ‘and no wonder, 
since, as you say, &e.’—partw is for partui, 
as manu for manui sup. 11, 12. It is easy 
to account for the exaggerated praises the 
poet bestows on the lady of whom Gallus 
is enamoured. Knowing or suspecting his 

former partiality for Cynthia (see on El. 5), 
he is naturally anxious to extol the charms 
of any one else, in order to divert the fickle 
mind of his friend from thinking any more 
of Cynthia. And this seems the very point 
of vv. 33, 34, where non alio limine dignus 
clearly means ‘Cynthia was no match for 
you in birth.’ 

31.] Inachiis, ‘Grecian.’ Inachus was 
the first king of Argos. Cf. inf. 15, 22. 

34.] Utere,‘make the most of it.’ Some 
earlier editions give wrere.—semel, in the 
preceding verse, 1s ‘for once at all events.’ 

35.] Lachmann, Hertzberg, Keil, 
Miiller, and Jacob read—‘ Que tibi sit, 
felix’ &c., which seems a perverse punc- 
tuation of a simple sentence: ‘since you 
have at length found a worthy mistress, I 
wish you all happiness in the possession of 
her.’—error, see on errata sup. 9, 33. 

36.] Quoteungue Miiller, after Dousa, 
the Naples MS. giving quocungue. This 
is plausible, from the antithesis: ‘may she 
alone be to you all (ἡ, 6, parents, sister, 
&c.) that you can wish.’ 

XIV. This elegant little poem is ad- 
dressed to Tullus (see on El. 6) at his villa 
on the bank of the Tiber. The poet pre- 
fers his own happiness in the affection of 
Cynthia to the splendour and luxury of 

2.1 Mentoreo opere. Mentor was cele- 
brated for designing and working cups and 
bowls in raised or embossed devices (opus 
celatum). See inf. iv. 9,13. Juven, viii. 
104, ‘rare sine Mentore mense.’ He 
lived 8,0. 400—350. 



Et modo tam celeres mireris currere lintres, 
Et modo tam tardas funibus ire rates, 

Et nemus omne satas intendat vertice silvas, 


Urgetur quantis Caucasus arboribus: 

Non tamen ista meo valeant contendere amori; 
Nescit Amor magnis cedere divitiis. 

Nam sive optatam mecum trahit illa quietem, 

Seu facili totum ducit amore diem, 


Tum mihi Pactoli veniunt sub tecta liquores, 
Et legitur rubris gemma sub exquoribus ; 
Tum mihi cessuros spondent mea gaudia reges; 
Que maneant, dum me fata perire volent! 

Nam quis divitiis adverso gaudet Amore ? 

Nulla mihi tristi preemia sint Venere. 

Illa potest magnas heroum infringere vires ; 
Illa etiam duris mentibus esse dolor: 

Illa neque Arabium metuit transcendere limen, 

Nec timet ostrino, Tulle, 

subire toro, 20 

Et miserum toto juvenem versare cubili: 
Quid relevant variis serica textilibus? 

Que mihi dum placata aderit, non ulla verebor 
Regna nec Alcinoi munera despicere. 

4.1 Funibus ire. Towers of boats were 
called helciarii, Mart. ep. iv. 64, 22. The 
antithesis is ‘tam celeres (remis), tam 
tardas funibus.’ 

5.] Et (licet) omne nemus, &e. ‘Though 
all the woodland round you should wave 
with trees as large as those on Caucasus.’ 
With vertice apply from the context tam 
alto, Kuinoel explains ‘extendat, ut late 
conspicuum tollant verticem.’—sate silve 
are plantations, as distinct from natural 
forests, with which he compares them in 
luxuriant growth. 

7.1 Contendere, ‘all those charms that 
you enjoy cannot (in the happiness they 
confer) compete with my love.’—nescit 
cedere, i.e. non vult superari; feliciorem 
se preedicat. 

11.] ‘The gold-bearing waters of Pac- 
tolus seem to bring their wealth to my 

12.] Gemma. Perhaps the concha Ery- 
cina, inf. iv. 13, 6, pearls or mother-of- 
pearl. Hertzberg however well observes 
that the poet may mean jewels from the 
East, which the Romans fancied were 
washed up by the sea, and which even Gray 

has ventured to say that ‘the dark un- 
fathomed caves of ocean bear.’—rubra 
e@quora means the Erythzan sea, or Indian 
ocean. Soiii. 7,17. ‘Semper in Oceanum 
mittit me querere gemmas.’ Martial (v. 
ep. 37), speaks of ‘lapilli Erythrei.’ Cf. 
Tibull. ii. 2, 15. 

13.] Spondent, &e. ‘Assure me_that 
kings themselves are less happy than I.’ 

15.] ‘For who can take pleasure in 
riches, if unfortunate in his love?? Nulla 
premia, t. e. nulle opes. 

19.] ‘Noself-control, no age, no amount 
of wealth secures the possessor against the 
assaults of love.’ -Avabiwm limen, made of 
a kind of precious onyx. The commenta- 
tors refer to Pliny, WV. H. xxxvi. 12. 

21.] toto cudili, on both sides of the 
bed, the pluteus and sponda, See the note 
on y. 3, 31, ‘et queror in toto non sidere 
pallia lecto.’—serica, the dyed or embroid- 
ered silken coverlets, straguda, often men- 
tioned by Martial as very costly. 

24,] For nec some copies have vel. 
Hence Miiller reads aut, to the detriment 
of the verse and with no gain to the 




Sepe ego multa tue levitatis dura timebam, 
Hac tamen excepta, Cynthia, perfidia. 

Aspice me quanto rapiat Fortuna periclo: 
Tu tamen in nostro lenta timore venis; 

Et potes hesternos manibus componere crines, 5 

Et longa faciem queerere desidia, 
Nec minus Kois pectus variare lapillis, 

Ut formosa novo que parat ire viro. 
At non sic Ithaci digressu mota Calypso 

Desertis olim fleverat eequoribus: 


Multos illa dies incomptis meesta capillis 
Sederat, injusto multa locuta salo ; 

Et, quamvis numquam posthac visura, dolebat 
Illa tamen longe conscia letitie. 

Nec sic Asoniden rapientibus anxia ventis 15 

Hypsipyle vacuo constitit in thalamo: 

XV. Addressed to Cynthia, to upbraid 
her for indifference when the poet was on 
the eve of a voyage, probably that spoken 
of in El. 17. An elegy of great pathos, 
cleverness, and beauty, but of some diffi- 
culty. . 

1.] Multa dura. Cf. inf. 18, 13, ‘multa 
aspera.’ The MS. Groning. has jura. 

5.], Hesternos, A beautiful expression, 
for ‘quod ita mansit, ut heri erat.’ Hertz., 
who quotes, after Brouckhusius, Ovid, 4. 
A, iii. 154. ‘Et neglecta decet multas 
coma: sepe jacere hesternam credas; illa 
repexa modo est.’ Martial, ‘non hesterna 
sedet lunata lingula planta.’—An equally 
elegant term is faciem querere, ‘to adorn 
your person.’ Desidia is here used liter- 
ally, ‘sitting at the toilet.’ 

7.1 Nee minus, viz. than if I were to 
stay at home with you.—Variare, ‘de 
smaragdi atque electri vicibus intelligo in 
monili conjunctorum.’—Jacob, The word 
is properly used (both actively and in a 
neuter sense) rather of changing tints (e. g. 
of ripening grapes, the hues of the clouds, 
sea, and foliage), than in the meaning 
either of aidAAew, ‘to diversify with al- 
ternate stripes,’ or ποικίλλειν, ‘to be- 

9.] ‘It was not after this fashion that 

Calypso bewailed the departure of Ulysses.’ 
Od. vii. 244, &e. See iii. 12, 18. 

10.] Desertis equoribus, on the solitary 
shore, or on the shore of the desert sea. 

11—12.] Multos—multa, ‘Many days 
did she sit and many words did she utter.’ 
Miiller, whose poetic sense does not seem 
very high, says the repetition ‘valde dis- 
plicet,’ and proposes vana for mutta. 

12.] Injusto, ze. sibi, ‘cruel, inflicting 
a wrong on her,’ by fayouring the de- 
parture of Ulysses. 

13—14.] ‘Though about to lose him 
for ever, (and so having less concern in 
his safety than Cynthia has in mine) she 
wept from the recollection of past happi~ 
ness.’ He means to say that Cynthia 
ought to do the same if only from re- 
membering the past, even though she had 
lost her regard for him henceforth. 

15—16.] These verses ought probably 
to be placed after συ. 20, or συ. 22, as the 
commentators have perceived. For it is 
clear that mec sic in v. 17 should follow the 
example introduced by at non sie v. 9. 
and Keil and Miiller have transferred them 
after y. 20,  Alphesiboxa had married 
Alemzon, son of Eriphyle and Amphiaraus, 
who afterwards took Callirhoe for a second 
wife. The brothers of Alphesiboea killed 


Hypsipyle nullos post illos 


sensit amores, 

Ut semel Hzemonio tabuit hospitio. 
Alphesibcea suos ulta est pro conjuge fratres, 

Sanguinis et cari vincula rupit Amor. 

Conjugis Evadne miseros elata per ignes 
Occidit, Argivee fama pudicitie. 

Quarum nulla tuos potuit convertere mores, 
Tu quoque uti fieres nobilis historia. 

Desine jam revocare tuis perjuria verbis, 

Cynthia, et oblitos parce 


movere deos: 

Audax, ah nimium nostro dolitura periclo, 

Si quid forte tibi durius 
Multa prius vasto labentur 

Alemzon for his perfidy, and were them- 
selves put to death by her to avenge her 
faithless husband. See Ov.d, Met. ix. 406. 
The story is somewhat differently told by 
Apollodorus iii. 7, 5. 

17—20.] Hypsipyle, queen of Lemnos, 
was enamoured of Jason. The legend is 
well known from Ovid’s Epistle ‘Hypsipyle 
Jasoni,’ (Heroid. vi.) Apollodor. 1. 9, 17, 
οὗτοι ναυαρχοῦντος Ἰάσονος ἀναχθέντες 
προσίσχουσι Λήμνῳ. Ἔτυχε δὲ 7 Λῆμνος 
ἀνδρῶν τότε οὖσα ἔρημος, βασιλευομένη 
δὲ ὑπὸ Ὑψιπύλης τῆς Θόαντος-.--- Ὑψιπύλη 
δὲ Ἰάσονι συνευνάζεται, καὶ γεννᾷ παῖδας 
Εὔηνον καὶ Νεβροφόνον. 

21. Evadne, the wife of Capaneus, 
who was killed by lightning in the siege 
of Thebes, threw herself on the burning 
pile of her husband. Apollod. iii. 7, 1, 
τῆς δὲ Καπανέως καιομένης πυρᾶς, Εὐάδνη 
ἡ Καπανέως μὲν γυνὴ θυγάτηρ δὲ Ἴφιος, 
ἑαυτὴν βαλοῦσα συγκατεκαίετο. See Eurip. 
Suppl. ad fin. Elata per ignes, 7. 6. mortem 
sibi consciscens inter ignes. See on iv. 13, 
24, y.4, 20. Hertzberg suspects that e/ata 
here means insaniens, ἐκβακχευσαμένη. 
Argive is here put for Grecian, as sup. 13, 
31; ili. 17, 43. Argos anciently comprised 
the greater part of Greece north of the 
Peloponnesus. See Aisch. Suppl. 250 and 
the note. 

23.] ‘Not one of whom could induce 
you to follow her example, viz. of constancy 
and devotion to one man, and render your- 
self illustrious in history.’ 

25.] ‘Make no more vain professions 
of fidelity, which is but to revive the 
memory of your past perjuries (false oaths 
of affection), and cease to provoke the gods 
who have forgiven the past.’—oblitos, be- 

inciderit ! 
flumina ponto, 

cause the gods were supposed to take little 
heed of lovers’ broken vows. ‘Jupiter ex 
alto perjuria ridet amantum,’ Ovid, 4. 4. 
1.633. See iii. 7, 47. 

27.] Audaz, i.e. in tempting the gods. 
—dolitura, &c., ‘dolebis laboribus nostris, 
si morbo forte aut alio malo tentabere ; 
hoc enim tua in me injuria meritam senties.’ 
—Lachmann. ‘Si perfidiam tuam dii, 
quos tu nimium audax irritas, punient, 
dolitura recordaberis mei periculi, desidiz 
perfidieque tuz.’—Kuinoel.—doleo some- 
times governs the ablative, as Virg. din. i. 
669, ‘nostro doluisti sepe dolore.’—xostro 
periclo simply means the danger before al- 
luded to in v.3; and the poet says that 
Cynthia, now so coldly indifferent to it, 
will be sorry for it when she herself shall 
be in trouble, because she will reproach 
herself then for her heartlessness: her 
sympathy will be too late, and only given 
when she feels the want of it herself. 

29.] The MSS. agree in multa. Kui- 
noel, Barth, Keil, Miller, and Lachmann 
adopt the unsatisfactory emendation of 
Muretus, muta. It is all but absurd to 
say, ‘sooners shall rivers flow noiselessly 
to the sea, than,’ &c., because that is what 
half the rivers in the world do already. 
Barth’s brief note is amusing: ‘De ἀδυνά- 
rots hujusmodi nihil attinet dicere.” I 
formerly felt convinced that nzd/a is right, 
the reading of Passerat, professedly from 
a ‘yvetus codex,’ ‘sooner shall xo rivers 
flow,’ ὦ. ὁ. as we should rather say, ‘rivers 
shall cease to flow.’ But I now think 
muita may be retained, and that the sense 
is ἄνω ποταμῶν ἱερῶν χωροῦσι παγαὶ, Eur. 
Med. 409, ‘Many rivers shall sooner flow 
from the waste sea,’ instead of into them, 



Annus et inversas duxerit ante vices, 



Quam tua sub nostro mutetur pectore cura ; 
Sis quodeumque voles, non aliena tamen. 
Nam mihi ne viles isti videantur ocelli, 
Per quos seepe mihi credita perfidia est! 

Hos tu jurabas, si quid mentita fuisses, 


Ut tibi suppositis exciderent manibus. 

Et contra magnum potes hos attollere Solem ? 
Nec tremis admissee conscia nequitize ? 

Quis te cogebat multos pallere colores, 

Et fletum invitis ducere luminibus ? 


Quis ego nunc pereo, similes moniturus amantes: 
O nullis tutum credere blanditiis! 


τ fueram magnis olim patefacta triumphis, 
Janua Tarpeize nota pudicitie, 

‘and the year shall sooner have the seasons 
go in inverted order,’ e.g. summer shall 
succeed to autumn, and spring to summer. 

32.] Non aliena tamen, supply mihi 
unquam eris. 

33.] The MSS. have xe, which Pucci 
in the ed. 1481, corrected to ne, i.e. ναί. 
Lachmann gives Nam mihi ne, &c., and so 
Keil and Miller. ‘For never be it said 
that I hold cheap those dear eyes of yours, 
that have so often made me believe you 
when you swore falsely. You said, with 
an oath on them, that if you had deceived 
me, you hoped they would fall out of their 
sockets into the hands held to catch them. 
Barth and Kuinoel read Quamve mihi, 
which is perhaps right. 

38.] Admisse nequitie can hardly mean 
‘perjury’ alone. He appears to charge 
Cynthia with having broken her promise 
to him by having granted her fayours to 

39.] ‘You cannot say that I forced you 
to weep, and therefore when you so changed 
colour and shed tears, you did so from a 
consciousness at the time that you were 
deceiving me.’—muitos colores refers to the 
sudden change from blushing to paleness, 
usual in strong excitement. This express- 
ion has been cavilled at by Markland as 
‘mire dictum.’ There is severe truth in 
the rejoinder of Hertzberg: ‘Non deesse 
scio, qui non licere poets eredant, quod 

alius antea non dixerit.’ See note on v.7, 82. 

41.] Nene, etiam nune, ἢ. 6. after all 
your frailties.—sémdles, equally credulous 
with myself.—O nudllis, &e. is the monitem, 
in the form of a maxim, offered to all lovers. 
See 20, 3. 

XVI. The persona loquens in this elegant 
poem is the door of a house, traditionally 
said to have been that of the Vestal Tarpeia 
(see v. 4), but now oceupied by a female of 
no reputation, That janwa cannot mean 
the triumphal gateway (porta) into the 
Capitol is evident, as the Commentators 
have observed, from the fact that the former 
term is confined to the door of a private 
house. It is not improbable that indirectly, 
ὦ. ὁ. by mentioning a different house, the 
poet may allude to Cynthia’s obduracy. 
Such a house may have stood on the sacer 
clivus, and so, at least, have witnessed 
many processions to the Capitol. 

1.1 ‘Patefactam januam triumphis in- 
terpretor, ut dominum leta familia ex- 
ciperet a clientibus domum deductum, 
simul vero titulos spoliaque recepta, quibus 
atrium et vestibula ornaret.’— Hertzberg. 

2.] ‘The chastity of Tarpeia’ is here 
put by a well-known figure for ‘the chaste 
Tarpeia.’ Whether this was the Vestal 
Virgin, whose broken vows and love for 
Titus Tatius, so beautifully described in 
the fourth elegy of the fifth book, scarcely 


Cujus inaurati celebrarunt limina currus, 
Captorum lacrimis humida supplicibus, 

Nune ego, nocturnis potorum saucia rixis, 

Pulsata indignis seepe queror manibus ; 

Et mihi non desunt turpes pendere corollz 
Semper, et exclusi signa jacere faces. 

Nec possum infamis domine defendere noctes 

Nobilis obsceenis tradita carminibus ;— 

Nec tamen illa suze revocatur parcere fame, 
Turpior et secli vivere luxuria. 
Has inter gravibus cogor deflere querellis, 

entitle her to the fame of pudicitia; or 
whether some other possessor of the 
Tarpeia gens is here meant, as Hertzberg 
supposes, is a question which it would be 
yain to discuss. 

3—4.] Cujus—limina, the threshold of 
which was once crowded with gilt cars, 
and wet with the tears of suppliants. The 
triumphal car was deposited in front of the 
janua, in the vestibule of the house, which 
is here alluded to under the word Jimina. 
‘Stantes in curribus Aimilianos,’ Juven. 
Sat. viii. 8, and vii. 125, ‘alti Quadrijuges 
in vestibulo.’ The word however retains 
its proper sense in the short verse, which 
Hertzberg well explains: ‘Captivi sup- 
plices non reges sunt catenati, sed qui ex 
preda imperatori vel sorte evenerant, vel 
sub corona empti erant. Hi igitur ante 
limen prostrati sedem novi domini suzeque 
servitutis inter lacrimas adorabant.’ 

7.1 Non desunt pendere. Among many 
instances of this construction collected by 
the commentators the most appropriate is 
from Tacitus, Hist. iv. 11, ‘nec deerat ipse, 
stipatus armatis,—vim principis amplecti, 
nomen remittere.’? The custom of hanging 
on the doors of their mistresses the chaplets 
taken from the heads of the serenaders, is 
well illustrated by the fine verses of Lu- 
cretius, iv. 1171. ‘At lacrymans exclusus 
amator limina sepe Floribus et sertis operit, 
postesque superbos Ungit amaracino, et 
foribus miser oscula figit.’—twrpes, ‘ dis- 
reputable.’—faces, the torches which had 
lighted the revellers, and which were 
tossed away before the house when burnt 
out, or when morning dawned. 

9.] ‘Non possum a domina mea infames 
noctes avertere, propulsare, nam ipsa fame 
sue non parcet. Virg. Eel. vil. 47. Sol- 
stitium pecori defendite. Hor. Od, 1. 17, 3.’ 
— Kuinoel. 

10.] Tradita carminibus, ‘made the 

subject of song.’ The revellers, anxious 
for admittance, addressed the door itself, 
as v.17: ‘Janua, vel domina penitus cru- 
delior ipsa.’—nodit’s either means, as Kui- 
noel thinks, ‘notorious,’ in a bad sense; 
or quondam nobilis is opposed to nune tra- 
dita, &c., which seems better. 

12.] Vivere, &c., ‘from living worse 
than the debauchery of the day,’ 7. 6. from 

“even surpassing it in profligacy. The in- 

finitive here takes a prohibitive sense (rod 
μὴ (ἢν) which the former parcere (ὥστε 
φείδεσθαι) does not require.  Revocatur 
seems susceptible of this double sense, viz. 
to be recalled to one act and from another. 
Others construe non revocatur parcere vivere, 
as parce movere deos, sup. 15, 26, and Miller 
contends this is the only legitimate con- 

13.] Has inter, ὃ. 6. has noctes, v.9.— 
deflere seems here used for flere.—tristior, 
&c., ‘made more sad by the long-continued 
appeals of the suppliant for admission.’ 
Kuinoel reads with Brouckhuis ah longas 
excubias, which Hertzberg approves. This 
certainly has the advantage of supplying 
an accusative case to deflere. So Ovid, 
‘Deflet Threiciam Daulias ales Ityn.’ 
Many conjectures haye been proposed on 
this obscure passage: Hee inter, has igitur, 
has mihi ter gravibus, &e., I will add one 
more: Interea gravibus. For, interea being 
corruptly written iter, it was most natural, 
indeed, inevitable, to prefix the mono- 
syllable has. It has also occurred to me 
to read ‘supplicium longis tristius ex- 
cubiis,’ 7.e. a beating (6) and an abuse 
(17, 37) more grievous to me than even 
the long nights spent on the threshold. 
Of course, {116 (15) will then mean the lover, 
supplied from the context.—For a longis 
Hertzberg gives ah! longis, &c., and ex- 



Supplicis a longis tristior excubiis. 

Ille meos numquam patitur requiescere postes, 

Arguta referens carmina blanditia: 

‘Janua, vel domina penitus crudelior ipsa, 
Quid mihi tam duris clausa taces foribus ? 
Cur numquam reserata meos admittis amores, 

Nescia furtivas reddere mota preces ? 


Nullane finis erit nostro concessa dolori ? 

Tristis et in tepido limine somnus erit ? 

Me mediz noctes, me sidera prona jacentem, 
Frigidaque Eoo me dolet aura gelu. 

Tu sola humanos numquam miserata labores 

Respondes tacitis mutua cardinibus. 
O utinam trajecta cava mea vocula rima 
Percussas domine vertat in auriculas! 
Sit licet et saxo patientior illa Sicano, 

Sit licet et ferro durior et chalybe, 


Non tamen illa suos poterit compescere ocellos: 
Surget et invitis spiritus-in lacrimis. 

Nunc jacet alterius felici nixa lacerto ; 
At mea nocturno verba cadunt Zephyro. 

Sed tu sola mei, tu maxima causa doloris, 


Victa meis numquam, janua, muneribus. 
Te non ulla mez lesit petulantia lngue, 
Que solet irato dicere turba 1000, 

plains it ‘more sorrowful than even the 
suppliant lying outside,’ 7.e. supplice ex- 
cubante. Miller (who always prints the 
interjection a, not ah,) takes the same 

20.] ‘Nescia moveri et preces meas, 
quas clam et furtim facio, ad dominam 
preferre.’—Kuinoel.—reddere is ἀποδοῦναι, 
‘to deliver the message.’ 

23.] ‘The very stars as they set and 
the cold morning air feel for me as I lie; 
you alone, Ὁ door, have no compassion.’ 
This is hyperbolical, but not absurd; nor 
does their seem good reason for the doubts 
and difficulties which have been raised 
about the passage.—prona, cf. v. 4, 64, 
‘ipsaque in oceanum sidera lapsa cadunt.’ 

26.| Respondes mutua tacitis, &e., ‘an- 
swer me only by silence;’ a sort of oxy- 
moron. Kuinoel compares mutua flere, 
sup. 5, 30, as a similar construction. 

27.] Cava rima is the ablative of the 
mode or means by which the voice is trans- 

29.] ‘ More enduring than Sicilian rock,’ 
i.e. than /Etna; if once she hears my 
voice, however hard-hearted she may be, 
she will be melted into tears. 

32.] Et invitis, ‘a sigh will arise with 
even involuntary tears.’ So Miiller, who 
compares Ovid, Remed. Amor. 268, ‘longus 
et (al. at) invito pectore sedit amor.’ The 
common reading however (a comma at 
ocellos) gives a good sense: ‘non poterit 
non lacrimare, et in lacrimis, quamvis in- 
vita sint, surget spiritus.’ 

36.] Muneribus, i.e. osculis, corollis, 
unguento, &c. See on vy. 7, and inf. 41—4, 

38.] The MSS. give ‘que solet irato 
dicere tota loco,’ which is obviously corrupt. 
—turba is the conjecture of Pucci in the 
ed. Rheg. Many corrections have been 


Ut me tam longa raucum patiare querella 

Sollicitas trivio pervigilare moras. 


At tibi sepe novo deduxi carmina versu, 
Osculaque impressis nixa dedi gradibus. 
Ante tuos quotiens verti me, perfida, postes, 
Debitaque occultis vota tuli manibus!’ 

Hee ille, et si que miseri novistis amantes, 

Et matutinis obstrepit alitibus. 
Sic ego nunc dominz vitiis et semper amantis 
Fletikus sterna differor invidia. 


. - | . . 
Et merito, quoniam potui fugisse puellam, 
Nune ego desertas alloquor alcyonas. 

proposed, of which the best perhaps is that 
adopted by Kuinoel, ‘que solet ingrato 
dicere turba joco.’ Ihave followed Hertz- 
berg in admitting the two last words into 
the text.—ingrato and irato are similarly 
confused, El. 6, 10, but the latter epithet 
is consistent with petulantia.—que is here 
the same as qualia. Not much, 1 think, is 
to be said in favour of Miiller’s conjecture, 
which he introduces into the text, ‘qué 
solet ingrato figere theta loco.’ He does 
not tell us what this can mean, but quotes 
in defence of it a well-known verse of the 
post-augustan writer Persius, iv. 138, ‘et 
potis es nigrum vitiis preefigere theta.’ 

40.] Sollicitas moras, a long and anxious 

41.] Deduxi,‘spun.’ See vy. 1, 72. 

42.] Oscula nixa, &e., for ego nixus 
gradibus, &c. The hypallage is a bold 
one; but the usage is frequent in Pro- 
pertius. So ebria vestigia sup. 3,9. This 
passage shows that the Roman houses had 
door-steps before them as in our own 

44. Debita vota, i.e. corollas, &e. See 
on v.36. The expression is a brief one 
for ‘dona ex voto debita.’ From the ad- 
dition of occultis manibus it would seem 
that verti me ante postes implies his turning 
round to face the street while he secretly 
affixed offerings to the door behind him. 
Or is vertere in this place ἐπιστρωφᾶσθαι ? 

45.] Tile, the swpplex sup. 14. 

46.| Obstrepit, ‘out-bawls the morning 
cock.’ The lover continues his doleful 
strain till the cock crows, and he raises 

his voice that it may be heard above it. 
See v. 4, 4. Kuinoel well quotes Theocr. 
vii. 123. 

47.1 Semper—differor must be connected, 
as Hertzberg observes. See sup. on 4, 22. 
The sense is, ‘what with the frailties of 
the mistress within and the complaints of 
the lover without, the poor door is con- 
demned to a perpetual infamy.’ ‘To avoid 
the pardonable tautology, Miiller reads 
alterna invidia, with Markland. 

XVII. It is by no means improbable 
that this exquisite elegy was written, as it 
professes to be, on board ship in the course 
of the voyage alluded to in El. xv. At all 
events the poet pictures to himself the 
dangers and incidents of a storm, that he 
may excite the sympathy of Cynthia by 
describing them. 

1.1 Et merito. Et, like ergo, used to 
introduce the subject at once, has a peculiar 
pathos. ‘Here I am then and it serves me 
right’ is the idea to be conveyed.—potvt, 
ἔτλην, sustinui. Compare iii. 5, 14, and 
for potui fugisse, 1, 15. 

2.1 Desertas, i.e. solitarias., As the 
Halcyon was considered the ‘bird of calm,’ 
(Theocr. vii. 57. ‘AAkudves στορεσεῦντι 
τὰ κύματα), alloguor here implies perhaps 
an appeal to the birds to appear. The 
mistake of the Greeks, seldom correctly 
observant of facts of natural history, that 
certain sea-fowl floating buoyantly on the 
waves were sitting in their nests, cannot 
have escaped the attention of the thought- 
ful. According to Aristotle, Hist. An. viii. 



Nee mihi Cassiope solito visura carinam est, 
Omniaque ingrato litore vota cadunt. 

Quin etiam absenti prosunt tibi, Cynthia, venti: 5 
Aspice, quam sevas increpat aura minas. 

Nullane placatee veniet Fortuna procelle ? 
Heeccine parva meum funus arena teget? 

Tu tamen in melius sevas converte querellas ; 

Sat tibi sit poenze nox et iniqua vada. 


An poteris siccis mea fata opponere ocellis, 
Ossaque nulla tuo nostra tenere sinu ? 
Ah pereat, quicumque rates et vela paravit 

Primus et invito gurgite fecit iter. 

3, there were two species of Halcyon, one 
of which was vocal, the other ἄφωνος. In 
lib. ix. 14, he gives a minute description of 
what appears to be the Kingfisher. It is 
clear that the sea-bird must not be con- 
founded with this. 

3.] Cassiope, wife of Cepheus, was 
changed, like Ariadne and Callisto, into 
a star, which seems to have been regarded 
by sailors as the harbinger of a calm. 
The chief difficulty of this verse lies in 
solito, of which no other example can be 
adduced in this adverbial sense: for Kui- 
noel’s reference to Ovid Fast. v. 547, where 
solito citius occurs, is not to the point. 
Perhaps we should read soltto visura cari- 
nam est omine, et ἕο. Or may there have 
been a phrase ex solito, ἐκ τοῦ εἰωθότος, 
like ew more 2—ingrato litore, that is, thank- 
less, swrdo : regardless of the vows to build 
temples, offer sacrifices, &e. Hertzberg 
and Jacob understand Cassiope of a mari- 
time town so called (Κασσώπη in Strab. 
vii. 7). The latter says: ‘Solebant in 
Greciam a Brundisio navigantes Cassiopes 
portum in montibus Acrocerauniis situm 
ex more omnes petere.’ Cf. Cic. Ep. ad 
Fam. xvi. 9, ‘Corcyre fuimus usque a. d. 
xvi. Kalend. Decembr. tempestatibus re- 
tenti. Δ. ἃ. xv. Kalend. Decembr. in por- 
tum Coreyrworum ad Cassiopen stadia exx 
processimus.’ ‘The Venice edition 1500 
gives solitam. Hertzberg reads with 
Wyttenbach solidam, in the sense of ‘ Cas- 
slope will not see my bark arrive safe.’ 
Miiller gives salvam, and in the next line 

5.] ‘The very winds, being adverse to 
me, take your side,’ ὦ, 6. are taking ven- 
geance onme. On the indicative énerepat 
see sup.on 2, 9. The similarity of sound 

in absenti and venti is remarkable as being 
an apparent oversight in the best poets (so 
Tyrrhena arena sup. 8, 11), but a favourite 
and studied usage with the ecclesiastical 
poets of the middle and later latinity, from 
whom the modern poets have derived their 
practice of rhyming. Lachmann has col- 
lected many curious instances from our 
poet and others. Compare also ii. 3, 27, 
‘Non, non humani partus sunt talia dona : 
Ista decem menses non peperere bona.’ 

7.1 Fortuna, like the Τύχη Σωτὴρ of 
the Greeks (see on Agam. 647), was wor- 
shipped as a goddess potens maris. Hor. 
Od. i. 35, 6, where she is called Domina 
@quoris.—meum funus, ἃ. 6. meum corpus ; 
but involving the notion of the exequiz 
paid to it. 

9.] ‘Sensus: desine imprecari, et vota 
potius pro salute mea facias.’—Awinoel. 

11.] The good MSS. vary between op- 
ponere and reponere. The former is the 
reading of Jacob, Hertzberg, Keil, and 
Miiller, the latter of Kuinoel, Barth, and 
Lachmann. I follow the more recent edi- 
tors, who explain opponere ocellis &e., ‘to 
present my fate to your (mind with tear- 
less) eye,’ ἃ 6. to think of it without dis- 

12.] As a token of especial affection, 
the urn containing the ashes or some small 
relic of a deceased relative was carried in 
the folds of the toga, sinus, clasped to the 
breast. Kuinoel quotes Tibullus, i. 3, 5, 
‘non hic mihi mater, que legat in moestos 
ossa perusta sinus.’ tones also Tacit. 
Ann, ii. 75, ‘At Agrippina—ascendit clas- 
sem cum cineribus Germanici et liberis, 
miserantibus cunctis quod femina nobilitate 
princeps—tunc feralis reliquias sinu ferret.’ 


Nonne fuit levius dominz pervincere mores, 15 


Quamvis dura, tamen rara puella fuit— 
Quam sic ignotis circumdata litora silvis 

Cernere et optatos querere Tyndaridas ? 
Illic siqua meum sepelissent fata dolorem, 

Ultimus et posito staret amore lapis, 


Tila meo caros donasset funere crines, 
Molliter et tenera poneret ossa rosa: 

Ila meum extremo clamasset pulvere nomen, 
Ut mihi non ullo pondere terra foret. 

At vos equorez formosa Doride nate, 

Candida felici solite vela choro: 
Si quando vestras labens Amor attigit undas, 
Mansuetis socio parcite litoribus. 


Hee certe deserta loca et taciturna querenti, 

15.] Levius, the reading of Hertzberg 
with Kuinoel and Lachmann, has the au- 
thority of the Naples MS. Jacob has 
edited melius from the ed. Rheg. and MS. 
Groning., and so Keil and Muller. 

17.] ‘Than thus to be gazing at the 
unknown forests which line the shore, and 
to wonder where I am.’— Tyndaridas : see 
Hor. Od. i. 3, 2, and on Asch. Agam. 647, 
where the true explanation of this much 
wished-for apparition in a storm at sea is 
attempted. It is familiarly known in the 
Mediterranean as St. Elmo’s fire. 

19.] Πρ, 1.6. at home.  Sepelissent 
implies the action done once for all and 
completed at the time ; staret, the continued 
duration of the monument. But this dis- 
tinction does not apply to donasset and 
poneret in the next distich.—caros crines, 
2.¢.sibi; highly-prized, and therefore given 
only under the impulse of a deep affection. 
See Becker, Gallus, p. 518—20. 

22.) ‘She would lay my bones in the 
tomb softly on strewed rose-leaves.’ The 
ablatives both here and in the next verse 
(pulvere), as indeed above in v. 21, and 
nostro limine 18, 11, have a locative sense, 
and furnish remarkable examples of the 
usage. Compare v. 8, 10, ‘creditur ore 
manus.’ But the exact sense of extremo 
pulvere is obscure. It may be an ablative 
of time, ‘at the last dust,’ 7.e. when earth 
was thrown on the graye. 

25.] Doris was wife of Nereus, and 
mother of the Nereids. ‘unfurl the white 
sails with your propitious band,’ 7. ὁ. by 
appearing on the surface, and portending 
calm weather, induce the sailors to spread 
before the breeze the sails which have 
been reefed in the gale. 

27.) There is exquisite feeling and 
taste in this appeal to the chaste Nereid 
nymphs; ‘if ever love has entered your 
cool watery realms, you can pity a lover, 
and will spare a fellow-slave by directing 
him to a sheltered shore.’—Jitortbus, as 
Hertzberg remarks, is the ablative ‘quo 
simul modus et ratio significatur.’ 

XVIII. This elegy, as well as the last, 
is among the happiest efforts of our poet’s 
genius, It exhibits an intensity of feeling 
by which Cynthia, unless more obdurate 
than the oaks it was addressed to, must 
have been moved. It is a soliloquy on 
Cynthia’s cruelty, uttered to the winds 
and the birds in the depth of a forest. 
Kuinoel, who with all his faults has more 
heart than most of his critical co-editors, 
calls it ‘elegantissimum carmen, et ad 
amice animum permovendum aptissimum. 
Tenerrimum,’ (he adds), ‘amoris sensum 
exprimit, et elocutionis suavitate ac sim- 
plicitate mirifice sese commendat.’ 

1.7 Zaciturna. This idea is more fully 
expressed in y. 4. 



Et vacuum Zephyri possidet aura nemus. 
Hic licet occultos proferre impune dolores, © 
Si modo sola queant saxa tenere fidem. 
Unde tuos primum repetam, mea Cynthia, fastus? 5 
Quod mihi das flendi, Cynthia, principium ? 
Qui modo felices inter numerabar amantes, 
Nune in amore tuo cogor habere notam. 
Quid tantum merui? que te mihi crimina mutant ? 

An nova tristitiz causa puella tus ? 


Sic mihi te referas, levis, ut non altera nostro 
Limine formosos intulit ulla pedes. 

Quamvis multa tibi dolor hic meus aspera debet, 
Non ita seva tamen venerit ira mea, 

Ut tibi sim merito semper furor, et tua flendo 


Lumina dejectis turpia sint lacrymis. 
An quia parva damus mutato signa colore, 
Et non ulla meo clamat in ore fides? 
Vos eritis testes, si quos habet arbor amores, 

Fagus et Arcadio pinus amica deo. 

5.] This verse is perhaps after Theo- 
critus, 11. 64, νῦν δὴ μούνη ἐοῖσα πόθεν 
τὸν ἔρωτα δακρυσῶ; ἐκ τίνος ἀρξεῦμαι; 

8.7 Habere notam, ‘to be degraded.’ 
Allusion is made to the Censor’s mark of 
infamy, attached to the names of those gui 
senatu movebantur. 

9.] The MSS. have carmina, which can 
only be interpreted of magic verses. The 
editors, with some later copies, agree in 
reading erimina, Jacob excepted. Kuinoel 
however seems wrong in explaining erdmina 
a me commissa. The word is rather used 
inits strict sense, ‘ accusations,’ 7. 6. slanders 
of enemies.—mutant te mihi, are changing 
or estranging your feelings towards me. 

11.] Ste—ut, ‘so surely—as &e.’ This 
use of 516 in protestations is too well known 
to require illustration.—/evis is the voca- 
tive, ‘fickle one.’ But some explain it 
leviter, easily. This distich denies one of 
the charges, erimina, and the protestation 
extends over the next four. Then 17—18 
reply to another erimen, that of indifference ; 
and this also has four following in connex- 
ion. At 23—24, with the following distich, 
he denies the charge of suspicion, queru- 
lousness, and jealousy. 

18—16. ‘Though I have suffered much 
from you, yet I never will so resent it as 


to deserve your continual indignation by 
loving another.’—furor, μήνιμα, the object 
of wrath. 

17.] Kuinoel and Keil read colove, which 
has equal MS. authority. And certainly 
there is a naturalness and simplicity in this 
which can hardly be said to characterise 
calore. Compare sup.1, 22, ‘et facite illa 
meo palleat ore magis,’ and 6, 6, ‘mutato- 
que graves spe colore preces.’ This latter 
verse did not oceur to Hertzberg, when he 
raised the objection on the present passage, 
that mutato colore would only properly be 
used as ‘ primum nascentis amoris signum.’ 
Though this might have been urged as the 
very point in its favour; for the poet asks, 
‘do you expect me continually to be 
changing colour, and do you think that, 
if I do not do so, my affection is mere 
pretence?’ The other reading, calore, is 
explained by Hertzberg, not very success- 
fully, as ‘quod tam parva signa caloris det, 
unde mutatum eum necessario colligatur.’ 
Nevertheless, Barth, Lachmann, Miiller, 
and Jacob adopt calore. 

20.] The loves of Pan and Pitys are 
here meant. The legend however is only 
recorded by a few of the less known authors, 
references to which are supplied by the 



Ah quotiens teneras resonant mea verba sub umbras, 
: Scribitur et vestris CYNTHIA corticibus! 
An tua quod peperit nobis injuria curas, 
Que solum tacitis cognita sunt foribus 7 

Omnia consueyi timidus preferre superbze 

Jussa, neque arguto facta dolore queri. 
Pro quo, divini Fontes, et frigida rupes 
Et datur inculto tramite dura quies, 
Et quodcumque mez possunt narrare querelle, 

Cogor ad argutas dicere solus aves. 


Sed qualiscumque es, resonent mihi CYNTHIA silve, 
Nec deserta tuo nomine saxa vacent. 


Non ego nunc tristes vereor, mea Cynthia, Manes, 
Nec moror extremo debita fata rogo; 

Sed ne forte tuo careat mihi funus amore, 
Hic timor est ipsis durior exequiis. 

Non adeo leviter nostris puer hesit ocellis, 5 

21.] Both Lachmann and Hertzberg 
have a page of notes on the precise mean- 
ing of teneras umbras. What can be more 
appropriate than tenera to the delicate 
foliage which forms the shade in a wood? 
Miiller accords a very ingenious correction 
of Schrader, vestras—umbras, and teneris— 

28.) Ah tua quot nobis &c.—Kuinoel. 
But Barth explains the vulgate rightly: 
‘or is the reason of your estrangement the 
consciousness of having wronged me? Of 
that 1 have never complained except to the 
doors.’ More precisely, ‘Or are you vexed 
with me because I have been distressed by 
your slights>’ Miiller reads en tua quot 
peperit, and says that an ‘sensu caret.” 
The note on 11 sup. will show that he did 
not understand the passage. 

24.] Cognita foribus. See sup. 16, 17, 
46.] Ficta Kuinoel after Perreius; a 
conjecture not worth refuting.—facta is 
‘your treatment of me,’ opposed to jussa 
as ἔργον is to λόγος. 

27. Divini is the reading of all the 
MSS., nor is there much reason in the ob- 
jections which have been raised against it. 
Since a divinity was believed to reside in 

every tree and fountain, it was natural to 
call them divine. The passage in Theoc. 
Vili. 33, ἄγκεα καὶ ποταμοὶ, θεῖον γένος, is 
very much to the purpose. Miiller admits 
the needless alteration of N. Heinsius, ‘ pro 
quo dumosi montes’ &e. 

30.] Argutas, vocales. Any distinct 
and especially piercing sound is so called, 
as in Virgil argutum pecten, arguta hirundo, 
arguta serra &e. See above v.26. arguto 
dolore, and on El. 6, 7. 

32.] Nee saxa vacent, t.e. may the echo 

XIX. That this elegy was not written, 
as might be conjectured from the com- 
mencement of it, in a time of sickness or 
danger, appears from the concluding dis- 
tich. It is full of deep feeling and tender- 
ness to Cynthia, assuring her of his love 
even in the nether world. 

2.1 Nee moror, ‘nor do I care for.’— 
‘fata pro cadayere, mortuo,’ says Kuinoel ; 
but the expression, though not without 
a parallel, seems merely a periphrasis for 
Fatum rogi. 

δ. Hesit. The metaphor, according 
to Hertzberg, who quotes from the Greek 
Anthology to prove it, is taken from au- 



Ut meus oblito pulvis amore vacet. 
Illic Phylacides jocundze conjugis heros 

Non potuit ceecis immemor esse locis ; 
Sed cupidus falsis attingere gaudia palmis 

Thessalis antiquam venerat umbra domum. 


Illic, quicquid ero, semper tua dicar imago: 
Trajicit et fati litora magnus Amor. 

Illic formosee veniant chorus heroine, 
Quas dedit Argivis Dardana preeda viris: 

Quarum nulla tua fuerit mihi, Cynthia, forma 


Gratior; et Tellus hoc ita justa sinat. 
Quamvis te longze remorentur fata senecte, 
Cara tamen lacrimis ossa futura meis: 

Que tu viva mea possis sentire favilla! 

Tum mihi non ullo mors sit amara loco. 

cupium by birdlime. This is perhaps 
correct, and the image is worth attention. 
The lover goes about with his eyes smeared 
to catch Cupid as he flies, and so is unable 
to shake him off again. A less attentive 
consideration of the passage might suggest 
the simple notion of a bird lighting (ἐφι- 
(dvovros) and remaining on its perch.— 
oblito is here used in a passive sense. See 
on El. 2,5. If taken as the ablative ab- 
solute, vaceé will mean vacivus (or vocivus) 
sit, ‘that my shade will have nothing to 
engage or occupy it.’ 

7.7] Phylacides. Protesilaus, ᾿Ιφίκλου 
vids πολυμήλου Φυλακίδαο (Hom. 11. B. 
705), who was so attached to his wife 
Laodamia that he obtained leave from the 
gods below to return to his former abode 
(antiqua domus) for a single day. See 
Ovid Her. xiii.—illic—ce@eis locis, ‘there in 
the gloomy realms of the dead :’ a pleonasm 
common in Greek, as αὐτοῦ ἐνὶ Τροίῃ, ὑπ᾽ 
Ἴλιον αὐτοῦ etc. in Homer. So ii. 1, 22, 
‘hic—ante pedes.’ 

9.7 Falsis palmis, ‘utpote umbra,’ Kui- 
noel; who makes cupidus refer to umbra 
by a well-known Greek idiom, Bin “Hpa- 
κληίη ds etc. But Hertzberg says, ‘ cupi- 
dus ad Phylacides referendum, umbra Thes- 
salis yero non subjectum est, sed pradicato 
additum.’ I think he is right. Thessalis 
is the correction of Pucci for Zhessalus. 

11.] This passage recals to mind the 
fine parallel in Eur. Alcest. 363, ἀλλ᾽ οὖν 
ἐκεῖσε προσδόκα μ᾽ Stay θάνω, καὶ δῶμ᾽ 
ἑτοίμας ὡς συνοικήσουσά μοι. K. compares 


inf, 111. 6, 86, ‘hujus ero vivus, mortuus 
hujus ero.’—magnus amor (emphatic), 7. 6. 
extraordinary attachments continue even 
in the other world. 

13.] ‘Neque formosissime heroine ibi 
animum meum mutabunt, nulla earum 
mihi jucundior te ipsa formosa erit. In- 
telliguntur Cassandra, Andromache, Helena, 
aliee feminee Trojane, preede diyi- 
sione Grecis victoribus contigerant.’ — 
Kuinoel. See Eur. Troad. 241—277. 

16.] Ita justa, ‘in eo justa, si id, quod 
jure fit, tribuit atque concedit.’ Ast, quoted 
by Hertzberg. Or perhaps, ‘ita (esse) 
sinat.’ Lachmann, ‘justos inferos sperat ut 
se Cynthiam heroinis preferre patiantur.’ 
Kuinoel follows Burmann in the portentous ᾿ 
alteration, ‘et Venus hoc si dea justa sinat.’ 

17—20.] There is some obscurity in 
these four verses, which have been reck- 
lessly altered and perverted by the earlier 
editors. Miller marks them severally with 
an obelus, but has no comment on them. 
Following the best MSS. with Jacob and 
Hertzberg, we may thus paraphrase: 
‘However long you, Cynthia, may survive 
me, your death will ever be looked for to 
console my grief in Hades. And may you 
feel the same regard for me, while yet you 
remain on earth after I am burnt on the 
pyre, which I shall feel for you in the 
shades. If assured of this, death will not 
be bitter to me wherever I may meet it.’ 
Lachmann (on iii. 18, 44) interprets this 
verse: ‘mortem amaram nullius sibi mo- 
menti et nequaquam gravem fore dicit, si 



Quam vereor, ne te contempto, Cynthia, busto, 
Abstrahat heu! nostro pulvere iniquus Amor, 

Cogat et invitam lacrimas siccare cadentes! 
Flectitur assiduis certa puella minis. 

Quare, dum licet, inter nos letemur amantes: 

Non satis est ullo tempore longus amor. 


Hoc pro continuo te, Galle, monemus amore, 

Id tibi ne vacuo defluat 

ex animo: 

Seepe imprudenti fortuna occurrit amanti. 
Crudelis Minyis dixerit Ascanius. 

Kst tibi non infra speciem, 

non nomine dispar 5 

Thiodamanteo proximus ardor Hyle: 

puellam sibi fidelem sciat.’ Nzllo loco 
amara, ‘in no respect bitter,’ is a plausible 
translation; but it is not very easy to 
defend it by the phrase nzllo loco numerare 
(Cic. de Fin. ii. 28, 90, quoted by Lach- 
mann), which seems to be a version of the 
Greek οὐδαμοῦ τίθεσθαι. Hertzberg is 
more successful: ‘ Ubicunque moriar, mors 
non amara mihi erit.’ Quamvis, in v.17, 
certainly governs remorentur, because tamen 
in the next verse depends directly on such 
a sense. It is strange that Hertzberg 
should make remorentur an optative, like 
possis, for no other reason than that a prose 
writer would more accurately have written 
remoratura sint.—Ossa, i.e. umbra tua; 
but the allusion evidently is to a survivor 
on earth clasping the bones of a deceased 
relative and bedewing them with tears; 
which action is poetically transferred to 
the part of him who has previously de- 
ceased, and is expecting his partner in 
Hades. See on iii. 4, 39. 

22.] Hew! is the reading of Hertzberg 
for ὁ, which he shews to be a common 
compendium with transcribers for the 
former interjection. The otlfer editors 
have a, with the ed. Rheg.—dusto is, of 
course, for meo busto. 

23.] The words cogat and invitam are 
used in reference to minis, threats being 
the last resource adopted in overcoming 
the fidelity of a woman. So Ovid, Fust. 
11. 806, ‘nee prece, nec pretio, nec movet 
ille minis.’ There is no need, therefore, 
with Markland and Kuinoel to understand 

promissis as applied in minis.—certa, 7.¢. 
quamvis constans. 

XX. Addressed to Gallus (supra El. v.), 
with the advice that he should take good 
care of a youth on whom he had bestowed 
his regards, called, probably by Gallus 
himself, Hylas—The poem is a very 
elegant one, though not one of the easiest. 
‘Judice Broukhusio,’ says Barth, ‘non 
extat in toto Latio vexatior.’ 

1.1 Hoe monemus te, ne id (illud) de- 
fluat, excidat tibi, ‘Fortunam sepe ad- 
versam esse’ &c. The third line is given 
as a maxim: cf. 15, 42.—pro continuo amore, 
by (for the sake of) our long uninterrupted 
regard. Compare 22, 2. 

3.] ‘Fortune often proves adverse to a 
lover when least expecting it.’ 

4.) Dizxerit is the reading of the Naples 
MS. The rest have diverat. The former 
is clearly right: it represents the Greek 
optative with ἂν, but has no precise English 
equivalent.—crudelis Minyis; the river 
Ascanius, in Bithynia, is called pitiless to 
the Argonauts, because it occasioned the 
loss of Hercules: see Theocr. Jd. xiii. 
The sense of the whole passage is well 
given by Hertzberg: ‘imprudenti amanti 
fortunam nocere Ascanius, crudelis olim 
Minyis, docuerit vel doceat.’—imprudens 
(improvidens) is for ixcautus: cf. Virg. 
Georg. 1. 373, ‘nunquam imprudentibus 
imber obfuit.’ 

6.] ‘Est tibi puer amatus simillimus 
et facie et nomine Hylx.’—Hertzberg. 



Hunce tu, sive leges umbrosze flumina silve, 
Sive Aniena tuos tinxerit unda pedes, 
Sive Gigantea spatiabere litoris ora, 

Sive ubicumque vago fluminis hospitio, 


Nympharum semper cupidis defende rapinis,— 
Non minor Ausoniis est amor Adryasin. 

Ne tibi sit—durum !—montes et frigida saxa, 
Galle, neque experto semper adire lacus, 

Quze miser ignotis error perpessus in oris 


Herculis indomito fleverat Ascanio. 

Compare proxima Lede, sup. xiii. 29. 
Apollodor. i. 9, 19, “YAas, 6 Θειοδάμαντος 
παῖς, Ἡρακλέους δὲ ἐρώμενος, ἀποσταλείς 
ὑδρεύσασθαι, διὰ κάλλος ὑπὸ Νυμφῶν 

7.1 Sile for silve is the ingenious cor- 
rection of Scaliger, approved by Jacob and 
Lachmann, and adopted by both Keil and 
Miiller. This was a mountainous forest 
in the district of the Bruttii, in the foot of 
Italy. Virg. Georg. iii. 219, ‘pascitur in 
magna Sila formosa juvenca,’ where the 
common reading is silva. An. xii. 715, 
‘Ac velut ingenti Sila summove Taburno,’ 
&c. Both words, in fact, are the same, 
the insertion of the digamma in the one 
causing the apparent difference. Hertz- 
berg objects that the mention of such an 
out-of-the-way place would be little to the 
purpose, and doubts whether there is any 
stream there which could have been navi- 
gable even for a boat. He appears to be 
right in explaining the sense thus: ‘sive 
tu fluminis ripam cymba leges, sive ipso 
flumine natabis, sive spatiaberis in litore ; 
perinde cavendum a rapinis nympharum.’ 
—On legere see v. 4, 42. 

9.7 Gigantea ora, i.e. Cume. 
trict known to the ancients as the Phlegraean 
plains, (φλεγραία πλὰξ, Adsch. Hum. 285), 
was the scene of the battle between the 
gods and the rebel giants. It derives its 
name from some outbreak of the volcanic 
fires, which ever since the historic period 
have been more or less active in that 

10.] wbieungue, sc. spatiabere, Gr. ὅπου 
ἂν ἀλλαχοῦ or ἄλλοθι. 

11.] Cupidis rapinis is the reading of 
Jacob and Hertzberg from MS. Groning. 
The other have cupidas rapinas, which in- 
volves the necessity of altering une into 
huicin y. 7, with Lachmann, Barth, Miiller, 
and Kuinoel. In point of construction, 

The dis-- 

there is nothing to choose. Virg. Georg. 
ili. 154, ‘hune arcebis grayido pecori.’ 
Eel, vii. 47; Hor. Od. i. 17, 3. 

12.] The MSS. have adriacis, or had- 
riacis. Scaliger and Kuinoel give ah! 
Dryasin ; Jacob, a Dryasin. Lachmann’s 
conjecture is ingenious and appropriate, 
Flydriasin, Were there more authority 
than there appears to be for calling the 
water-nymphs Ὑδριάδες, (aname only found 
in two late epigrams in the Greek antho- 
logy), no judicious critic would hesitate to 
adopt this reading. Hertzberg gives ddry- 
asin, Which he tells us Lachmann himself 
subsequently preferred. So also Keil and 
Miller. Nymphs of trees were called 
indifferently Dryades, Adryades, Hama- 

13.] Durum! σχέτλιον, an interjection, 
as Lachmann, Jacob, and Hertzberg agree 
in printing it, while Kuinoel reads duros 
with Lipsius. The construction is, ne tidi 
sit adire; and durum is added as a dis- 
suasive;—‘you will find it a hard task.’ 
Lachmann explains ‘Nympharum fraudes 
vita, ne tibi per montes et saxa lacusque 
errandum sit, quemadmodum Herculi olim 
Hylam amissum querenti;’ and he ap- 
positely quotes Theocr. xiii. 66, ἀλώμενος 
ὅσσ᾽ ἐμόγησεν ὥρεα καὶ δρυμώς. 

14.] Hertzberg is right, I think, in 
reading experto for expertos. The con- 
struction is continued into the next distich; 
‘experto (ea) que errans Hercules per- 
pessus fle®erat ad indomitum (i. ¢. crude- 
lem, flecti nescium) Ascanium.’ Ezxpertos 
is improbably explained by Barth, ‘ quos 
noxios et Nympharum insidiis plenos 
semper experti sunt amantes.’ The ac- 
cusative however is retained by Lachmann, 
Keil, and Miiller. Perhaps expertos is 
corrupt, and the next distich was meant as 
an exclamation. 


Namque ferunt olim Pagases navalibus Argo 
Egressam longe Phasidos isse viam ; 
Et jam preteritis labentem Athamantidos undis 

Mysorum scopulis adplicuisse ratem. 


Hic manus heroum placidis ut constitit oris, 
Mollia composita litora fronde tegit. 

At comes invicti juvenis processerat ultra 

Raram sepositi querere fontis aquam. 

Hunce duo sectati fratres, Aquilonia proles, 

Hune super et Zetes, hunc super et Calais, 
Oscula suspensis instabant carpere palmis, 
Ocula et alterna ferre supina fuga. 
Ile sub extrema pendens secluditur ala, 

Et volucres ramo submovet insidias. 


Jam Pandioniz cessit genus Orithyie: 
Ah dolor! ibat Hylas, ibat Hamadryasin. 

17.] Pagase, the port in Thessaly whence 
the Argonauts set sail, and from which 
Jason is called Pagaseus in Ovid. Fast. i. 
491. Miiller reads Pagase, with Lach- 
mann (MSS. pegase), and Argon with the 
old copies. 

18.] Longe isse, ‘had gone far on its 
voyage to the Phasis,’ viz. to the east 
of the Euxine. 

20.] ‘Applicuisse (eos) ratem labentem,’ 
&c., seems a better construction than that 
adopted by Hertzberg, ‘ferunt Argo—ap- 
plicuisse ratem.’ Athamantidos undis, 1. 6. 
the Hellespont. Helle was daughter of 
Athamas. pollodor. i. 9, 1, τῶν δὲ 
Αἰόλου παίδων ᾿Αθάμας, δυναστεύων Bow- 
τίας ἐκ Νεφέλης τεκνοῖ μὲν παῖδα Φρίξον, 
θυγατέρα δὲ Ἕλλην. Mysorum scopulis : 
Apollon. Rhod. i. 1177, τῆμος ap οἵ γ᾽ 
ἀφίκοντο Κιανίδος ἤθεα γαίης,---τοὺς μὲν 
ἐϊξείνως Μυσοὶ φιλότητι κιόντας δειδέχατ᾽, 
ἐνναέται κείνης χθονός. 

22.1 Composita fronde, Theocr. xiii. 32, 
λειμὼν γάρ σφιν ἔκειτο μέγας, στιβάδεσσιν 

23.] Processerat querere. 
sup. i. 12, tbat videre. 

25.] Sectati, i.e. Hyle amore incensi. 
Kuinoel. Calais and Zetes, of Bopéov, are 
enumerated among the Argonauts by Apol- 
lodorus, i. 9, 16. Suspensis palmis, ‘ with 
their hands while balanced in the air.’ 
Most commentators have explained palmis 
by pennis, But Hertzberg aptly quotes 
sup. 3.16, ‘oscula sumere admota manu.’ 


Barth reads plumis. It is evident that the 
whole account is taken from some picture ; 
and indeed the rape of Hylas was a fa- 
vourite subject for vase-paintings and 
frescos. (A very beautiful fresco from 
Herculaneum is engraved in Pl. 47 of Rac- 
colta de pix belli dipinti di Ercolano, &c., 
Naples, 1854). The two winged brothers 
are here supposed to be hovering over 
Hylas, with their arms hanging down to 
grasp his neck, while the coy youth hides 
his head under his arm (ala), and tries to 
beat off his assailants with a branch. So 
Mr. Wratislaw has rightly explained the 
passage. He thinks pendens (29) does not 
mean ‘raised aloft,’ but either ‘on tip-toe’ 
or ‘in anxious fear.’ 

27.) Ferre I take for φέρεσθαι rather 
than for φέρειν, ‘to steal kisses from his 
upturned face, descending to snatch them 
with alternate flight,’ 7. e. first one and 
then the other. Compare Tibullusi. 1, 20, 
‘fertis munera vestra, Lares.’ Ovid, Fast. 
iii. 506, ‘Hei mihi! pro ceelo qualia dona 
fero” ‘Hoc noyum, quod oscula que 
Boreades proni ferebant, supina dicuntur, 
quippe rapta supino Hyle.’— Hertzberg. 

31.] Genus Orithyig, ie. Calais and 
Zetes, Boreas having carried away Orithyia 
for his wife. Inf. iv. 7,13, ‘infelix Aquilo, 
rapte timor Orithyie.’ 

32.] Hamadryasin is the correction of 
Scaliger for amnadrias hine or hamadrias 
hine. Ah dolor! may be compared with 
‘proh pudor!’ Kuinoel and others join 



Hic erat Arganthi Pege sub vertice montis 
Grata domus Nymphis humida Thyniasin, 

Quam supra nulla pendebant debita cure 

Roscida desertis poma sub arboribus, 
Et circum irriguo surgebant lia prato 
Candida, purpureis mixta papaveribus. 
Quze modo decerpens tenero pueriliter ungui 

Proposito florem preetulit officio ; 


Et modo formosis incumbens nescius undis 
Errorem blandis tardat imaginibus. 

Tandem haurire parat demissis flumina palmis 
Innixus dextro plena trahens humero: 

Cujus ut accensee Dryades candore puelle 


Miratze solitos destituere choros, 
Prolapsum leviter facili traxere liquore: 

Tum sonitum rapto corpore fecit Hylas. 
Cui procul Alcides iterat responsa: sed illi 

tbat dolor (i.e. causa amoris cum dolore 
conjuncti) Hamadryasin; and so Hertz- 
berg. The sense is, ‘No sooner has Hylas 
escaped from one danger, than he falls into 
another.’—zdat, he went on merely to be- 
come theirs. 

33.] Pege. The singular number erat 
excuses the use of πηγὴ for πηγαὶ, or rather 
Πηγαὶ, as Hertzberg observes. Apollon. 
Rhod. i. 1222, αἶψα δ᾽ ὅγε κρήνην μετε- 
κίαθεν, ἣν καλέουσι Πηγὰς ἀγχίγυοι πε- 
ριναιέται. The word is corruptly written 
in the MSS. 

35—42.] The singular beauty of these 
verses depends in great measure on their 
simplicity, but in part also in the choice 
and appropriate epithets. Those who con- 
demn the use of words of more than two 
syllables at the end of the pentameter will 
do well to study this passage. 

35.] The MSS. and editors agree in 
nulle, an old and rare form for nzdl?. 

42.] Blandis imaginibus. By looking 
at the pleasing shadows of himself in the 
clear water. 

44.] Plena trahens, ‘as he drew a pitcher 

45.1 Dryades. According to Apollonius, 
in a very beautiful passage, 1. 1224—39, 
not only the water-nymphs, but those of 
the woods and mountains were celebrating 
a nightly dance to Artemis when Hylas 
came by moonlight to draw water from the 

spring. —ewjus refers to humero. The 
nymphs saw the white-armed shoulder 
projecting over the bank, and left the dance 
to gaze at it; a highly poetical image. 
The apodosis to the sentence as traxere ὅζο. 

48.] Sonitum fecit. ‘Dum cadit Hylas, 
sonum corpore lapso dedit : ad hune sonum 
proclamayit Hercules sepius; cui nullum 
tamen responsum datum, nisi ab Echo.’— 
Barth. My. Wratislaw says, ‘Hylas ap- 
pears to have made a splash, not as he 
slipped into the water, but as he disap- 
peared under it. It is to this splash that 
Hercules iterat responsa.’ Apollonius and 
Theocritus represent Hylas as calling out 
while under the water. Propertius does 
not express this, but leaves the ery for aid 
to be implied, by stating that Hercules 
answered him from afar. Whether sonitwm 
or Hylas is the antecedent to eu, is not 
very clear.—zli, Herculi, aura reddit no- 
men (Hyle) ab extremis fontibus. The 
hero called ‘Hylas!’ but only the echo, 
not the living voice of the ravished boy, 
gave the reply. Theocrit. xiii. 58: τρὶς 
μὲν Ὕλαν dioev, ὅσον βαθὺς ἤρυγε λαιμός" 
Τρὶς δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ὁ παῖς ὑπάκουσεν" ἀραιὰ δ᾽ ἵκετο 
φωνὰ ἐξ VdaTos.—extremis appears to signify 
longinguis; or we must supply editum if 
nomen means the name of Hercules uttered 
from the depth of the water. Miiller ad- 
mits an alteration of Haupt’s, which seems 
very unsuited to the genius of elegy, iterat 


Nomen ab extremis fontibus aura refert. 


His, o Galle, tuos monitus servabis amores 
Formosum Nymphis credere visus Hylan. 


Tu, qui consortem properas evadere casum. 
Miles, ab Etruscis saucius aggeribus, 

Quid nostro gemitu turgentia lumina torques ? 
Pars ego sum vestre proxima militie. 

Sic te servato possint yaudere parentes, 5 
Hee soror acta tuis sentiat e lacrimis: 

responset: ut illis &e. Lachmann had be- 
fore proposed, with no better success, zterat, 
responsa det: illi &e. 

§2.] Visus. ‘Who have hitherto been 
so careless of your Hylas, that one might 
suppose you intended to entrust him to the 
very parties who were most likely to carry 
him off.” Kuinoel and Barth read tutus, 
with Scaliger, from one inferior MS. and 
explain it, ‘nihil sollicitus credere.’ Lach- 
mann’s conjecture, jisws, is perhaps more 


XXI. This Gallus, whom the reader 
will not confound with the high-born 
friend of the same name addressed in El. 
y., nor with Gallus the poet in iii. 26, 91, 
was related to Propertius, as appears from 
v.7 of the next elegy, and seems to have 
been waylaid and killed by banditti in the 
Perusine war, haying joined the side of 
Antony against Octavian. He is here re- 
presented as giving his dying request to 
a comrade, to convey to his sister. There 
is great pathos in these brief verses, which 
have an epigrammatic character not unlike 
the ἐπιτύμβια of the Greek Anthology. 

1.1 Consortem casum, ‘casum consor- 
tium.’— Hertzberg. He appeals to a soldier 
retreating from Perusia to escape the fate 
of so many of his comrades. 

2.] Etruscis aggeribus, the walls and 
fortifications of Perusia (Perugia), an im- 
portant town of Etruria, which was taken 
by siege from L. Antony’s forces by Oc- 
tavian, B.c.40. See 11,1, 29. Tac. Hist. 
1. 60. Suet. Oct. § 14. 

3.] The meaning seems to be, ‘quid 
torques oculos ad gemitum meum, ita ut 
turgeant lacrymis pre miseratione?’ If 
torques could be used for detorques, we 
might be tempted to translate, ‘Why do 

you turn away your eyes, filled with tears 
at my moans?’ 

4.) Proxima both Kuinoel and Hertz- 
berg understand as prowxime, 7. e. modo, 
nuper. But he was stil/ a part, being a 
soldier on the same side, though wounded 
and dying. Why should it not mean 
‘closely connected by common ties,’ as the 
chorus in the Agamemnon says of itself, 
ὡς θέλει τόδ᾽ ἄγχιστον ᾿Απίας γαίας po- 
νόφρουρον ἕρκος, v. 246. Compare sup. 6, 
34, ‘accepti pars eris imperii.’ inf. ii. 1, 
738, ‘pars juventee.’ 

5—6.] There is much difficulty about 
the reading and sense of these lines. The 
MSS. have wt possint, (though wt appears 
to have been erased from MS. Groning.) 
and in y. 6 zee or ne. Hee is from Pucci; 
the ed. Rheg. has fee. Lachmann and 
Hertzberg read thus :-— 

Sic te servato, ut possint gaudere parentes, 

Nec soror acta tuis sentiat e lacrimis ; 
where servato is the imperative. He is 
followed by Keil and Miiller. I much 
prefer the reading of Jacob, as given in 
the text. Sie te &c., is the usual form of 
adjuration, like Horace’s ‘sic te diva potens 
Cypri,’ and sentiat hee acta may be ren- 
dered ‘let her be apprised of what has 
been done to me.” wis ὁ lacrymis will 
then signify, ‘let her know my fate from 
the silent testimony of your tears;’ the 
particulars which follow being supposed to 
be learned from a subsequent verbal ac- 
count. But, as the word acta refers also 
to the last instructions about burial, as in 
ii. 4, 18, ‘ Accipe que serves funeris acta 
mei,’ this will suit the sense very well; 
for in v. 9 a request to look for his remains 
is clearly conveyed. The reading of Kui- 
noel, hee soror Acca &c., is the conjecture 
of Scaliger, 



Gallum per medios ereptum Cesaris enses 
Effugere ignotas non potuisse manus, 
Et queecumque super dispersa invenerit ossa 

Montibus Etruscis, hee sciat esse mea. 



Qualis, et unde genus, qui sint mihi, Tulle, Penates, 
Queris pro nostra semper amicitia. 

Si Perusina tibi patriz sunt nota sepulcra, 
Italie duris funera temporibus, 

Cum Romana suos egit discordia cives,— 5 
Sit mihi precipue, pulvis Etrusca, dolor: 

Tu projecta mei perpessa es membra propinqui, 
Tu nullo miseri contegis ossa solo,— 

Proxima subposito contingens Umbria campo 

Me genuit, terris fertilis uberibus. 

7.] Per medios enses, ‘from amidst the 
weapons.’ Propertius occasionally uses 
per for inter, as iv. 1, 4, and v. 4, 20.— 
ignotas manus, the hands of some barbarous 

8.] ‘Tell her this, that she may not 
search in vain for my corpse among the 
slain, but may know that my body was 
mangled and my bones scattered over the 
mountain passes.’ 

XXII. To Tullus. This is probably 
the same Tullus to whom the first, sixth, 
and fourteenth elegies were addressed. 
The present reply to his oft-repeated 
(semper, v. 2) question, as to the birth and 
country of the poet, would seem to show 
that Tullus stood in the relation of a 
powerful patron rather than in that of 
an intimate acquaintance. 

2.1 Pro amicitia, as pro continuo amore, 
sup. 20, 1. 

8.1 Perusina patrie sepulcra, i.e. the 
number of your own citizens (Romans) 
who found their graves at the siege of 
Perusia.—sepulte is the correction of Sca- 


6.] Pulvis Etrusca, for terra Etrusca, 
but used with peculiar elegance from the 
allusion in the next verse to the unburied 
bones of Gallus. The construction is, sit 
mihi dolor (propter te), pulvis Etrusca, 
quia tu perpessa es &c.—prajecta, sc. jacere ῦ 

an idiom like xolim factum. Sis Barth 
and Kuinoel after Scaliger. Miller, after 
Lachmann, reads sie for sit, A neater 

reading, but further from the copies, would 
be tu mihi. 

9.] Proxima contingens, &e., ‘joining 
close with the champaign country beneath 
it.’ See lib. v.i. 121, where the poet men- - 
tions Mevania as in the immediate vicinity 
of his birth-place, which was probably 
Asisium (Asisi). The Umbrian, like the 
Etrurian, towns, seem to have been built 
on rocky eminences, to which allusion is 
made in v. 1, 125, ‘scandentisque Asis 
consurgit vertice murus,’ and id. 65, 
‘scandentes siquis cernet de vallibus arces.’ 
Virg. Georg. ii. 156, ‘Tot congesta manu 
preruptis oppida saxis.’ 



UAERITIS, unde mihi totiens scribantur amores 


Unde meus veniat mollis in ore liber. 
Non hee Calliope, non hee mihi cantat Apollo: 
Ingenium nobis ipsa puella facit. 

Sive illam Cois fulgentem incedere coccis, 5 

I. Addressed to Mecenas, who appears 
to have urged our poet to attempt nobler 
strains, and to sing res egregii Cesaris 
(Hor. Od. i. 6,11). To which exhortation 
he replies that his genius is not adapted 
for any but elegiac composition, and that 
Cynthia is his perpetual theme. 

2.1 Jn ore. ‘Dum in ore versatur et 
legitur versus, mollis apparet.’— Hertzberg. 
In this sense we have in Ar. Ach. 198, 
κἂν τῷ στόματι λέγουσι, Bai ὅποι θέλεις. 
Others, as Keil and Miiller, have ix ora, 
with the ed. Rheg. 

5—10.] The order of these three dis- 
tichs has been reversed by Lachmann, 
with the approval of Jacob and Hertzberg, 
followed by both Keil and Miiller. Lach- 
mann objects to the apodosis following the 
protasis in the first verse, while the con- 
struction of that protasis itself depends on 
the third (vidi). Were the reading of the 
fifth verse certain, it would be more easy 
to give a definite opinion on the necessity 
of the transposition. The MSS. however 
give caeis or chois, and cogis at the end of 
the line; for which Lachmann conjectured 
coccis, and this has been received by both 
Jacob and Hertzberg. Kuinoel gives in- 
cedere vidi, which removes the difficulty 
of the construction at the expense of 
probability, vidi being only found in two 
late and corrected copies. Barth has ‘sive 
togis illam—Cois,’ with the Aldine. It 
seems to me that this principle of trans- 

position is rather a violent remedy; and 
granting that the order in the text is some- 
what harsh, we cannot say that it is unin- 
telligible, or tie Roman poetry strictly to 
rules drawn up by ourselves. Lachmann 
also reads in Coa veste for e, but the latter 
may surely mean that a whole book is com- 
posed out of, 7. δ. on the subject of, Cynthia’s 
dress and varied accomplishments. The 
toga was the dress of a meretriz ; but there 
is good reason to doubt whether Cynthia 
would have assumed that degrading habit : 
see oni. 2, 2. It is certainly harsh to an- 
ticipate vidi in v. 5, from sew vidi in y.7: 
see however ili. 15, 11—3, though even 
this leaves the principal difficulty, the apo- 
dosis following the ellipse, undefended. 
On the whole, it seems best to follow Jacob 
and Hertzberg in retaining the common 
order, and admitting coceis. Coccum is a 
a dye extracted from an insect on the 
quercus coccifera, or Kermes oak; it must 
not be confounded with Tyrian dye, as 
Martial combines ‘ Tyriasque coccinasque,’ 
iv. 28. Compare Hor. Sat. ii. 6, 102, ‘ru- 
bro ubi cocco picta super lectos canderet 
vestis eburnos.’ Juvenal, Sat. iii. 283, 
‘coccina lena.’ In the present passage, it 
means not only the dye, but the dyed stola. 
See on i. 2, 2, and compare ii. ὃ, 15; iii. 
21, 25; iv. 10, 15, whence it will appear 
that the poet had conceived a particular 
admiration for this silk dress of Cynthia’s. 




Hoc totum e Coa veste volumen erit; 

Seu vidi ad frontem sparsos errare capillos, 
Gaudet laudatis ire superba comis ; 
Sive lyra carmen digitis percussit eburnis, 

Miramur, faciles ut premat arte manus ,; 


Seu cum poscentes somnum declinat ocellos, 
Invenio causas mille poeta novas ; 

Seu nuda erepto mecum luctatur amictu, 
Tum vero longas condimus Iliadas ; 

Seu quicquid fecit, sive est quodeumque locuta, 


Maxima de nihilo nascitur historia. 
Quod mihi si tantum, Mecenas, fata dedissent, 
Ut possem heroas ducere in arma manus, 
Non ego Titanas canerem, non Ossan Olympo 

Impositum, ut cli Pelion esset iter ; 


Non veteres Thebas, nec Pergama, nomen Homeri, 
Xerxis et imperio bina coisse vada ; 

Regnave prima Remi, aut animos Carthaginis alte, 
Cimbrorumque minas, et benefacta Mari; 

Bellaque resque tui memorarem Czsaris, et tu 


Czesare sub magno cura secunda fores. 
Nam quotiens Mutinam, aut civilia busta Philippos, 

10.] Premat. ‘Comprimat manus, eas- 
que chordis imprimat.’ Kuinoel, absurdly. 
Of the two interpretations here combined, 
the latter appears the true one. 

11.] Kuinoel reads somnus from the 
MS. Gron. in defence of poscentes quoting 
iv. 10, 12, ‘Surge, et poscentes justa pre- 
care deos,’ 7. 6. poscentes invocari. 

15.] Seu quicquid &e. Supply meditor, 
or scribo de ea, quicquid fecit.—de nihilo, 
a whole story grows out of the most trifling 

17.] ‘Had nature given me the talent 
of writing epic poetry, I should not have 
selected mythologicalsubjects for my theme, 
but the exploits of Cesar, and your con- 
nexion with them.’—heroas manus, ¢. 6. 
heroum copias, which the poet himself is 
said ducere in arma by singing of their 
achievements. A similar figure occurs in 
Horace, Od. 11. 1, 17. 

18.1 Heroas manus, for heroicas, like 
heroas sensus afferre, Persius i, 69. Cf. i. 
6, 29, ‘non ego sum laudi, non natus 
idoneus armis.’ 

20.] The MSS. vary between tmpositum 
and impositam. Lachmann alone has pre- 
ferred the latter, which, being the more 
obvious construction, is probably due to 
a correction. Understand Ossam morcem, 
as Ossa is feminine in Ovid, Am. 11. 1, 14, 
quoted by Lachmann. 

22.] There is truth in Hertzberg’s re- 
mark, that dina coisse vada cannot possibly 
signify the union of two continents by a 
bridge over the Hellespont, since vada 
would here stand for litora, which is ab- 
surd. He understands it therefore of the 
canal said to have been cut through Athos, 
Herod. vii. 21, quoting Juyen. x. 173, ‘cre- 
ditur olim velificatus Athos.’ Lachmann, 
objecting to the form of genitive Xerzis, 
reads Xerxive imperio. 

24.] Benefacta Mari, τὰ καλῶς πεπραγ- 
μένα, the victory of Marius over the Cimbri, 
and his other military and political achieve- 
ments. Similarly Tac. Amn, iii. 40, ‘ma- 

jorum bona facta.’ 

27.] Civilia busta, ubi sepulti jacent tot 
ciyes. Compare ‘ patric sepulera’ i. 22, 3, 



Aut canerem Sicule classica bella fuge, 
Eversosque focos antique gentis Etrusce, 

Aut Ptolemzei litora capta Phari, 


Aut canerem Cyprum et Nilum, cum tractus in urbem 
Septem captivis debilis ibat aquis, 

Aut regum auratis circumdata colla catenis, 
Actiaque in Sacra currere rostra Via; 

Te mea Musa illis semper contexeret armis, 

Et sumpta et posita pace fidele caput. 
Theseus infernis, superis testatur Achilles, 


—-classica bella, 7.e. navalia. He alludes 
to the defeat of Pompey by Octavian off 
the coast of Sicily, a.v.c. 718. Hor. Epod. 
ix. 7, ‘ut nuper, actus cum freto Nep- 
tunius dux fugit ustis navibus,’ &c. An 
event at which it would seem from Epod. 
i. 1—4, that Mecenas was present. 

29.] Focos Etrusce gentis. The siege 
of Perusia. See on i. 21—2. 

30.] Hertzberg is probably right in 
reading Ptolemeei, on the analogy of 
‘Ounpetos from Ὅμηρος, Πτολεμαίειος from 
Πτολεμαῖος. Jacob gives Ptolemaée, Lach- 
mann Ptolemeée, Miller Ptolomeei. Com- 
pare Menelaeus, 111. 6,14. The MSS. agree 
in the masculine form, in defence of which 
Hertzberg quotes Alexandrini Phari from 
Suet. Claud. 20. The capture of Alex- 
andria by Augustus is the historical event 
alluded to. See Hor. Od. iv. 14, 35. 

31.] Cyprum is the reading of Hertz- 
berg from MS.Gron. Kuinoel and Jacob 
give gyptum from the ed. Rheg. The 
Naples MS. has cyptum, which is about 
equally in favour of both. ‘Cyprum inter 
titulos triumphi referri ne mireris: hance 
provinciam Antonius Cleopatre gratificatus 
regno Aigyptiaco addiderat, non sine max- 
ima sui inyidia. Testes Plutarch. Anton. 
86, 54. Strabo xiv. 6, extr.—Hertzierg. 
Miiller approves of Baehrens’ correction 
Coptum, citing ‘Mareotica Coptos’ from 
Statius, Zh. i. 264. Lachmann reads aut 
canere inciperem et Nilum. The metaphor 
of the Nile enchained, and dragged to 
Rome as a captive with its seven mouths, 
is a happy one, expressive of Egypt being 
reduced to a Roman province by Augustus. 
Compare Ovid, Fast. i. 286, ‘ Tradiderat 
famulas jam tibi Rhenus aquas.’ 

33.] ‘Reges, ante currum triumphalem 
ducti—intelliguntur qui Antonio Bruto 
Sexto Pompeio et aliis Augusti hostibus 

faverant.’—Kuinoel. For aut (in 38) 
Lachmann reads ef, observing that 31—4 
describe the details of the triumph, the 
former verses the events preceding it. But 
the poet may well be supposed to have se- 
lected some special characteristic of the 
procession, and dwelt on that in particular. 

34.] The prows or rather the beaks of 
ships destroyed in the battle of Actium 
seem to have been carried in the triumphal 
procession along the Via Sacra to the 

35.] In celebrating the above exploits 
the poet declares that his Muse should ἴῃς 
weave the name of Mecenas, as having 
taken an active part in them: but whether 
merely by his counsels, or by having been 
personally present in some of the engage- 
ments, as Kuinoel thinks, it is not easy to 
decide, in the absence of direct historical 

37.] Having alluded to the fidelity of 
Mecenas to his friend and patron Augustus 
the poet passes by a somewhat abrupt 
transition to illustrate it by the example of 
Theseus and Pirithous, Achilles and Pa- 
troclus. We must therefore simply supply 
sic before testatur, the sense being, ‘So 
Theseus makes Pirithous a witness to his 
friendship among the shades below, and 
Achilles makes Patroclus among those on 
earth,’ (or, the gods above). It is probable 
that this distich was addedas an afterthought 
by way of compliment to Mecenas, and that 
it was intended to illustrate the double re- 
lation of the friend to the patron, et sumpta 
et posita pace, by instances of fidelity apud 
infernos et superos ; a clumsy and pointless 
comparison, it must be admitted. In the 
short verse, it will be observed that the 
usual rule in the use of hic and ille is 
violated from the necessity of the metre. 
See ili, 13, 33; iv. 14, 18. 


Hic Ixioniden; ille Mencetiaden. 
Sed neque Phlegreos Jovis Enceladique tumultus 

Intonet angusto pectore Callimachus ; 


Nec mea conveniunt duro preecordia versu 
Cresaris in Phrygios condere nomen avos. 

Navita de ventis, de tauris narrat arator, 
Enumerat miles vulnera, pastor oves ; 

Nos contra angusto versantis prcelia lecto: 


Qua pote quisque, in ea conterat arte diem. 
Laus in amore mori; laus altera, si datur uno 

Posse frui. 

Fruar o solus amore meo! 

Si memini, solet illa leves culpare puellas, 

Et totam ex Helena non probat Iliada. 


Seu mihi sint tangenda noverce pocula Phadre, 
Pocula privigno non nocitura suo, 

Seu mihi Cirezeo pereundum est gramine, sive 

39.] ‘But, as Callimachus, whom I pro- 
pose to myself as a model, would not have 
lungs enough (so to say) to thunder forth 
the battle of the giants, so neither have 
I the genius to treat of Julius a magno de- 
missum nomen Iulo” (Virg. Ain. i. 288).— 
‘Nomen condere in avos est, Caesaris nomen 
ad Trojanorum gentem transferre, et cele- 
brare inde a prima gentis origine.’ Hwinoel. 
—‘Celebrando Augusti nomen usque in 
Phrygios avos carmine ascendere,’ Hertz- 
berg: i.e. to trace it back till lost in the 
dim obscure of antiquity. — duro versu 
(dative) is opposed to mol/i, epic contrasted 
with elegiac, as has been pointed out on 
i.9,13. The ordinary construction would 
be convenit precordiis versu condere ἕο. 

45.] angusto, opposed to the latus campus 
of real warfare.—versantis, amatoris preelia 
versantis se in lecto &e. This is Muller’s 
reading and explanation for versantes. The 
construction, according to Hertzberg, is, 
nos contra (narramus) versantes &c., the 
accusative versantes depending on a verb 
implied in enumerat, v.44. This, though 
rather harsh, is better than cutting the 
knot by reading versamus with Pucci and 
Kuinoel.— Qua pote. See on iv. 7, 10. 

47.] In this verse the poet anticipates 
an objection which he feels will be raised 
against his profession of an amatory poet, 
and maintains that there is credit in an 
attachment which, like his own, is constant 

to one object. For uno Hertzberg reads 
uni, and explains the sense thus: ‘ Pul- 
chrum est, in amore mori, pulchrum hoc 
quoque, si contingat ut emulis remotis 
unus fruaris amore; quod ut mihi con- 
tingat non modo opto, sed futurum esse 
etiam spero.’ This is not improbable; but 
I cannot enter into his elaborate objections 
to uno, the sense being sufficiently simple, 
‘it is likewise a credit, if a man is privi- 
leged to have one and not more than one 
love.’ It is something to boast of, that is, 
to keep the object of your affection exclu- 
sively to yourself. And he proceeds in 
y. 49 to extol Cynthia’s fidelity to him. ἢ 

50.] Ex Helena, δι᾽ Ἑλένην. She does 
not approve of the whole of the Iliad, in 
consequence of Helen’s character as therein 

51—6.] ‘Ne efficacissimis quidem vene- 
ficarum potationibus adigar ut dominam 
prodam. Moriar potius, dum ultra vires 
resisto, quam seduci me patiar. Nam 
contra amorem Venere irata pertinaciter 
obnitentibus mortem certam futuram omnis 
antiquitas credidit.’— Hertzberg. 

52.] Privigno, her step-son Hippolytus. 
The story here alluded to may have been 
given in the original play of Euripides, 
that which we now have being a second 
and altered edition, Ἱππόλυτος Στεφανη- 


Colchis Iolciacis urat aéna focis: 
Una meos quoniam predata est femina sensus, 



Ex hac ducentur funera nostra domo. 
Omnes humanos sanat medicina dolores: 
Solus amor morbi non amat artificem. 
Tarda Philoctetz sanavit crura Machaon, 

Pheenicis Chiron lumina Phillyrides ; 


Et deus extinctum Cressis Epidaurius herbis 
Restituit patriis Androgeona focis; 

Mysus et Hemonia juvenis qua cuspide volnus 
Senserat, hac ipsa cuspide sensit opem. 

Hoe si quis vitium poterit mihi demere, solus 

Tantaleze poterit tradere poma manu. 
Dolia virgineis idem ille repleverit urnis, 

Ne tenera assidua colla graventur aqua. 
Idem Caucasia solvet de rupe Promethei 

Brachia, et a medio pectore pellet avem. 


Quandocumque igitur vitam mea fata reposcent, 
Et breve in exiguo marmore nomen ero, 
Mecenas, nostre pars invidiosa juvente, 

54.] The MSS. reading Colchiacis ap- 
pears to me so intolerable, that I have 
here followed Lachmann in admitting Sca- 
liger’s correction.—wurat aena, ὦ. e. subjecto 
igne calefaciat, ad me recoquendum et re- 
novandum.— Barth. So ‘urit officinas’ 
Hor. Od. i. 4, 8. 

56.] “ hae domo. Latet, quod nemo 
sensit, ‘in hujus amplexu moriar.’’ — 

57—62.] The general sense is, ‘ All 
maladies may be cured but love.’ For 
the particular instances adduced, see Ovid, 
Met. xiii. 329; viii. 307. Deus Epidaurius 
in Aisculapius, who restored Androgeos, 
son of Minos king of Crete, to life, with 
some others, for which he was punished 
by Jupiter. See on sch. Agam. 992. 
Propertius is the only writer who records 
this legend of Androgeos. 

63.] Mysus juvenis, Telephus, who was 
wounded by Achilles, and afterwards cured 
by the rust from his brazen spear, accord- 
ing to Pliny, V.H. xxv. 5, quoted by 

soak Hoe vitium, this weakness, νόσος, 
viz. the love of women. 

66.] The MSS. have Zantalea, which 
both Jacob and Hertzberg retain, though 

the latter strongly approves the conjecture 
of Beroaldus, Yantalee; and this Barth, 
Lachmann, and Kuinoel have admitted. 
The error naturally arose from the copyists 
misunderstanding the contracted form of 
the dative manu: see oni. 11,12. Never- 
theless, the frequent use which Propertius 
makes of the ablative under the most un- 
usual conditions renders it possible that 
the vulgate may be right, and may signify 
ita tradere ut ponantur in manu. Compare 
‘cum temere anguino creditur ore manus,’ 
y. 8,10. The sense in either case is clear: 
‘he who can cure me of love, can also put 
the apples in the hand of Tantalus, and 
fill the leaking tubs of the Danaids with 
their urns.’ assidua aqua, ‘by the water- 
pots always resting on them,’ to fill the 
dolium, or large earthenware jars, by water 
carried to it in the wrnz. For urns Miiller 
gives umbris after Baehrens. What he 
says of the vulgate, that it is ineptam, 
might surely be retorted on the emendation. 
—ne, i.e. ut non, ὥστε μὴ βαρύνεσθαι. 

71.] Reposcent, shall demand back the 
span of life they gave me to enjoy for a 

73.] Hertzberg, Jacob, and Miiller read 
pars invidiosa with the MS. Groning. Kui- 



Et vite et morti gloria justa mee, 

Si te forte meo ducet via proxima busto, 


Esseda celatis siste Britanna jugis, 
Taliaque illacrimans mute jace verba faville: 

Huiec misero fatum dura 

puella fuit. 


Liber eram, et vacuo meditabar vivere lecto; 
At me composita pace fefellit Amor. 
Cur hee in terris facies humana moratur ? 
Juppiter, ignoro pristina furta tua. 
Fulva coma est, longeeque manus, et maxima toto 5 

noel, Lachmann, and Keil give spes from 
the Naples MS. and the ed Rheg. I 
think Hertzberg gives a satisfactory ex- 
planation: ‘ xostra juventa erit Romana ;—- 
pars autem invidiosa juvente Romane, in- 
vidia dignus juvenis Romanus Mecenas 
dicitur, ut pars militig, pars imperii.’ (i. 
21, 4; 2. 6, 34). The use of envidiosus in 
a good sense may be illustrated by Asch. 
Ag. 912, ὃ δ᾽ ἀφθόνητός γ᾽ οὐκ ἐπίζηλος 
πέλει. Allusion is at the same time in- 
tended to the Equites, who were distinct- 
ively called juvenes, and to whom Mzcenas 
prided himself in belonging. Compare iv. 
9, 1, ‘Mecenas, eques Etrusco de sanguine 
regum.’ Hor. Od. iii. 16, 20, ‘ Mecenas, 
Equitum decus.’ 

76.] Esseda Britanna, for Britannica, 
as Liburna for Liburnica, iv. 11, 44. Jeno 
Pelasga iii. 20,11. Inda for Indica, iv. 13, 
5. esseda were properly the Celtic war- 
chariots, which were introduced at Rome 
for the purposes of travelling,—with certain 
modifications from their barbarous form, 
we are bound to suppose. Kuinoel refers 
to Cesar, Bell. Gall. iv. 24. Sueton. Calig. 
51. Virg. Georg. iii. 204. 

II. This short but elegant elegy de- 
scribes in glowing terms his admiration of 
Cynthia’s beauty, and is a kind of apology 
for his having become so deeply enamoured 
of her, in violation of a solemn resolution 
to leave her. 

1.] Querebam, Kuinoel, which has no 
MS. authority, and is supposed by Lach- 
mann to have arisen from an oversight on 
the part of Scaliger. It is not nearly so 
elegant as meditabar.—composita pace is 
explained by Kuinoel jicta, simudata, as 

componis insidias iii. 24, 19; componere 
fraudes ii. 9, 31. But Lachmann (Pref. 
p- xxv.) understands ‘pacem integrato 
amore cum Cynthia factam,’ quoting from 
Livy ii. 13, ‘his conditionibus composita 
pace,’ and in. vii. 339, ‘Disjice com- 
positam pacem.’ Thus the sense seems 
rather to be, ‘I vainly flattered myself, 
that having made a truce with love, I 
should live for the future unmolested by 
him. Compare v. i. 138, ‘Et Veneris 
pueris utilis hostis eris.’ The peace is that 
made with Love, not that with Cynthia, as 
Lachmann thought. From ii. 3, 3, it seems 
that his resolution to live apart only lasted 
a month. 

3.] ‘Why does so fair a form still 
linger on earth? I think nothing of 
those famous charms with which you made 
free, O Jupiter, when I compare them with 
Cynthia.’ Jgnoro approaches closely to 
the English use; ‘I ignore them;’ i.e. I 
do not take any account of them, ἐκφαυλί- 
(ouat.—ignosco, which is written above the 
word in the Naples MS., not only changes 
the sense materially but absolutely requires 
another construction. The meaning is, if 
Jupiter were really as amorous as he is re- 
presented in the legends, he certainly would 
have carried Cynthia up to the sky. We 
might, however, suggest either ignora or 
ignoras, ‘you disown them,’ will not admit 
their reality, now that so much more 
beautiful a woman lives on earth. 

5.] Longe manus, ‘taper hands.” <A 
well-shaped hand is a part of a portrait 
which is especially regarded; and it is 
well known how proud the possessors of 
such a feature are wont to be. Cf. iii. 8, 
23.—Jove digna soror, a brief expression 


Corpore, et incedit vel Jove digna soror, 
Aut cum Dulichias Pallas spatiatur ad aras, 

Gorgonis auguifere pectus operta comis. 
Qualis et Ischomache, Lapithe genus, heroine, 

Centauris medio grata rapina mero, 

Mercurio et Sais fertur Beebeidos undis 
Virgineum primo composuisse latus. 

Cedite jam, dive, quas pastor viderat olim 
Idzis tunicas ponere verticibus. 

Hane utinam faciem nolit mutare senectus, 

Etsi Cumz secula vatis aget. 

for gue sit Jovis soror ; ‘worthy of Jove 
as his sister.’—incedit, cf. Virg. AZn. i. 45. 
Fulva coma est. The light flaxen hair of 
the Teutonic type, so common in those of 
Saxon descent in our country, but so rare 
among the black-haired and olive-complex- 
ioned natives of the south of Europe, was 
greatly admired by both Greeks and Ro- 
mans. The former called it ξανθὴ, a word 
difficult to disconnect with fafvw, on the 
analogy of our word flaxen. οὔλη κόμη 
was crisp, woolly hair, as opposed to hair 
which could be plaited or woven from its 
soft and pliant nature, and the word ξανθὴ 
may have passed into the secondary signi- 
fication of the colour of such hair. 

7.] The epithet Dulichias appears to 
refer to some cultus of Pallas in the island 
of Dulichium (one of the Echinades), of 
which no account has come down to us. 
As this goddess was the especial patroness 
of Ulysses, in whose dominions the island 
lay, (see iii. 5, 4), it seems rash to alter the 
word to Munychias, as Kuinoel has done 
with some of the corrected copies. The 
next line describes the xgis: see on v. 9, 
58. For aut eum Hertzberg and others 
suggest ut cum, with great probability. 
But the idea in the poet’s mind may have 
been ‘ Cynthia is as fair as Juno or Pallas.’ 

9.] I quite agree with Hertzberg, that 
the common reading, Lapithe genus heroine, 
cannot be defended. As the good copies 
agree in heroine, it seems better to consider 
it as the Greek form of the nominative. 
Lapithe is the genitive singular of Lapi- 
thes, the hero or eponym of the Lapithe. 
Ischomache (called also Hippodamia) was 
the wife of Peirithous, king of the Lapi- 
the ; and it was at her nuptials, and in 
consequence of her being carried off by a 
Centaur, that the battle between the Cen- 

taurs and the Lapithe arose. See inf. ii, 

6, 18. 

11.] The Naples and Groning. MSS. 
have Mercurio satis. Lachmann, Kuinoel, 
and Keil edit sanctis from an interpoiated 
copy; Jacob Saitis, from his own conjec- 
ture: Hertzberg with Pucci, Mercurio et 
Sais.  Miiller, with Aldus, Mercuriogue 
&e. For primo in the pentameter Lach- 
mann and Kuinoel, followed by Keil and 
Miiller, give Brimo (Βριμὼ) a name of 
Proserpine, who is said to have been as- 
saulted by Mercury near the Boebian lake 
in Thessaly ; for which legend reference is 
given to several grammarians in Kuinoel’s 
note. The correction, which is Turnebe’s, 
is exceedingly ingenious and probable. On 
the other hand, Minerva is called dis 
κατὰ τὴν Αἰγυπτίων φωνὴν in Pausanias, 
ix. 12, 2, (the reference in Hertzberg’s 
note to the Schol. on Aisch. Sept. c. Thed. 
169 is a mistake), and all accounts repre- 
sent Proserpine not only as having success- 
fully resisted the advances of Mercury, but 
even as having derived her name Brimo 
from the terrible fury she displayed on 
this very occasion. But Jacob and Hertz- 
berg incline to the opinion that the Egypt- 
ian Minerva was essentially the same in 
her attributes as Proserpine, and that Pro- 
pertius has followed (as in so many other 
instances) a somewhat different legend from 
any which is known to us. A verse of 
Hesiod preserved by Strabo, ix. 5, is be- 
lieved to refer to this legend, νίψατο 
Βοιβιάδος λίμνης πόδα παρθένος ἀδμής. 

16.] Δὲ sic Kuinoel, contrary to the 
good copies, and with great detriment to 
the sense, which is obvious: ‘may her 
beauty never be spoiled by age, though 
she live as long as the Sibyl.’ 



Qui nullam tibi dicebas jam posse nocere, 
Hesisti: cecidit spiritus ille tuus. 

Vix unum potes, infelix, requiescere mensem, 
Et turpis de te jam liber alter erit. 

Quzrebam, sicca si posset piscis arena, 5 
Nec solitus ponto vivere torvus aper, 

Aut ego si possem studiis vigilare severis: 
Differtur, numquam tollitur ullus amor. 

Nec me tam facies, quamvis sit candida, cepit,— 
Lilia non domina sint magis alba mea: 

Ut Meotica nix minio si certet Hibero, 

Utque rose puro lacte natant folia; 
Nec de more come per levia colla fluentes, 
Non oculi, geminz, sidera nostra, faces ; 
Nee si qua Arabio lucet bombyce puella— 

Non sum de nihilo blandus amator ego,— 
Quantum quod posito formose saltat Iaccho, 


Egit ut euantes dux Ariadna choros, 

III. The subject is much the same as 
the last. The poet admits, while he alleges 
the reasons of, his complete enslavement to 
his mistress. 

1.1 The MSS. have ned/um, which Jacob 
alone retains, while he assents to the cor- 
rection of Heinsius, xelam. The poet ad- 
dresses himself: ‘ This then, is the end of 
all your boasting and fastus’ (i. 1, 3). 

4.] Liber alter. The first book was 
therefore already published, and only a 
month before the commencement of the 
second.—de te, viz. as containing a con- 
fession and exposure of your frailties. 

5.] Querebam, ete, ‘In this resolve’ 
(see v. 1 of the preceding) ‘I was in fact 
expecting the impossibility of an animal 
living out of its own element.’ On nec 
solitus see 111. 20, 52. 

7—8.] ‘Or whether I myself could give 
my attention to severe studies: (but alas! 
in vain:) love may be put off for a time, 
but is never entirely removed.’ Here ego 
is emphatic, as in contrast with péscis and 

9.1 cepit, cf.i.1, 1. 

11.] Minio Hibero, ‘vyermilion from 
Spain,’ ὦ, 6. cinnabar, or ore of Mercury. 
K. refers to Pliny N.H. 33,7. The μίλτος 

of Homer proves its use as a colouring 
matter from very early times. 

12.] The elegant comparison of rose- 
leaves in milk with the delicate contrasts 
of colour in a youthful face occurs also in 
ZEn. xii. 68, ‘aut mixta rubent ubi lilia 
multa alba rosa.’ (K.) 

15.] ‘Si qua, i.e. si forte vel quando- 
cunque. Jacob; which Hertzberg ap- 
proves of, comparing 4m. i. 18, ‘Si qua — 
fata sinant.’ He might have added ib. vi. 
883, ‘si qua fata aspera rumpas,’ ἤν πως. 
But I think sigua is for δὲ aliqua, and that 
the meaning is this: ‘nor is it from the 
mere accident of a girl dressing in silk: I 
am not a man to become a devoted lover 
on such trifling grounds.’ So iii. 4, 10, 
‘Nec siqua illustres femina jactat avos.’— 
blandus amator, i.e. qui blanditias adhibet, 
qui captare studet. Jacob draws a refined 
distinction between ‘ guia pulcra est et guod 
saltat,’ and ‘si forte et quum ; the causal 
and the conditional. On the silk dresses 
of the Roman ladies see oni. 2,2. Becker, 
Gallus, p. 442 &e. 

17.] From this verse (and inf. 33) the 
true character of Cynthia (¢.e, as a mere- 
trix) is sufficiently apparent. For her 
polite accomplishments see i. 2, 27. 



Et quantum, Aolio cum tentat carmina plectro, 
Par Aganippez ludere docta lyre, 20 
Et sua cum antique committit scripta Corinne, 
Carminaque Erinnes non putat equa suis. 
Num tibi nascenti primis, mea vita, diebus 
Candidus argutum sternuit omen Amor ? 

Hee tibi contulerunt cxlestia munera divi; 

Hee tibi ne matrem forte dedisse putes. 
Non, non humani sunt partus talia dona ; 

Ista decem menses non peperere bona. 
Gloria Romanis una es tu nata puellis; 

Romana accumbes prima puella Jovi. 


Nec semper nobiscum humana cubilia vises; 
Post Helenam hee terris forma secunda redit. 

Hac ego nunc mirer si flagrat nostra juventus ? 
Pulchrius hac fuerat, Troja, perire tibi. 

Olim mirabar, quod tanti ad Pergama belli 

19.] For £olio Miiller 

20.] <Aganippee lyre, the Muses.—par 
appears to be the nominative. 

21.] £t cum, ‘and when &c.” Hertz- 
berg rightly observes that Corinne is the 
dative, being used for seriptis Corinne by 
a well-known idiom. Otherwise the con- 
struction might have been cum (scriptis) 
Corinne, σὺν τοῖς τῆς &c., but that the 
poet would have written Corinnes, as Hertz- 
berg remarks. Compare ii. 8, 23, ‘Et sua 
cum miserz permiscuit ossa puelle.’ 

22.] The MSS. generally have carmina 
que quivis (evidently a correction), or gue 
lyrnes. The latter (in MS. Gron.) retains 
a vestige of the true reading, which was 
restored by Beroaldus.— Corinna was a 
Beeotian poetess, contemporary with Pindar. 
Erinna lived still earlier (about B.c. 600). 
Both composed in the Aolic dialect, whence 
Holio plectro, v.19. There can be no 
doubt that in the Augustan age the ancient 
lyric poetry of Greece was extant, and ex- 
tensively read and imitated.—The senti- 
ment, perhaps, is not intended to be so 
boastful as it appears at first sight: ‘she 
vies with the poetesses of old’ is what the 
poet wished to express. There is an hy- 
perbole however in either case. 

24.) The MSS, have arduus or ardidus. 
Kuinoel gives aureus from Heinsius. Jacob 
and Lachmann candidus, which, being pre- 



served by Macrobius, who quotes this verse 
(though with the error of auguste for ar- 
gutum), seems evidently the true reading, 
especially as the accidental omission or ob- 
literation of the initial C would account for 
the reading ardidus. Hertzberg’s usual 
good judgment fails him here, when he 
says there is no reason why we should re- 
ject ardidus, (which he gives in the text), 
since it may have been formed from ardeo 
after the analogy of timidus, tumidus, fer- 
vidus, &e. The appeal to what may have 
been is always unsafe in a critic, who has 
only to deal with what is, in the state in 
which a language exists as known to him, 
The omen of sneezing was considered lucky 
even from the time of Homer (0d. xvii. 
541), and a similar passage to the present 
is quoted from Theocr, vii. 96, Σιμιχίδᾳ 
μὲν Ἔρωτες ἐπέπταρον. 

26.] Forte (ἱ. ὁ. fortuito) dedisse are to 
be connected, though ne forte putes is de- 
fensible if we suppose an ellipse, as (‘which 
I say) lest’? &c. On the rhyme in the 
following distich see i. 17, 5. 

30.] The MSS. have accumbens. With 
some probability Lachmann and Jacob pro- 
pose to change the order of these lines, so 
that nec semper &e. should be followed by 
Romana aceumbes &e. 

33.] Flagrat Keil and Miiller for fagret. 
—hac, sc. quam Helena, ἢ, 6, propter 



Europe atque Asiz causa puella fuit: 
Nunc, Pari, tu sapiens, et tu, Menelae, fuisti, 
Tu, quia poscebas, tu, quia lentus eras. 
Digna quidem facies, pro qua vel obiret Achilles; 

Vel Priamo belli causa probanda fuit. 


Si quis vult fama tabulas anteire vetustas, 
Hic dominam exemplo ponat in arte meam: 

Sive illam Hesperiis, sive Ulam ostendet Kois, 
Uret et Koos, uret et Hesperios. 

His saltem ut tenear jam finibus; at mihi siquis, 

38.] Lentus, sc. in reddendo quam in- 
juria rapuisti. This is a clever distich. 

39.] ‘Beauty (in the abstract) I now 
feel to have been worth dying for, even if 
it cost the life of an Achilles; nay, it was 
deserving of approval (probari debebat) as 
a motive for war even by the aged Priam.’ 
Lachmann reads foret withthe MS. Groning. 
But this would imply the awkward ellipse 
of vel (que) foret, &c., the subjunctive 
depending on digna. The same MS. has 
Priamus. The verse has evidently been 
tampered with. Allusion is made to that 
fine scene, JJ, iii. 154. 

42.] ‘Let that man portray my mis- 
tress.’—ponere in arte is so natural and 
correct an expression, that it seems sur- 
prising how Jacob and Lachmann should 
have preferred i” ante, the reading of the 
Naples and Groning. MSS. Of the con- 
fusion between ἢ and + we have had an 
instance in ardidus for (c)andidus sup. v. 
24. Lachmann says, ‘ante verissimum 
est :—id est, ante quam alias tabulas ponat, 
pro exemplo pingat dominam nostram.’ 
Truly, a most meagre sentiment.—exemplo, 
as an original to copy. 

43.] ‘Omnes quicunque Cynthia imag- 
inem viderint, sive sint Hoi, sive Hesperii, 
eam deperibunt.’—Auinoel. ‘If the artist 
shall but exhibit the portrait of Cynthia to 
the nations of the east or the west, they 
will all be enamoured of her beauty.’ 
Lachmann has a long note on this passage, 
of more curious learning than of practical 
utility, in which he collects from the best 
poets many examples of words repeated 
with a change of the ictus, as in the present 
instance, ‘sive illam Hesperiis, sive illam 
ostendet Kois.’ 

45.] With this verse Keil and Miiller 
with Jacob and Lachmann commence a 
new elegy, and print it in continuation 
with the next, contrary to the authority 


of the MSS. Lachmann writes at great 
length, but by no means convincingly, in 
favour of his new arrangement. ‘Cum 
neque illi decem versus’ (he says) ‘ His 
sallem etc. prioribus commode conjungi 
queant, et hi versus Multa prius ete. in 
carminis principio positi difficiles intellectus 
habeant, quid probabilius est quam illos 
decem versus ad hoe posterius carmen per- 
tinere?’ But, if the sentiment here enun- 
ciated seems abrupt, is it not still more 
so at the beginning of another poem? 
Hertzberg appears to judge more correctly 
in the following words (Qwest. Lib. ii. cap. 
v. p. 86), ‘Non raro poematia diversi illa 
quidem argumenti, sed quae una eademque 
occasione nata exiguo temporis spatio inter- 
jecto scripta aut essent aut fingerentur, ab 
ipso poeta ita sunt conjuncta, ut, quomodo 
ab artificibus plures seepe statuas in unum 
argumentum compositas esse videmus, sic 
in unius quodammodo corporis membra 
coirent.’ He therefore places a mark of 
separation in this and other instances, to 
show the addition of an afterthought, or 
rather a postscript, to the poem as origin- 
ally completed. The idea in the poet’s 
mind seems to have been this: Cynthia’s 
charms are such, that my former vows to 
live vacuo lecto were not broken without 
some excuse. My object now is to keep 
within the limits of this one new affection; 
for, since I experience such pangs in this, 
what should I suffer were another and still 
more ardent passion to possess ΠῚ δ᾽ For 
aut mihi st quis Lachmann and Keil give 
hei mihi, si quis, Miller δὲ mihi, Hertzberg 
ah mihi, si quis &c. I have some confi- 
dence in restoring at mihi si quis, which, 
like the Greek ἀλλ᾽ ei, ‘but what if,’ 
furnishes the exact sense required. Com- 
pare Ovid, Fast. ii. 399, ‘at si quis vestree 
deus esset originis auctor,’ if some fastidi- 
ous critic should require an example of the 



Acrius ut moriar, venerit alter amor! 
Ac veluti primo taurus detrectat aratra, 

Post venit assueto mollis ad arva jugo, 
Sic primo juvenes trepidant in amore feroces, 

Dehinc domiti post hac equa et imiqua ferunt. 


Turpia perpessus vates est vincla Melampus, 
Cognitus Iphicli subripuisse boves ; 

Quem non lucra, magis Pero formosa coegit, 
Mox Amythaonia nupta futura domo. 


Multa prius dominz delicta queraris oportet, 
Sepe roges aliquid, seepe repulsus eas, 

Et spe immeritos corrumpas dentibus ungues, 
Et crepitum dubio suscitet ira pede. 

Nequicquam perfusa meis unguenta capillis, 


Ibat et expenso planta morata gradu. 
Non hie herba valet, non hie nocturna Cyteis, 

concurrence of these words. At the same 
time I am aware that at is not commonly 
used in interrogative sentences, and there- 
fore it seems best to regard it as inter- 
jectional.—acrius ut moriar, like peream, 
must be understood metaphorically, of the 
distresses of love; as indeed acriter mort 
would have no meaning taken literally. 

50.) Ferunt, se. que 510] imperat domina. 

51.] Melampus, son of Amythaon and 
brother of Bias, according to the common 
legend, undertook to drive the herd of 
Iphiclus for Neleus, the father of the fair 
Pero, that Bias might possess her as a 
wife. See Theocr.iii.43; Hom. Od.xi. 290, 
xy. 225. Melampus however was caught 
in the attempt, and imprisoned for a time 
by Iphiclus. Being a seer, προεῖπεν ὅτι 
φωραθήσεται, καὶ δεθεὶς ἐνιαυτὸν, οὕτω τὰς 
βοῦς λήψεται, Apollodor.i.9, 12. But, as 
Hertzberg remarks, our poet clearly re- 
presents Melampus himself to have been 
enamoured of Pero; otherwise there would 
be no point whatever in the illustration. 
The context shows, that Melampus had re- 
fused the offer of bribes, but yielded through 
love of Pero, though destined to be his 
brother's bride. 

IV. Under the form of counsel and 
warning to a friend, the poet describes his 

own experience in love. He appears to 
have written this elegy when smarting 
under some provocation or disappointment. 

1—4.] ‘You will have to complain of 
many wrongs and many refusals; you 
will give way to much ill-temper and im- 
patience, before the course of love becomes 
smooth for you.’—immeritos, you will gnaw 
the nails which deserved no such ven- 
geance; cf. v. 3,19, and 7b. 4, 23.—crepitum 
suscitet (oportet), the creaking of the shoe 
from hasty and irresolute steps seems in- 
tended. Others explain it of the noise 
made by stamping on the ground. The 
latter is the more natural action, the former 
the more correct meaning of the word. 
Crepare however is used even of the notes 
of a pipe, v. 7, 25. «nerepare of the sharp 
ringing sound of a bow, ib. 3, 66, fragor 
increpat, Ain. viii. 527. 

5.] ‘I found it of no avail to perfume 
my hair and to walk with slow and meas- 
ured step,’ ἁβρὸν βαίνειν, 1. e. in attempt- 
ing to win the favour of Cynthia. The 
commentators compare the Greek expres- 
sion μετὰ ῥύθμου βαίνειν. 

7—14.] ‘Nor can love be treated as an 
ordinary malady, and cured by diet or 
drugs,’ (as some think φίλτρα will cure it). 
—Cyte@is, i.e. Medea: see on i. 1, 24.— 
nocturna, because spells were practised at 



Non Perimedee gramina cocta manus. 
Quippe ubi nec causas nec apertos cernimus ictus, 

Unde tamen veniant tot mala, ceca via est. 


Non eget hic medicis, non lectis mollibus eger ; 
Huic nullum celi tempus et aura nocet. 
Ambulat, et subito mirantur funus amici: 
Sic est incautum, quicquid habetur amor. 

Nam cui non ego sum fallaci preemia vati ? 


Quze mea non decies somnia versat anus ? 
Hostis si quis erit nobis, amet ille puellas; 
Gaudeat in puero, si quis amicus erit. 

Tranquillo tuta descendis flumine cymba : 

Quid tibi tam parvi litoris unda nocet ? 


Alter sepe uno mutat pracordia verbo, 
Altera vix ipso sanguine mollis erit. 

night, by the aid of Hecate and in presence 
of the moon. Perimede was a celebrated 
enchantress, mentioned in connexion with 
Medea by Theocritus ii. 16. Apollodorus 
(i. 7, 3) records the name of Perimede 
daughter of Molus king of Thessaly, who 
is perhaps the same, that country being 
renowned for witches. —The MSS. give 
per Medee, which Beroaldus corrected from 
alate MS. Lachmann and Hertzberg ex- 
plain manus by turbe2,—i.e. venefice in 
general; in which opinion I cannot follow 
them. Why should not ‘herbs distilled 
(cocta) by the hand of Perimede’ be allowed 
to signify philtres made after her recipe? 

10.] Zamen. The sense is, ‘ For, where 
we cannot see the cause of the malady, 
the course of all these evils (which never- 
theless do spring from some source) is un- 
certain, and their treatment empirical.’ 
Hertzberg well compares v. 5 of the next 
elegy, and Ovid, Fast. i. 495, ‘Nec fera 
tempestas toto tamen horret in anno,’ 
though he has added other passages which 
are not to the point. 

11.] ‘It is no bodily affection; neither 
the season nor malaria has hurt him: he 
walks about in apparent health, and—drops 
down dead.’ He means to express the 
perplexing nature of the malady of love, 
by comparing it with some obscure ailment 
(as disease of the heart) in which nothing 

does the patient any good, and by which 
he is suddenly carried off without, as it 
were, being actually ill. 

14.] Ineautum, ἀφύλακτον, 1.6. non 
precavendum,. — guicguid habetur amor, 
quicquid illud est quod dicitur amare, ‘ the 
thing men call Love.’ So Ovid, Her. xi. 
32, ‘Nec noram quid amans esset; at illud 
eram.’ Eur. Hippol. τί τοῦθ᾽, ὅ δὴ λέγου- 
σιν ἀνθρώπους ἐρᾶν; 

15.] ‘How many seers and beldames 
have I not paid to interpret my dreams 
and tell me my fortune? Theocr. ii. 90, 
καὶ ἐς τίνος οὐκ ἐπέρησα; ἢ ποίας ἔλιπον 
γραίας δόμον, ἅτις ἐπᾷδεν ; 

18.] Jn puero, in amasio. So vy. 8, 63, 
‘Cynthia gaudet in exuviis victrixque re- 
currit.’ ‘My worst wish to an enemy is 
that he may be captivated by women; to 
a friend I would say, fix your regard upon 
a youth, where (inf. 19—22) the course of 
affection is smooth, and safe from rocks 
and shoals. The one is mollified by a 
word; the other is scarcely appeased by 
your very life-blood.’ On in puero see on 
1.138, 7, v. 8, 63. 

20.] Unda parvi litoris, ‘you will re- 
ceive no harm from sailing in a small creek, 
which has none of the dangers of a great 
sea.’ Hither Zitus here means ripa, or 
Jlumine means estu, the current or motion 
of the sea. 




Hoc verum est, tota te ferri Cynthia, Roma, 
Et non ignota vivere nequitia ? 

Hee merui sperare? dabis mihi, perfida, poenas; 
Et nobis aliquo, Cynthia, ventus erit. 

Inveniam tamen e multis fallacibus unam, Ὁ 
Que fieri nostro carmine nota velit, 

Nec mihi tam duris insultet moribus, et te 


Heu sero flebis amatu diu! 

Nune est ira recens, nunc est discedere tempus: 

Si dolor abfuerit, crede, redibit amor. 


Non ita Carpathiz variant Aquilonibus unde, 
Nec dubio nubes vertitur atra Noto, 

Quam facile irati verbo mutantur amantes: 
Dum licet, injusto subtrahe colla jugo. 

Nec tu non aliquid, sed prima nocte dolebis: 


Omne in amore malum, si patiare, leve est. 
At tu, per domine Junonis dulcia jura, 

V. He upbraids Cynthia with an in- 
constancy which was so notorious as to 
have become common gossip ; and threatens 
to leave her, and write verses in praise of 
one more deserving of the honour. It is 
clear he feels himself piqued as a poet, as 
well as aggrieved as a man. 

1.1 Ferri, ‘differri, diffamari.’— Huznoel. 

4.1] The MSS. agree in et nobis Aquilo, 
a reading which, as Hertzberg pleasantly 
remarks, ‘immanes tempestates interpret- 
ibus movit.’ Accordingly, he admits aliguo, 
which is the almost certain correction of 
Lachmann, (or rather, his improvement 
upon Burmann’s emendation alio). The 
sense will then be, ‘ We too will sail some- 
where else,’ ¢.e. I will attach myself to some 
other mistress. The metaphor we have 
just seen in the preceding elegy, vv. 19, 20. 
Jacob, while he retains the vulgate, assents 
to the correction. Should any one insist 
on the MSS. reading, perhaps eris for erit 
would afford the best solution of the diffi- 
culty; ‘I tco (like other disappointed 
lovers) shall hold you as fickle as the 
wind.’ And this well suits not only inf. 
11, but also the following distich: ‘ Yet, 
fickle as women are, I shall find some one 
who will be faithful to me, and will like to 
become known through my verse,’ ¢.e. who 

will be grateful for the compliment. Other- 
wise (viz. reading aliguo) we must refer 
tamen to the use noticed above, 4, 10. 

8.1 Vellicet. ‘Verbum vindicte femi- 
new in rivalem alteram apprime conyeniens; 
te insectabitur, per ora hominum traducet. 
Horat. Serm. i. 10, 79, vellicat absentem 
Demetrius.’—Kuinoel. It may mean, ‘ vex 
and annoy you by the contrast of her at- 
tachment with your levity.’ 

11.] Non ita, supply facile.—variant, 
‘change colour.’ See y. 2, 13, and on i. 

14.] Subtrahe. He addresses himself, 
(as also, perhaps, in 9—10) and argues the 
necessity of immediate separation, having 
felt his own weakness in keeping resolu- 
tions before, ii. 8, 4.—cnjusto, iniquo, ‘ill- 
matched.’ Virg. Georg. iii. 347, ‘Non 
secus ac patriis acer Romanus in armis 
Injusto sub fasce viam quum carpit.’ 

15.] ‘Dolebis, sed iste dolor non ultra 
prime noctis spatium protendetur.’—Kui- 
noel. Here also the poet addresses himself. 

17.] After threatening Cynthia that he 
will abandon her for ever, he relents, and 
has recourse to the most gentle and winning 
expostulation. Propertius is eminently a 
poet of the heart. He carries with him 
the whole sympathy of the reader; and 



Parce tuis animis, vita, nocere tibi. 
Non solum taurus ferit uncis cornibus hostem, 

Verum etiam instanti lesa repugnat ovis. 


Nec tibi perjuro scindam de corpore vestem, 
Nec mea preclusas fregerit ira fores; 

Nec tibi connexos iratus carpere crines, 
Nec duris ausim leedere pollicibus: 

Rusticus hee aliquis tam turpia prelia queerat, 


Cujus non hedere circuiere caput. 
Scribam igitur, quod non umquam tua deleat tas: 
Crede mihi, quamvis contemnas murmura fame, 

Hic tibi pallori, Cynthia, 

versus erit. 30 


Non ita complebant Ephyrez Laidos des, 
Ad cujus jacuit Greecia tota fores, 
Turba Menandrew fuerat nec Thaidos olim 

the singular charm of his verses consists in 
their intense feeling, while Ovid is more 
indebted to his art in versification for mak- 
ing an impression on the affections. —tuis 
animis, ‘through your own waywardness.’ 

18.] wis animis, ista ferocia, ‘by that 
high spirit of yours.’ 

19—20.] ‘Even a naturally harmless 
and quiet disposition can resent, if irritated 
beyond endurance.’ 

21.] Nec, i.e. nec tamen, ‘Not that my 
revenge shall consist of vulgar violence. 
No! I ama poet, and you shall be punished 
by a verse’ (28). 

23.] Connexos, put together by a comb 
or hair-pins. Cf. v. 5, 31, ‘si tibi forte 
comas vexaverit utilis ira.’ 

27.) Quod non unquam &c., ‘which will 
be remembered as long as you live.’ The 
subjunctive expresses the nature and quality 
of the verse. Cf. 6, 38. 

28.] Verba levis, i.e. false in her pro- 
fessions of fidelity. Kuinoel and Barth 
read forma levis, inferior in sense (if indeed, 
it has any meaning at all, except that in 
i. 4, 9, quoted by Lachmann), and contrary 
to the authentic copies. Of all the ab- 
surdities (and they are not few) inflicted 
by Scaliger on Propertius, his emendation 
of this verse bears the palm: ‘Cynthia 
formipotens, Cynthia verbilevis. 

29.] Contemnis Kuinoel and Barth, con- 
trary to the MSS. and the usage of the best 
writers. Not that guamvis, when used for 
quamquam (καίτοι), may not be followed 
by an indicative, (as Virg. Eel. iii. 84, inf. 
8, 27), but that in this case it bears its 
proper sense of however much, and therefore 
requires the conjunctive. 

VI. The subject of this elegy is so in- 
timately connected with the last, that it is 
surprising that no adventurous editor has 
proposed to print it continuously. Jacob 
and Lachmann, (whom Keil and Miiller 
more or less closely follow) have introduced 
marks of lacune in several places (after 
v. 24, 26, 34, 36), though there is no proof 
of anything having been lost except a 
certain abruptness, more imaginary than 
real,—certainly not greater than the ex- 
citement of the writer’s mind would fairly 
account for. Of this propensity to ‘ dis- 
junctiveness’ we shall have many other 
instances to discuss in the present and 
succeeding books. 

1—3.] Lais of Corinth and Thais of 
Alexandria were celebrated courtesans, 
whose beauty and accomplishments capti- 
vated the richest and greatest men of their 
day. The first lived in the time of the 
Peloponnesian war: the second was con- 



Tanta, in qua populus lusit Erichthonius, 

Nec que deletas potuit componere Thebas 5 
Phryne, tam multis facta beata viris. 

Quin etiam falsos fingis tibi seepe propinquos, 
Oscula nec desunt qui tibi jure ferant. 

Me juvenum picte facies, me nomina ledunt, 

Me tener in cunis et sine voce puer; 


Me ledit, si multa tibi dedit oscula mater, 
Me soror, et cum qua dormit amica simul. 
Omnia me ledunt ;—timidus sum; ignosce timori ;— 
Et miser in tunica’ suspicor esse virum. 

temporary with Alexander and the Ptole- 
mies, who are said not to have been in- 
sensible to her charms. She is called 
‘Thais pretiosa Menandri’ in v. 1, 43, from 
that poet having inscribed a play with her 

4.] ZLusit, ‘disported itself,’ ‘found 
amusement.’ Others render it, ‘who was 
the object of their amours.’ See iii. 9, 24, 
and i. 10, 9.—in gua, ‘in the drama called 
after her name.’ See note on i. 13. 7.— 
populus Erichthonius, the Athenians. 

5.] Phryne, a contemporary of Thais, 
was a renowned beauty born in Beotia, 
and so popular with the gay and the 
wealthy that she offered to rebuild Thebes 
at her own expense on condition that 
Alexander who destroyed it would consent 
to allow an inscription to record the facts. 
—componere, ‘to put together,’ 7. 6. rebuild. 
There is, of course, nothing in the word 
which of itself can imply reponere. This 
sense is derived from the epithet deletas. 
Kuinoel endeavours to elicit such a mean- 
ing from ‘urbem componere terra,’ Zn. 
lii. 587, and ‘componere templa,’ Ovid, 
Fast. 1, 708. With the latter passage the 
sense of vy. 9, 74, accords better than the 
verse before us. In the first six lines we 
notice the compliment paid to Cynthia, by 
comparing her successes with those of the 
most celebrated ἑταῖραι of antiquity, to- 
gether with a reproach for her shameless 
infidelity. The poet proceeds to express 
his jealous fears lest every pretended rela- 
tion of Cynthia should prove a lover in 
disguise, and every portrait a souvenir of 
some favoured admirer. 

6.] acta beata, made rich by the costly 
presents of so many admirers. 

8.] Nec desunt. There is a slight irony 
in this: ‘you say they are only cousins, 
who have a right to salute you.’ Jacob 

(probably by an oversight) has edited with 
Kuinoel and the emendated copies ne desint. 

9.1 Numina, Kuinoel, with one or two 
of the interpolated copies. This reading 
Hertzberg thinks ‘non inficetum,’ suppos- 
ing with others that portraits of the gods 
may be meant, made to represent, accord- 
ing to a custom not unusual, likenesses 
of friends and admirers. But nomina (i.e. 
juvenum) pronounced by Cynthia as if 
speaking of her relations, is far more simple 
and natural, and has all the good copies in 
its favour. 

10.] Puer. Cynthia had no child of 
her own. (See iii. 9, 33, ‘cum tibi nec 
frater, nec sit tibi filius ullus.’) The child 
alluded to does not therefore imply any 
fear that it was Cynthia’s by another 
father, but simply that the poet is jealous 
of the kisses bestowed even on a child in 
the cradle: an hyperbole, as in the follow- 
ing distich. 

12.] Cum qua, &c., et ea, cum qua amica 
dormit, ὦ. 6. even though my suspicions 
might fairly be removed by the circum- 
stance. The two sleeping together would 
at least not indicate a lover’s cunning 
device to obtain Cynthia. Amica is not 
Cynthia, but any friend or attendant; the 
idea uppermost in the poet’s mind being, 
that a lover is lurking under this or that 
character, even though a female one. Cum 
que, the correction of Dousa, i.e. cum 
aliqua, for si gua, has received the appro- 
bation of Lachmann, Hertzberg, Jacob, 
Keil, and Miiller. 

14.] In tunica. Although this garment 
was worn by men, as was the toga under 
certain circumstances by women, it is clear 
from this passage that the two words, in 
a general sense, represent the distinctive 
dresses of the sexes. Compare y. 2, 23. 



His olim, ut fama est, vitiis ad prelia ventum est: 15 
His Trojana vides funera principiis. 

Aspera Centauros eadem dementia jussit 
Frangere in adversum pocula Pirithoum. 

Cur exempla petam Graium? tu criminis auctor, 

Nutritus duro, Romule, lacte lupe. 


Tu rapere intactas docuisti impune Sabinas; 
Per te nune Rome quidlibet audet Amor. 
Felix Admeti conjunx et lectus Ulixis, 
Et quecumque viri femina lmen amat. 

Templa Pudicitiz quid opus statuisse puellis, 

Si cuivis nuptze quidlibet esse licet ? 

Que manus obscenas depinxit prima tabellas, 
Et posuit casta turpia visa domo, 

Illa puellaruam ingenuos corrupit ocellos, 

Nequitizque suze noluit esse rudes. 


Ah gemat, in terris ista qui protulit arte 
Jurgia sub tacita condita leetitia. 

15—24.] The connexion of these verses 
with the preceding seems to be this: ‘Such 
indeed are the frauds which women have 
ever practised, and such are the jealousies of 
men consequent upon them.’ Of the latter 
he proceeds to give examples. ‘De mu- 
lierum libidine accipias, quam efficere dicit, 
ut jure meritoque aliquis timeat.’ —Lachm. 

17.] ‘ The same infatuation led the Cen- 
taurs to break embossed beakers over the 
head of Pirithous.’ See note on ii. 2, 9. 

20.) Dura, Lachmann, Miiller, and 
Kuinoel, with one late MS. Hertzberg 
compares v. 4, 52, ‘dura papilla lupe.’ 

21.] Compare συ. 4, 57, ‘at rapte ne 
sint impune Sabine, me rape.’ 

23.] Ulyxis. According to analogy, 
this word should be written Olixis, and so 
(if I remember aright) Dr. C. Wordsworth 
copied it from the walls of Pompeii. Lach- 
mann gives Ulizi. The Greek 6 passes 
into the Latin 7, as in δάκρυ, lacrima, Ke. 

25.] Templa. There were two, dedi- 
cated to P. patricia, in the forum boarium, 
and to P. plebeia, in the Vicus Longus. 
Livy, x. 23. The poet shows the absurdity 
and the mockery of public temples to 
Chastity, while every private house tended 
to a violation of that virtue by its internal 
decorations. The passage 27—386 is a very 
fine one; and it is curious to remark the 
ideas of morality which could induce a 

Propertius so feelingly to bewail the de- 
pravity of the women, unconscious of his 
own delinquencies. 

26.] Quidlibet, i.e. not only a wife to 
her husband but a concubine to others. 
There seems no need of Lachmann’s read- 
ing cuilibet, found in inferior copies. He 
thinks nupta is here not confined to the 
meaning of ‘lawful wife,’ but ‘de illegiti- 
mo quoque amore dicitur.’ 

27.] Yabellas. From v. 34 it seems 
clear that the fresco paintings are meant, 
which were very frequently of the most 
amorous, not to say indecent description. 
To them perhaps Juvenal alludes in the 
celebrated lines, ‘ Nil dictu feedum visuque 
hee limina tangat, intra que puer est.’ 
I scarcely comprehend on what ground 
Hertzberg, on vy. 34, after Welcker, says, 
‘non picturas tectorias, sed tabellas parieti- 
bus inclusas,’ comparing the present verse. 

31.] Gemat, οἰμώξειε. In terris for sub 
terris, says Kuinoel. There is no ground 
for such an interpretation: it is better to 
connect én terris with what follows. 

32.] Jurgia. The quarrels and disputes 
of lovers, originating from what was meant 
tacitly to please the eye. The latter being 
the secret source of the former, are said 
condere, to conceal them. Jurgia are the 
same as the Greek νείκη, a word peculiarly 
applied to disputes caused by jealousy. 


Non istis olim variabant tecta figuris: 
Tum paries nullo crimine pictus erat. 

Sed non immerito velavit aranea fanum, 

Et mala desertos occupat herba Deos. 
Quos igitur tibi custodes, que limina ponam, 
Quze numquam supra pes inimicus eat ? 

Nam nihil invite tristis custodia prodest: 

Quam peccare pudet, Cynthia, tuta sat est. 


Nos uxor numquam, numquam diducet amica: 
Semper amica mihi, semper et uxor eris. 


Gavisa est certe sublatam Cynthia legem, 
Qua quondam edicta flemus uterque diu, 

35.] ‘ Hoc distichon, presertim hoc loco 
positum, intelligi nullo modo potest,’ Lach- 
mann; who places the mark of a lacuna 
before it. Hertzberg would read sed nune 
immerito. It is difficult to see what the 
editors object to in the vulgate, of which 
the sense is by no means obscure: ‘ But 
now religion has fled; the temples (viz. of 
Mens, Fides, Pudicitia &c.,) are deserted ; 
vice and immorality prevail, and the gods 
are neglected. How therefore (vy. 37) shall 
I keep my Cynthia virtuous, apart from 
her moral sense?’ —wnon immerito, ‘not 
without good reason,’ ¢.e. no wonder the 
temples are deserted when all regard for 
piety is lost. 

37.] Que limina, he should rather have 
said inveniam, but he uses ponam in direct 
reference to custodes. Lachmann reads 
que ad limina, which makes an awkward 
elision, and is not necessary for the sense. 
—eat, see sup. 5, 27. 

39.] Nihil prodest invite, t.e. nolenti 
pudicam esse non opus est custodem im- 
ponere: ‘persuasze fallere rima sat est,’ 
y. 1, 146. 

42.] ‘For my part, I can assert that 
neither wife nor mistress shall ever draw 
me away from my Cynthia.’ Keil and 
Miiller mark a Jacuna before the final 
distich. The point of it appears to be, 
that Propertius will remain faithful, though 
Cynthia be unfaithful. Such professions, 
made on the ardour of the moment or for 
a purpose, are hardly to be expected to 
possess the close coherence which a less 
impassioned reasoning might claim. But 

it is probable the allusion to wor is the 
same as in the following elegy. The MSS. 
give me ducet. To avoid the change of nos 
and me, Lachmann gives diducet, (the Ro- 
man edition of 1482 haying deducet), Kui- 
noel wxor me nunquam. 

VII. He congratulates Cynthia on his 
not being compelled by the law to take a 
wife, and so obliged to desert his mistress, 
A poem remarkable for its pathos and ten- 

1.1 Gavisa es Lachmann, Keil, Miiller 
with Burmann. 

Ibid. Sublatam legem. Tacit. Ann. iii. 
25: ‘Relatum deinde de moderanda Papia 
Poppa, quam senior Augustus, post Julias 
rogationes, incitandis celibum pcenis et 
augendo erario sanxerat. Nec ideo con- 
jugia et educationes liberum frequenta- 
bantur, prevalida orbitate: ceterum multi- 
tudo periclitantium gliscebat, cum omnis 
domus delatorum interpretationibus sub- 
verteretur; utque antehac flagitiis, ita tune 
legibus laborabatur.’ See on this passage 
the excellent note of the last editor, Ritter. 
The Julian law alluded to he considers to 
have been revived in the year of the city 
736; and certainly it was in force in 737, 
when Horace speaks of the ‘ patrum decreta 
super jugandis feminis, Carm. Sec. 17; 
but it was found so impracticable that it 
had to be modified shortly afterwards. An 
historical difficulty occurs in the discrepancy 
of dates, since the present book is shewn 
by Hertzberg to have been written in 728, 
and he is therefore driven to the supposition 




Ni nos divideret; quamvis diducere amantes 
Non queat invitos Juppiter ipse duos. 

At magnus Cesar;—sed magnus Cesar in armis: 5 
Devictz gentes nil in amore valent. 

Nam citius paterer caput hoc discedere collo, 
Quam possem nuptz perdere amore faces, 

Aut ego transirem tua limina clausa maritus, 

Respiciens udis prodita luminibus. 


Ah mea tum qualis caneret tibi, Cynthia, somnos 
Tibia, funesta tristior ila tuba! 
Unde mihi patriis gnatos preebere triumphis ? 

that some previous attempt of Augustus 
must be alluded to, (see Quest. Prop. p. 
224 seq.) and that the ‘Julia rogationes’ 
of Tacitus must be understood of a bill 
founded on Julius Cesar’s edict by Au- 
gustus, but which never passed into a law. 
The Lex Papia Poppa was not carried 
till the year 762, or a.v. 9. The reason 
why Propertius could not have married 
Cynthia was that she was a meretrix ; and 
such were not allowed by the Roman law 
to marry with imgenui. See Hertzberg, 
Quest. lib. I. cap. vi. p. 386. Kuinoel’s in- 
troductory note contains some errors from 
a misconception of the real character of 
Cynthia, whom he regards, and often de- 
scribes in his commentary, as a lady of 
high birth. 

3.] Ni nos divideret. The sense is, 
‘flentes timebamus ne nos divideret.’ Nz 
is an old usage for ve, which latter is the 
reading of the Groning. MS. Hertzberg 
rightly shows that since ‘quicunque filet, 
aut doleat aut metuat necesse est,’ the con- 
struction is sometimes adapted to both of 
these meanings. (Quest. p.156). In divi- 
dere and diducere a difference of sense seems 
intended: ‘the law might separate us, 
though Jove himself could not break the 
bonds of mutual affection.’ 

5.] It is not very clear whether we 
should understand at magnus (est) Cesar, 
or at magnus Cesar diducere potest or po- 
terat. The latter is the construction adopt- 
ed by Lachmann and Kuinoel, and also by 
Hertzberg, who considers the flattery of 
making Augustus superior to Jove not too 
gross for the age: and he is right. But 
the poet may be supposed to correct himself 
after making an apparently disparaging re- 
mark on Cesar’s law; ‘I admit indeed 
that he is great; but his greatness is in 
arms, not in controlling affections: and I 

say that neither he nor Jove himself can 
do this.’—devicte gentes, &c. for ‘ devicisse 
gentes nil valet.’ Cf. dn. xi. 268, ‘de- 
victam Asiam subsedit adulter.’ 

8.] Faces. ‘Intellige flammas amoris 
ingenuas, quas matrimonio perdere vere- 
atur poeta.’ Hertzberg; who compares 
i. 18, 26, and i. 18, 21. The earlier com- 
mentators absurdly explained this ‘faces 
nuptiales inutili sumptu dispendioque frus- 
tra prodigendas.’ 

9.] The construction is, aut (quam) 
transirem &c., ‘I would sooner die than 
have to pass by your house, and see it 
abandoned and closed, as I proceed to my 
home in the marriage procession.’ The 
editors however agree in placing a full 
stop at faces, and commencing a new inter- 
rogative sentence with aut ego or anne ego. 
—prodita, i.e. a me: in the sense of προ- 

11.] ‘What sort of sleep would my 
pipers play to you in the same procession, 
as it passed by night conducting the bride 
to her husband? Would it not sound 
more doleful than"the trumpets in a fune- 
ral?’ For Cynthia the Naples MS. has 
tybia. In Kuinoel’s and Barth’s editions 
the verse is read ah mea tum quales faceret 
tibi tibia cantus. The reader will notice 
the antithesis in mea and tidi. For the 
allusion in tibia and tuba compare Ovid, 
Her. xii. 140, ‘Tibiaque effudit socialia 
carmina vobis, At mihi funesta flebiliora 
tuba.’ In this, as in so many other in- 
stances, it is difficult to acquit Ovid of 
plagiarism. See also inf. y. 11,9, ‘Sic 
moeste cecinere tubs.’ 

13.] Unde mihi, i.e. quo mihi? quid 
prodest>? In most of the copies a new 
elegy commences with this verse. Lach- 
mann and Jacob, followed by Keil and 
Miiller, put a mark of a lacuna. But the 



Nullus de nostro sanguine miles erit. 

Quod si vera mez comitarem castra puelle, 


Non mihi sat magnus Castoris iret equus. 

Hine etenim tantum meruit mea gloria nomen, 
Gloria ad hibernos lata Borysthenidas. 

Tu mihi sola places: placeam tibi, Cynthia, solus: 

Hic erit et patrio sanguine pluris amor. 



Eripitur nobis jam pridem cara puella; 


connexion is complete. ‘Why should I 
marry, merely to furnish sons to grace the 
triumphal processions? A general way 
of saying, ‘to supply my country with 
soldiers.’ Miiller follows Lachmann in 
reading Parthis for patriis, i.e. ‘trium- 
phis a Parthis agendis.’ This verse sup- 
plies a clear hint of the real motive in 
passing the laws de maritandis ordinibus : 
which indeed is known from other sources, 
viz., to supply the deficiency in the popu- 
lation caused by the civil wars, which 
rendered it difficult to procure a sufficient 
number of recruits. See Hor. Od. i. 2, 
‘yitio parentum rara juventus.’ 

15.] Compare v. 3, 45, ‘Romanis utinam 
patuissent castra puellis.’ Tacitus (Ann. 
lii. 33—4) records an interesting debate on 
a measure proposed in the senate ‘ne quem 
magistratum, cui provincia obyenisset, uxor 
comitaretur :᾿ which was negatived rather 
as an indulgence than on military prin- 
ciples.—For the obscure words vera mee, 
Scaliger, followed as usual by Kuinoel, 
reads Romane ; a most improbable conjec- 
ture on any known principles of palo- 
graphy. Hertzberg, who reads comitarent 
with the MSS., thus explains it: ‘Quam- 
quam si castra, que puelle mez sequuntur, 
z.e. dulcis illa amoris militia (i. 6, 30) vera 
militia verumque bellum esset; summus 
miles par mihi non esset futurus.’ Pro- 
pertius (like most of the elegiac poets) 
constantly speaks of the castra amoris, as 
again v. 1, 138, so that it became almost 
necessary, if he wished to be understood in 
speaking of veal warfare, to add vera.— 
mee puelle, in the plural, is used (as 
Hertzberg thinks) not only because ‘one 
mistress does not make a camp,’ but because 
the poet elsewhere openly boasts, as in iii. 
26, 57, of the favour of several mistresses, 
‘ut regnet mixtas inter conviva puellas.’ 
This is surely unsatisfactory. For it is 

obvious that Cynthia must be principally 
and in particular meant, since, taken liter- 
ally, the plural involves an absurdity, as it 
would convert a compliment into an insult. 
But Keil and Miiller follow Lachmann in 
retaining comitarent, and for vera Miiller 
proposes sera, Lachmann eura—comitari. 
The whole passage is very obscure, and 
perhaps, as Lachmann thinks, corrupt. He 
gives the general meaning nearly thus: 
‘Si Cynthia se comitaretur, non filios se 
militatum missurum esse, sed ipsum cum 
illa in castra profecturum; hance enim 
solam carminis sui, hance glories causam 
esse, hance unam pre omnibus sibi placere.’ 
Jacob gives comitarer from the excerpta of 
Pucci, and perhaps on the whole this is the 
simpler sense: ‘ Were I in reality (7.e. not 
only as a miles amoris) to follow my Cyn- 
thia in the field, I would rush to battle as 
quickly as the best steed could carry me.’ 
The horse of Castor,—as renowned for the 
equestrian as his brother for the pugilistic 
art,—was called Cyllarus, Virg. Georg. iii. 

17.] Etenim. There is an ellipse which 
must be supplied to connect the sense. 
(‘But I do not fight, for I am by pro- 
fession a poet:) it is from this, not from 
deeds of arms, that my fame lives.’ 

20.] Patrio sanguine. A singular ex- 
pression for procreandis liberis, as Hertzberg 
appears rightly to explain it, referring it 
to the Julian law. /Patrio is either for 
paterno, ‘I prefer illicit love to the honours 
of paternity,’ or it signifies the Roman race 
in a general sense. Compare patriis tri- 
umphis, ‘national triumphs,’ y. 13. 

VIII. A-singularly elegant and eloquent 
composition, lamenting the success of a 
rival, and threatening vengeance against 
both him and the faithless Cynthia. The 
parties alluded to in vy. 3 and 6 are un- 



Et tu me lacrimas fundere, amice, vetas ! 
Nulle sunt inimicitia, nisi amoris, acerbee ; 
Ipsum me jugula, lenior hostis ero. 
Possum ego in alterius positam spectare lacerto ? 5 
Nec mea dicetur, quae modo dicta mea est ? 
Omnia vertuntur; certe vertuntur amores: 
Vinceris, aut vincis; hee in amore rota est. 

Magni seepe duces, magni cecidere tyranni, 

Et Theb steterant, altaque Troja fuit. 


Munera quanta dedi, vel qualia carmina feci ! 
Illa tamen numquam ferrea dixit: Amo. 

Ergo jam multos nimium temerarius annos, 
Improba, qui tulerim teque tuamque domum. 

Ecquandone tibi liber sum visus? an usque 


In nostrum jacies verba superba caput ? 

known. Lachmann divides this elegy into 
two at v.17, and prints the first part as 
lacunose, in which he is followed by Jacob 
and Miiller. Having a decided opinion on 
the unity and integrity of the whole, as 
arranged in all the MSS., I have not 
hesitated to restore the old way, with 
Hertzberg, Kuinoel, and Keil. 

1.] Jam pridem cara must be construed 
together. He means to express his prior 
claims to possession arising from long at- 
tachment.—jampridem eripitur would mean 
‘has this long time been gradually leaving 
me,’ and is less consistent with the out- 
burst of grief implied in the next verse. 

3.] -Acerbe, ‘implacable.’—amoris, re- 
sulting from, or on the subject of, love. 

8.] Rota, ‘the turn of fortune,’ in re- 
ference to vertuntur. Miiller, after Sca- 
liger, places this distich after v.10. This 
seems to pervert the sense entirely, since 
magni sepe duces &c. are cited as an ex- 
ample of the fickleness of fortune. 

10.] The MSS. have steterant, which 
Jacob alone retains in the text, though ap- 
proving of Scaliger’s correction. It is not 
so certain that Propertius would have pre- 
ferred stetérunt to a lax use of the plu- 
perfect, were the alternative to choose be- 
tween them. 

11.] Vel. ‘cum leni correctione copu- 
lat.’.—Jacob. Hertzberg has this good 
note: ‘cum aut non posse simul esse duas 
res significet; ef vero simpliciter, esse 
simul; vel in medio positum non debere 
quidem simul esse, sed posse ita cogitari, 
indicat.’ For example: aut vir, aut femina 

(but not both): e¢ vir δέ femina (both at 
once): vel vir vel femina (either one or the 
other, 07 possibly both). So below, v. 39, 
inferior vel matre vel armis, ‘certainly in 
one or the other, probably in both.’ Here 
we may translate, ‘and I might say, how 
many verses have I eomposed.’ For vel 
Lachmann reads vee. 

13—16.] These lines admirably express 
the roused spirit of a wronged man. The 
poet suddenly addresses himself, almost 
fiercely, to Cynthia, and asks if he has not 
been infatuated in so long bearing with her 
and her family. It is easier to understand 
sum with temerarius (and perhaps it is not 
too much to say that its omission imparts 
a tone of abruptness and indignation), than 
to suppose a distich lost, while v. 15 so 
closely continues the sense. Hertzberg, 
by placing only a comma after domum, (in 
which he is followed by Miiller), makes 
the construction to be, ‘ecquando ego te- 
merarius—visus sum liber? But ergo 
ecquandone 2 do not well agree; on the 
other hand ergo is used in making ad- 
missions or confessions: ‘so then I have 
been rash,’ &ce. There is probability in 
Lachmann’s proposed reading Ergo ego tam 
muitos ἕο. He gives the general sense 
thus: ‘Ergo ego nimis temerarius? egone 
audax, qui amorem tuum poscam?> cum 
tamen tam multos annos imperium tuum 
patienter tulerim. Jam dubito, simne tibi 
umquam liber visus, an usque me pro 
servo tuo habitura sis.’ ‘Do you suppose 
lam for ever to be your slave” 



Sic igitur prima moriere xtate, Properti ? 
Sed morere; interitu gaudeat illa tuo; 
Exagitet nostros Manes, sectetur et umbras, 

Insultetque rogis, calcet et ossa mea. 

Quid? non Antigone tumulo Beotius Hzemon 
Corruit ipse suo saucius ense latus, 

Et sua cum misere permiscuit ossa puelle, 
Qua sine Thebanam noluit ire domum ? 

Sed non effugies: mecum moriaris oportet ; 

Hoe eodem ferro stillet uterque cruor. 
Quamvis ista mihi mors est inhonesta futura; 
Mors inhonesta quidem; tu moriere tamen. 

Ile etiam abrepta desertus 
Cessare in tectis pertulit 

Viderat ille fugas, tractos in litore Achivos, 
Fervere et Hectorea Dorica castra face; 

Viderat informem multa Patroclon arena 
Porrectum et sparsas cede jacere comas; 

Omnia formosam propter Briseida passus: 

conjuge Achilles 
arma sua. 30 

Tantus in erepto sevit amore dolor. 
At postquam sera captiva est reddita pena, 
Fortem illum Hzmoniis Hectora traxit equis. 

17.] ‘Shall I then die without an effort 
to escape? Yes: die, as Hemon died of 
love for Antigone, (Soph. Ant. 1235,) die, 
that she may exult in her victory.’ There 
is something fine in the sudden despair 
with which he resigns his resolution to 
resist as soon as he has made it. Kuinoel 
well says in his terse way, ‘splendidus 

23.] Cum (ossibus) puelle. 
3, 21. 

᾽24. Miiller reads nollet inire; but ire 
may well stand for redire. 

26.] Eodem. On the synizesis see vy. 

” 30.] In tectis, ‘in his tent.’ Kuinoel 
has in Teueros, from the later and inter- 
polated copies. Barth has the bad taste 
to read in thecis, and Miiller follows him. 
The allusion is probably to some lost epic, 
as inf. 10, 9, seqq. 

31.] Fugas. Thus Lachmann, Hertz- 
berg, and Jacob, with the Naples MS. 
The Groning. MS. and ed. Rheg. give fuga 
tractos ( fractos, Kuinoel). Lachmann has 

See on i. 

Sugas, fractos &c., but suggests pyras ; 
Miiller fuga stratos, Keil fuga fractos.—In 
the next verse the burning of the Grecian 
fleet by Hector is alluded to. 

33.] Kuinoel and Barth edit Patroclen, 
which is a false quantity. The MSS. 
agree in Patroclon. Both Πάτροκλος and 
Πατροκλῆς occur.—multa arena porrectum, 
ἐν κονίῃσι μέγας μεγαλωστὶ τανυσθεὶς, Il. 
xviii. 27. 

36.] Inerepto dolore. These words, com- 
pared with the first line eripitur nobis &c., 
go far to show that the whole of this is 
really one connected elegy. 

37.] Sera pena, ‘by a late retribution,’ 
mown, as ΚΟ, remarks. If, says the poet, 
the loss of his love could so completely 
subdue even the hero Achilles, who only 
regained his valour on her restoration, it is 
not to be wondered at if love has still 
greater power over one so inferior to him. 

38.] Fortem illum, ‘that brave Hector,’ 
τὸν ἐσθλὸν, is simple and natural. Miiller 
needlessly reads fortem idem &e.— Hemoniis, 
Thessalian, viz. from Phthiotis, 



Inferior multo cum sim vel matre vel armis, 

Mirum, si de me jure triumphat Amor? 



Iste quod est, ego seepe fui; sed fors et in hora, 
Hoc ipso ejecto, carior alter erit. 
Penelope poterat bis denos salva per annos 
Vivere, tam multis femina digna procis; 
Conjugium falsa poterat differre Minerva, 5 
Nocturno solvens texta diurno dolo; 
Visura et quamvis numquam speraret Ulixem, 
Illum expectando facta remansit anus. 
Nec non exanimem amplectens Briseis Achillem 

Candida vesana verberat 

39.] MMatre. Because a goddess was 
the mother of Achilles. Most of the copies 
have Marte. On vel—vel, see above on 
vy. li. 

40.] There is some confusion in this 
verse between mirum, si triumphat, and 
Jure triumphat. 

IX. Like the last, this is a very charm- 
ing poem; but like it also, it has been dis- 
figured by being printed in a mutilated 
and lacunose form in the editions of Jacob, 
Lachmann, and Miiller. Even Hertzberg 
has a gap between y. 40 and 41. No 
stronger presumption of the fallacy, or at 
least, the utter uncertainty, of these opin- 
ions need be adduced, than the fact that 
the editors themselves do not agree as to 
where the supposed abruptness exists; for 
while Jacob ignores one of Lachmann’s 
lacuné (after y. 24), Hertzberg ignores 
those of both, except after v. 40.—The 
subject of this elegy is the same as the 
preceding, and probably in reference to 
the same rival. He upbraids Cynthia with 
ingratitude, and asserts his unchanged af- 
fection in the most moving terms. 

1.1 Jste. On the contemptuous use of 
this pronoun applied to a rival, see on i, 2, 
25.—‘ The same inconstaney which induced 
you to reject me for this man, will perhaps 
in an hour supply his place by a third.’ 
The natural sentiment of one who tries to 
persuade himself that his rival is not really 
beloved—fors?t is the not improbable read- 
ing in Barth’s edition. 

2—16.] ‘Women were constant in times 


ora Manu, 

of old, and waited with unchanged affection 
for their husbands even until death; where- 
as Cynthia could not wait for a single day 
or anight’ (19—20). 

δ] Falsa Minerva, ‘by pretending to 
weave,’ and undoing at night the web she 
had completed in the day, Od. ii. 104. 
Plat. Phedo, p. 84, A., ἀνήνυτον ἔργον 
πράττειν, Πηνελόπης τινὰ ἐναντίως ἱστὸν 

7.1 Visura speraret. A very remark- 
able construction, to which it is not easy 
to find an exact parallel in either language. 
The Greeks do not say ἤλπιζεν ὀψομένη for 
ὄψεσθαι, and Virgil’s well-known ‘sensit 
medios delapsus in hostes’ pertains to an 
idiom restricted to verbs of sense and per- 
ception. The present may, perhaps, be 
regarded as an attempt at a Grecism, made 
on unsound principles. He intended to 
express speraret se viswram esse, and thought 
himself at liberty to substitute viswa,—if, 
indeed, viswram, with the ellipse of se, be 
not the true reading. The instance given 
by Hertzberg, from iv. 6, 40, ‘jurabo et 
bis sex integer esse dies,’ is not strictly to 
the purpose, being a simple rendering of 
ὀμοῦμαι ἢ μὴν ἁγνεύειν, or ἁγνὸς εἶναι. 

8.1 Remansit, i.e. in ejus conjugio: 
‘perduravit,’ Hertzberg. Lachmann quotes 
iii, 11, 17, ‘me tibi ad extremas mansurum, 
vita, tenebras,’ and Homer’s use of μένειν 
in several passages relating to Penelope, 
as well as Eur. Ovest. 583 (590). Compare 
i. 1, 31, and 10, 29. There is no difficulty 
in facta anus expectando illum. Lachmann 
needlessly proposes ¢//i and casta. 

° LIBER II. 9. 


Et dominum lavit mcerens captiva cruentum, 
Appositum flavis in Simoénta vadis; 

Foedavitque comas, et tanti corpus Achilli 
Maximaque in parva sustulit ossa manu, 

Cum tibi nec Peleus aderat nec cxerula mater, 


Scyria nec viduo Deidamia viro. 
Tune igitur veris gaudebat Grecia natis; 
Tune etiam felix inter et arma pudor. 
At tu non una potuisti nocte vacare,* 

Impia, non unum sola manere diem. 


Quin etiam multo duxistis pocula risu, 
Forsitan et de me verba fuere mala. 
Hic etiam petitur, qui te prius ipse reliquit ;— 
Di faciant, isto capta fruare viro! 
Hee mihi yota tuam propter suscepta salutem ? 25 

12.] This verse is probably corrupt. 
The MSS. agree in fluviis, which Jacob 
and Hertzberg retain; the latter however 
alone attempts to defend flwwiis vadis, which 
he thinks intended to express a shallow 
pool of running water, the epithet, or rather 
attribute, implying the virtue believed to 
reside in such water for the purposes of 
lustration. If is difficult to believe that 
the usage is good Latin. Is it conceivable 
that fluvius vadum could have been used in 
the nominative? With Lachmann and 
Kuinoel I have admitted Heinsius’ con- 
jecture, flavis, for which Horace’s ‘flayum 
Tiberim,’ furnishes sufficient authority. It 
has, however, this objection, though to 
some it may appear a fanciful one, that 
the word expresses the name of the second 
Trojan stream, Xanthus. If vadis could 
mean (and why should it not?) the sandy 
puddles formed at the estuary of a river, 
fulvis would be an obvious suggestion, 
from Virgil’s use of fulva arena, Georg. 
ili. 110.—in Simoenta, as the Greeks say 
τιθέναι εἰς τόπον, ‘brought to the river 
and laid there.’ Hertzberg suggests that 
it may mean ‘so placed as to lie in the 
water in part.’ Perhaps however in Si- 
moenta was meant to depend on some word 
(as fusts or fluxis) now lost in the corrupt 
Jluviis, or else we should read ad Simoenta, 
i. 6. ad ripas Simoentis. 

‘13.] Fedavit, ἤσχυνε. The poet imi- 
tates 71. xviii. 23, as the commentators 
have pointed out. There is something 
touching and beautiful in Briseis holding 
‘tho large bones (i.e. the ashes of them) 

in her Ζ 16 hand.’ Τῷ is the happy stroke 
of an artist to a picture.—tanti, ‘so huge 
a man. So Achilles is called τοσοῦτος, 
‘so big,’ by Phoenix in //. ix. 485. It is 
strange that Miiller should not have seen 
this, but marked the passage as corrupt, 
and proposed the tasteless reading ad functi 
corpus Achivi. 

15.] Tibi. Achilles is addressed, though 
the apostrophe is harsh and strange, es- 
pecially as Cynthia is so soon after appealed 
to, v.19. ‘All this Briseis did through 
her affection for you, when others stood 
aloof.’ —viduo viro, χηρεύοντί σοι, ‘when 
thus left a widower,’ ὁ. e. by the absence of 
Deidamia, by whom, when in the island of 
Scyros, the hero had had a son Pyrrhus (or 
Neoptolemus).—Lachmann, Kuinoel, and 
the more recent editors have toro for viro, 
from a late MS. 

18.] Felix &c. ‘Then also virtue throve 
even in the camp.’—etiam is to be taken 
with tune, so that et arma has its own 
independent force. 

21.] Dusistis, viz. you and your lover, 
the iste of vy. 1. So ‘ducere Nectaris 
suceos’ Hor. Carm., 111. 3, 34. 

23.] Prius, ‘ona former occasion.’ For 
ipse Miiller and Keil, against the copies, give 
ante, ‘before you deserted him.’ Or should 
we read prior ?—fruare, bvato, ἀπολαύσαις, 
‘may you have a benefit of him,’ as we 

05] I have placed the interrogation at 
the end of this verse rather than after 
v. 27, with most of the editors, because 
cum—tum seem to be natural correlatives. 



Cum capite hoc Stygiz jam poterentur aque, 
Et lectum flentes circum staremus amici, 

Hic ubi tum, pro di, perfida, quisve fuit ? 
Quid, si longinquos retinerer miles ad Indos ? 

Aut mea si staret navis in Oceano ? 


Sed vobis facile est, verba et componere fraudes: 
Hoc unum didicit femina semper opus. 

Non sic incerto mutantur flamine Syrtes, 
Nee folia hiberno tam tremefacta Noto, 

Quam cito feminea non constat foedus in ira, 


Sive ea causa gravis, sive ea causa levis. 
Nune, quoniam ista tibi placuit sententia, cedam: 
Tela, precor, Pueri, promite acuta magis! 
Figite certantes, atque hance mihi solvite vitam: 

Sanguis erit vobis maxima palma meus. 


Sidera sunt testes, et matutina pruina, 
Et furtim misero janua aperta mihi, 

Te nihil in vita nobis acceptius umquam ; 
Nune quoque eris, quamyvis sis Imimica mihi; 

For fee Kuinoel has guz, with an ex- 
clamation at amici y. 27. Lachmann need- 
lessly proposes et. The sense is, ‘ Are 
these the vows I made for your recovery, 
when you were despaired of?’ 7. ὁ. is this 
the gratitude you showed for all my con- 
cern? Hertzberg well compares y. 3, 11, 
‘heeene marita fides?” &e. The dangerous 
illness and recovery of Cynthia are de- 
scribed again ii. 20, but if we follow 
Hertzberg (Quest. p. 224), in his chrono- 
logical arrangement of the poems, the 
present elegy was written a.v.c. 728, the 
other later than 729, but before 732. 

28.] Hic, ‘where then was this lover 
of your’s, or who was he to you?’ ὦ. 6. ἃ 
stranger, or a friend, or false loyer and 
a traitor. 

29.] Quid si &e. ‘If you leave me so 
easily when I am present, what might I 
expect if (like Ulysses) I were detained 
far away from home?’ 

33.] Mutantur, i.e. by the shifting of 
the sands: an event common to all shoals, 
and constituting their chief dangers. 

34.] Zam, i.e. tam cito. 

88,7 Pueri, “Ὁ Cupids.’ Compare y. 1, 
138, ‘Et Veneris pueris utilis hostis eris.’ 
ili. 21, 8, ‘obvia nescio quot pueri mihi 
turba minuta.’ Kuinoel, following Bur- 

mann, strangely understands the slaves ;— 
‘alloquitur pueros, servos, eosque cohor- 
tatur ut ipsi ferro mortem inferant.’ Barth 
is here quite right: ‘alloquitur Cupidines 
cum desperatione.’ 

40.] Palma, see vy. 1, 140. 

41—52.] Here Jacob, Lachmann, Hertz- 
berg, (as stated at the beginning of the 
elegy) Miiller and Keil place a mark of 
severance, as if the concluding lines had 
no intelligible connexion with the pre- 
ceding. Hertzberg does not hesitate to 
call it ‘pannus ordine prepostero hie as- 
sutus, ad El. xiii. (iii. 4) referendus.’ It 
is hard that the poet may not end his 
appeal to Cynthia by the simple and 
natural sentiment,’ ‘The very stars can 
bear witness how I have ever loved you,’ 
without being so capriciously used. By 
placing a colon at the end of y.42, and 
thus making y. 43 an independent sentence, 
an incoherence (if such it can be called) is 
created, which is at once removed by 
adopting the construction sidera sunt testes 
—te nihil unguam acceptius fuisse. But, 
since Hertzberg adds, ‘Lachmannus non 
posse post absolutum jam carmen hune 
exitum tolerari certissimis argumentis evi- 
cit,’ it is due to these learned men briefly 
to examine these cogent reasons. ‘ Hither- 


Nec domina ulla meo ponet vestigia lecto: 


Solus ero, quoniam non licet esse tuum. 
Atque utinam, si forte pios eduximus annos, 
Ile vir in medio fiat amore lapis! 
Non ob regna magis diris cecidere sub armis 

Thebani media non sine matre duces, 


Quam, mihi si media liceat pugnare puella, 
Mortem ego non fugiam morte subire tua. 

to,’ says Lachmann, ‘the poet has despaired 
—giyen in—invoked the Cupids\to kill 
him. Now he declares he will never live 
with another.’ Truly, an invincible ar- 
gument! Let the reader compare the 
perfectly parallel μετάνοια in 11. 5, 17, 
where, after asserting that he will instantly 
leave her, he begs her to relent, and think 
of her own interest. Similarly, he now 
offers to receive her again into his favour, 
and declares that he will have her or no 

45.] Vestigia. This word, like στίβοι 
φιλάνορες in Aisch. 4g. 401, appears to 
mean the mark or impression left by a 
sleeper on the couch. Compare iii. 21, 35, 
‘apparent non ulla toro vestigia presso,’ 
and Ovid, Her. x. 53. Hertzberg, in a 
long note, endeavours to show that ponere 
vestigia is the same as ponere pedes, i.e. 
adire, ingredi. Such appears commonly to 
be the true meaning; nor is it necessary 

to quote fifty passages to prove that a 
person who plants a footstep also plants 
his foot. 

47.] Si forte &c., if the affection (or 
dutifulness) of our former years has entitled 
the prayer to be heard.—z//e vir, the rival 
alluded to at the beginning of the elegy. 

49—52.] ‘ Not more fatal were the arms 
by which Eteocles and Polynices slew each 
other, when their mother Jocasta vainly 
interfered to separate them, than those 
should be with which I would fight my 
rival were Cynthia placed between us as 
the prize in the contest.’ The simile is 
rather irregularly worked out; such how- 
ever seems to be the poet’s meaning. The 
last four lines are marked off by a space in 
the later editions, after Lachmann; but 
the connexion does not seem broken; ‘I 
would die for you,’ adds the poet, after 
declaring that he will have none other 
than Cynthia. 



I. It is difficult to resist the arguments 
of Lachmann (Pref. pp. xxi—iii.) that with 
the present elegy a new Book commences, 
whether we assent to his opinion or not, 
that a large portion of the Second Book 
has been lost. The elegy now before us 
is decidedly introductory in its character. 
It is strictly a proemium, like those with 
which Books 11. and IV. respectively open. 
The poet changes his style and tone, and 
bethinks himself of acting on the often- 
urged advice of his friends, to sing of wars, 
that is, in fact, of the exploits of Augustus : 
for this is what the Augustan poets always 
mean when they talk of turning martial. 
‘Bella Canam,’ he says, v. 8, ‘quando 
scripta puclla mea est.’ More conclusive 
still is v.25 of the fourth elegy, in which 
the poet says ‘sat mea sat magna est, si 
tres sint pompa Jibelli,’ proving that two 
had already been published, and that this 
therefore was part of the third. Never- 
theless, Hertzberg, who follows the MSS. 
in continuing the second book up to the 
conclusion of the third of the present 
volume, while he admits (Quest. lib. 111. 
cap. ii. p. 215) that Lachmann’s new ar- 
rangement is ‘ satis probabilis,’ is of opinion 
that a counter-testimony to the above verse 
may be drawn from iii. 15, 1. ‘Tu loqueris, 
cum sis jam noto fabula libro, as if only 
one book had hitherto been published. It 
is not perhaps very easy to reconcile the 
two passages: but Lachmann suggests that 
the third may have been written before the 
second book was published ; or again, that 
all the poems collectively, written to and 
on Cynthia, may be called generally ‘a 
book,’ (Preef. p. xxvii.) There are reasons 


SED tempus lustrare aliis Helicona choreis, 

Et campum Hzemonio jam dare tempus equo. 

Jam libet et fortes memorare ad preelia turmas, 
Et Romana mei dicere castra ducis. 

too for believing (Hertzberg, Quest. p. 220) 
that the first book was dedicated to Cyn- 
thia, and as such published as a distinct 
work with all the care and polish the poet 
could bestow upon it; and if this verse 
(iii. 15, 1) be taken, as it must, in strict 
connexion with its pentameter, ‘ Et tua sit 
toto Cynthia lecta foro,’ it is almost certain 
that the first book alone is alluded to. To 
the ordinary reader, it is a matter of such 
little importance and even interest whether 
there are five or only four books of elegies, 
that I have purposely avoided a long dis- 
cussion of the subtle and intricate argu- 
ments by which the contrary opinions are 
respectively maintained, and contented my- 
self with following Lachmann, Jacob, 
Keil, and Miiller, as on the whole the 
more plausible view. 

1.] Sed tempus. Lachmann and Jacob © 
consider the commencement abrupt, and 
that something has been lost. Barth and 
Kuinoel read yam for sed. But Hertzberg 
rightly observes that the idea in the poet’s 
mind was this: ‘ Hucusque equidem cecini 
puellarum amores; sed tempus &c.—/us- 
trare, to go over, visit; so Virg. in. 11. 
528, ‘vacua atria lustrat saucius.—He- 
monio, 7.e. Thessalico, the horses of that 
country being noted for their breed. See ii. 
8, 38. Miuiller reads Hmathio. ‘To give 
the field’ to the steed, is to give him wider 
space, as well as to urge him to full speed. 
For the well-known metaphor compare 
Georgie iii. ult. 

3.] Construe fortes ad prelia, i. e. equi- 
tem ad pugnandum promptum, audacem. 

4.1 Mei ducis, Augustus. There is al- 
lusion to the military title of Imperator. 



Quod si deficient vires, audacia certe 5 
Laus erit: in magnis et voluisse sat est. 

AKtas prima canat Veneres, 

extrema tumultus; 

Bella canam, quando scripta puella mea est. 
Nune volo subducto gravior procedere vultu: 

Nune aliam citharam me mea Musa docet. 


Surge, anima, ex humili jam carmine sumite vires, 
Pierides: magni nunc erit oris opus. 

Jam negat Euphrates equitem post terga tueri 
Parthorum, et Crassos se tenuisse dolet; 

India quin, Auguste, tuo dat colla triumpho, 

Et domus intact te tremit Arabi ; 

Et, si qua extremis tellus se subtrahit oris, 
Sentiet illa tuas postmodo capta manus. 

Heee ego castra sequar; vates tua castra canendo 

Magnus ero; servent hune mihi fata diem! 


Ut caput in magnis ubi non est tangere signis, 

5.] Audacia, fiducia, ‘courage to make 
the attempt.’ The word is rarely found in 
a good sense.—in magnis, ἐν τοῖς χαλεποῖς, 
in subjects great and difficult. 

7.] The apparent antithesis in prima 
and extrema etas is much greater than is 
really intended, or than the dates of the 
poems will admit of. See on iy. 25, 8. 
The poet merely means that youth is fit 
for singing of love, maturer age of war 

8.1 Quando, quandoquidem, ἐπειδή. 

9.1 Sudbducto vultu, ‘withdrawn into it- 
self,’ 7. δ. sober and demure. 

11.] Lachmann punctuates thus: ‘Surge, 
anime, ex humili: jam carmine sumite 
vires, Pierides.’ This appears to me to be 
an alteration without improvement, though 
he is followed by Jacob and Hertzberg. 
Barth and Keil, ‘surge, anima, ex humili 
jam carmine, sumite vires.—ez is here 
‘after... Kuinoel and Lachmann give 
anime, with Burmann. 

13.] The sense is, ‘The Euphrates no 
longer boasts of its Parthian horseman, 
Jjidentem fuge versisque sagittis’ Georg. 
111. 31.—post terga tueri, ἵ. ὁ. to watch for 
the opportunity of turning round and dis- 
charging a fatal arrow at the pursuer. 
Crassos tenuisse, non remisisse. Both father 
and son were killed in that unfortunate 
expedition, B.c. 53—4. Whence Ovid, 

A.A. 1, 179, ‘Crassi gaudete sepulti.’ 
See inf. v. 6, 83. 

10,1 Intacte Arabie. From this verse 
Hertzberg (Quest. p. 217) deduces the date 
of the poem. The allusion is to the ex- 
pedition of Alius Gallus (see on νυ. 8) in 
730, which was miserably defeated and de- 
stroyed. Now he rightly argues that had 
this unfortunate termination already oc- 
curred, the poet would not have mentioned 
it, as reflecting discredit rather than praise 
on Augustus: and therefore that this was 
written when the expedition was contem- 
plated, B.c. 25, or in 729. Arabia is called 
tntacta because the Roman arms were first 
brought against it on this occasion. Barth 
compares ‘intactis opulentior Thesauris 
Arabum,’ Hor. Od. iii. 24,1. The length- 
ening of ἃ in Arabia is one of the many 
instances of the metrical licence taken by 
both Greek and Latin poets in proper 
names. Similarly Arabium limen i. 14, 
19: and ii. 3, 15. 

19.] Castra sequar, i.e. as if a bard 
attached to the expedition on purpose to 
celebrate its victories. Hertzberg com- 
pares iv. 9, 43, ‘prosequar et currus utro- 
que ab litore ovantes:’ but this refers 
rather to following the triumphal car in 
the procession to the capitol. 

21—4.] The simile is a very original 
one. ‘As, when we cannot reach the head 



Ponitur hic imos ante corona pedes, 

Sic nos nunc, inopes laudis conscendere carmen, 
Pauperibus sacris vilia tura damus. 

Nondum etiam Ascrzeos norunt mea carmina fontes, 

Sed modo Permessi flumine lavit Amor. 



Scribant de te alii, vel sis ignota licebit ; 
Laudet, qui sterili semina ponit humo. 

Omnia, crede mihi, secum uno munera lecto 
Auferet extremi funeris atra dies. 

Et tua transibit contemnens ossa viator, 5 
Nee dicet: Cinis hic docta puella fuit. 


Quicumque ille fuit, puerum qui pinxit Amorem, 

Nonne putas miras hunc 

of a lofty statue, we are compelled to lay 
at its feet the crown we have brought as 
an offering: so I, at a loss to rise to the 
height of heroic song, am content to give 
a trifling tribute.’ Kuinoel misinterprets 
hie ante pedes (v.22) by ‘tune, ubi non 
licet.’ It is rather the Greek αὐτοῦ ὑπὸ 
ποσίν, as if the place where to lay the 
crown were pointed out to the party offering 
it. See on i. 19, 7.— laudis conscendere 
carmen, ‘illud assequi culmen, quo epici 
poetz perveniunt carminibus suis.’— Barth. 
Miiller reads culmen after Heinsius. So 
v.10, 3, ‘Magnum iter ascendo.’ Or we 
might suggest cwrrum.—sacris, see on v. 6, 
1, ‘sacra facit vates,’ and iv. 1, 3, ‘primus 
ego ingredior puro de fonte sacerdos’ &e.— 
vilia tura, cheap and common: compare 
nulla mercede hyacinthos vy. 7, 33. συ. 1, 
‘Vesta coronatis pauper gaudebat asellis; 
Ducebant macree vilia sacra boves.’ 

25.] For etiam Miiller reads etenim, and 
says the vulgate omni vacat sensu. 

25—6.] ‘I am not yet a Hesiod: the 
only skill I have attained in versification 
was taught me by Love.’ Permessus 
Hesiod. Theog. 5) was a spring near to 

ippocrene, and sacred to the Muses. The 
antithesis is not so much between a greater 
and a less fountain, as between heroic and 
amatory subjects. On lavit, i.e. lavit me, 
Hertzberg remarks, that bathing in, as 

habuisse manus 7 

well as drinking of, the sacred well was 
thought to inspire poetic rapture.—modo, 
7. 6. tantummodo. 

II. This isolated and perhaps fragment- 
ary ἐπύλλιον was probably written under 
the excitement of some momentary vexa- 
tion, perhaps caused by the indifference 
Cynthia had manifested towards some of 
the poet’s verses. He warns her not to 
rely too much on her present popularity, 
which, he intimates, arises from his praises, 
and that she possesses no quality which 
will cause her name to be known to pos- 
terity. Jacob (who in this particular re- 
spect almost always echoes Lachmann’s 
dictum) too confidently writes, ‘Neque 
elegiam primam finitam esse, et hujus 
initium desiderari, certum est.’ 

2.] ‘Let him praise you henceforth who 
is willing to undertake a vain task.’ 

3.] Omnia munera. ‘Carmina illa, que 
laudes tuas celebrant.’—uinoel. Rather, 
I think, ‘all your accomplishments,’ ζ. e. 
beauty and mental endowments, the latter 
of which are alluded to in y. 6.—wno lecto, 
the bier on which the body was carried to 
the pyre. See on y. 11, 12. 

III. An elegant but difficult little poem 
on the symbolism embodied in the popular 
representations of love. 



Hic primum vidit sine sensu vivere amantes, 
Et levibus curis magna perire bona. 

Idem non frustra ventosas addidit alas, 5 
Fecit et humano corde volare deum; 

Scilicet alterna quoniam jactamur in unda, 
Nostraque non ullis permanet aura locis. 

Et merito hamatis manus est armata sagittis, 

Et pharetra ex humero Gnosia utroque jacet; 


Ante ferit quoniam, tuti quam cernimus hostem, 
Nec quisquam ex illo vulnere sanus abit. 

In me tela manent, manet et puerilis imago; 
Sed certe pennas perdidit ille suas, 

Evolat heu! nostro quoniam de pectore nusquam, 


Assiduusque meo sanguine bella gerit. 

Quid tibi jocundum est siccis habitare medullis ? 
Si pudor est, alio trajice tela tua. 

Intactos isto satius tentare veneno: 

Non ego, sed tenuis vapulat umbra mea; 


Quam si perdideris, quis erit qui talia cantet ? 

8.1 Sine sensu, ἀναισθήτως, appovtic- 
τως. Is the allusion to Love being blind? 
Theocr. ix. 19, τυφλὸς δ᾽ οὐκ αὐτὸς 6 
Πλοῦτος, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡφρόντιστος ~Epws.— 
levibus curtis, i.e. pre negligentia ; or, per- 
haps, ‘with indifference,’ οὐ φροντίζειν 
ἀπολλυμένης τῆς οὐσίας. 

6.] Humano corde. These words have 
been very variously interpreted. Hertz- 
berg seems right in considering them the 
ablative of place, ‘to flit i the human 
heart.’ If it can be shown from ancient 
art that love was represented as a heart 
with wings affixed, such an image would 
be well expressed by the words in the 
text, where hwmano corde would be the 
ablative of the mode. In the next verse, 
scilicet is in explanation of the epithet 
ventosas. The wings, says the poet, typify 
our ever-changing destinies, and the fickle- 
ness of the gales by which we are driven, 
as it were, this way and that.—alterna 
unda, ‘modo tranquilla, modo commota.’— 
Barth. This is not satisfactory. Probably 
it means ‘up and down,’ 7.¢. now on the 

crest, now in the trough of the wave. So 
alterna manu, 1. 9, 24. 
10.] Ex humero utroque, Not that he 

had two quivers, as Hertzberg remarks, 
but that the quiver with its strap (amen- 

tum) may be said to hang from both 
shoulders. But I have some suspicion 
that the sense is this: the quiver, when 
not in use, hung at the back, from both 
shoulders; when used, it was pulled to 
one side, and so was suspended only from 
the opposite shoulder. In this case, Love 
holds the barbed arrow ready in his hand, 
because (quoniam) he aims instantaneously, 
before we can see his movements from a 
position of security, and does not wait to 
draw the arrow from the quiver. I agree 
with Hertzberg in rejecting Jacob’s emen- 
dation, jacit. 

13.] Puerilis tmago. He appears to 
mean Cupid himself, but uses the word 
imago because he is describing the details 
of his image or picture. 

17.] Miiller reads gui for guid, and in 
the next verse, 7, puer, en, alio &c., the 
Naples MS. giving puer for pudor. 

20.] Tenuis umbra. The commentators 
observe that the poets (as Theocr. ii. 55) 
speak of love as draining the life-blood of 
its votaries. At the same time the poet 
probably. alludes to his own attenuated 
frame, iii. 13, 21. 

21.] δὲ perdideris, ‘if you utterly 
destroy the poor lover, who will equally 
well sing your (Cupid’s) praises δ᾽ 



Heee mea Musa levis gloria magna tua est, 
Quz caput et digitos et lumina nigra puelle, 
Et canit, ut soleant molliter ire pedes. 


Non tot Achzemeniis armatur Itura sagittis, 
Spicula quot nostro pectore fixit Amor. 

Hic me tam graciles vetuit contemnere Musas, 
Jussit et Ascreeum sic habitare nemus: 

Non ut Pierize quercus mea verba sequantur, 


Aut possim Ismaria ducere valle feras, 
Sed magis ut nostro stupefiat Cynthia versu: 
Tune ego sim Inachio notior arte Lino. 

Non ego sum forme tantum mirator honeste, 

Nec si qua illustres femina jactat avos ; 

23—4.] Miiller and Keil, with Lach- 
mann and Hertzberg, read gui caput—, et 
canat—, from the Naples MS., regarding 
the preceding verse as parenthetical, and 
thus continuing the construction from gui 
talia cantet in v.21. The authority for 
the two readings being about equal, the 
sense of that given in the text seems pre- 
ferable; ‘This muse of mine, humble as it 
is, is a great glory to you, in extolling as 
it does the various perfections of my mis- 
tress,’ i. 2, 27.—digitos ; see on il. 2, 5. 

IVY. There does not appear to be suffi- 
cient reason for following those editors who 
would divide the present long elegy into 
three, viz. at v. 17, and v. 43. Here again, 
as remarked on ii. 9, there is a discrepancy 
of opinion which goes far to invalidate the 
whole theory. For while Lachmann and 
Kuinoel, after others, break the continuity 
of the poem at the points mentioned, Hertz- 
berg makes no stop at v.17, and Jacob 
none at v. 43. I hope to shew at the 
proper place that the elegy may fairly be 
regarded as a whole and complete com- 
position. The subject is, that the poet’s 
memory will survive in his poems; to 
which are added some general, but by no 
means desultory or unconnected, reflections 
on his death. 

1.] The authentic copies have efrusca 
or hetrusca, for which Barth, Lachmann, 
Kuinoel, Jacob, Keil, and Miiller, give 
Susa, after Beroaldus, who professed to 
have found it in a MS., though doubtless 


a corrected one. Hertzberg follows the 
conjectural correction of Pontanus, [tura ; 
and this seems the most plausible emenda- 
tion, from the celebrity of the Itursans in 
archery: compare Georg. ii. 448, ‘ Itureeos 
taxi torquentur in arcus.’ The epithet 
Achemeniis (Persiax) may very well arise, 
Hertzberg observes, from the imperfect 
geographical knowledge and confusion be- 
tween the names of eastern nations which 
prevailed in the Augustan age. Itura, or 
Iturcea, was situated on the N.E. of Pales- 
tine, and was an Arabian tribe. See Tac. 
Ann. xii. 23. 

2.1 Spicula. The metaphor seems to 
show that the present was written soon 
after, or in continuation of, the preceding 
elegy, of which ef. v. 13. 

3.] Graciles, slight and slender, opposed 
to graves, amatory to heroic verse. 

4.1 Site. ‘Love compelled me to be 
a poet to this end, viz. not to make the 
Thracian oaks and wild beasts follow me 
like a second Orpheus, but in order to 
captivate Cynthia.’ Kuinoel, by placing 
a full stop at remus, v. 4, shows that he 
misunderstood the sense. 

8.1 Zune. ‘Then, and then only,’ viz. 
if I succeed in this, ‘should I surpass the 
fame of the Grecian Linus.’ Sim appears 
to be εἴην ἂν, not the expression of a wish. 
See on i. 13. 31, ‘Inachiis et blandior 

10.] Nee st qua. The sentiment ap- 
pears to be a general one. But see on iy. 
20, 8. 

LIBER III. 4 (5). 


Me juvet in gremio doctz legisse puelle, 
Auribus et puris scripta probasse mea. 
Hee ubi contigerint, populi confusa valeto 
Fabula; nam domina judice tutus ero. 

Qu si forte bonas ad pacem verterit aures, 


Possum inimicitias tune ego ferre Jovis. 
Quandocumque igitur nostros nox claudet ocellos, 
Accipe qu serves funeris acta mei; 
Nec mea tunc longa spatietur imagine pompa, 

Nec tuba sit fati vana querella mei; 


Nee mihi tune fulcro \sternatur lectus eburno, 
Nec sit-in Attalico mors mea nixa toro. 
Desit odoriferis ordo mihi lancibus; adsint 

11.] Jwvat Kuinoel, with some inferior 
copies. Lachmann accutely observes that 
hee ubi contigerint,v. 13, implies that such 
a result as her critical approbation was yet 
to come. — auribus puris, ὠσὶ καθαροῖς, 
properly purgatis in a physical sense, Hor. 
Ep.i.1, 7. Pers. Sat. v.63; then, such as 
are capable of appreciating harmony, &e. 
—docte. The emphasis is on this word: 
Tis not only beauty and rank, but talent 
and judgment which captivate me.’ Com- 
pare with this passage ii. 3, 9—22.—pro- 
basse, to make them acceptable to, com- 

13.] Confusa fabula. ‘The vague and 
contradictory talk.’ We may infer from 
this that the poet had his calumniators. 
To this probably v. 16 alludes. 

15.] Ad pacem,. If she listens to the 
proposals of peace offered in my poems, I 
eare not if Jupiter himself is my enemy. 

17.] Having spoken of his verses with 
some slight self-congratulation, he proceeds 
to say, that he wishes for no other honour 
to be paid to his memory, than that they 
should be carried in his funeral procession ; 
and accordingly, he leaves instructions to 
that effect. 1 do not think it necessary to 
add a word in refutation of Kuinoel’s re- 
mark, even though echoed by both Lach- 
mann and Jacob, ‘Que inde a y. 17 le- 
guntur, neutiquam cum antecedentibus co- 
hzrere jam Brouckhusius, Hemsterhusius, 
Burmannus, alii, monuerunt.’ 

18,7 ‘Hear’ (this is said to Cynthia) 
‘the instructions which you are to observe 
in conducting my funeral.’ On this pe- 
culiar use of acta, see i. 21, 6. 

19.] ‘Longa imagine. Pro longa ima- 
ginem serie dixit.’— Hertzberg. querella, 
see on v.11, 9. The Romans had a singular 
custom of preserving waxen masks or like- 
nesses of their ancestors, arranged in order 
round the atrium, and used only on the 
occasion of funerals. They are called 
*picti vultus majorum,’ Juven. viii. 2, who 
alludes to them also éid. 19, ‘Tota licet 
veteres exornent undique cere Atria, no- 
bilitas sola est atque unica virtus.’ Ovid, 
Fast. i. 591, ‘Perlege dispositas generosa 
per atria ceras.’ -Amor.i. 8, 65, ‘Nec te 
decipiant veteres quinquatria cere : Tolle 
tuos tecum, pauper amator, avos.’ See 
Becker, Gallus, p. 512; ‘Men, resembling 
in size and figure the persons to be repre- 
sented, placed these masks before their 
faces, and marched along in front of the 
lectus, clad in the dress appropriate to each, 
with all the insignia appertaining ; whence 
also Hor. Epod viii. 2, ‘Esto beata: funus 
atque imagines ducant triumphales tuum.’ 
Thus the whole row of ancestors swept 
along, represented by living individuals in 
proper costume, in front of the corpse; and 
this was not confined to those in direct 
ascent, but the collateral branches also sent 
their imagines to the cavalcade; as is seen 
from Polybius. This is what Pliny xxxv. 
2 calls ‘gentilitia funera,’ Supra, i. δ, 24, 
‘Nescit amor priscis cedere imaginibus.’ 
From this the more modern, though now 
nearly obsolete, practice of heraldic pur- 
suivants and blazonry has originated. 

22.) Mors mea, t.e. cadaver meum. 
Attalico: see on v.5, 24. ‘Sectaque ab 
Attalicis putria signa toris.’ 



Plebei parvee funeris exequie. 

Sat mea sat magna est, si tres sint pompa libelli, 25 
Quos ego Persephone maxima dona feram. 

Tu vero nudum pectus lacerata sequeris, 
Nec fueris nomen lassa vocare meum, 

Osculaque in gelidis pones suprema labellis, 

Cum dabitur Syrio munere plenus onyx. 


Deinde, ubi suppositus cinerem me fecerit ardor, 
Accipiat Manes parvula testa meos, 

Et sit in exiguo laurus superaddita busto, 
Que tegat extincti funeris umbra locum. 




Nec minus hee nostri notescet fama sepuleri, 
Quam fuerant Phthii busta cruenta viri. 
Tu quoque si quando venies ad fata (memento 

Hoc iter) ad lapides cana veni memores. 

24.] The Zances here spoken of seem to 
be small metallic pans, containing frank- 
incense, and carried in front of the pro- 
cession. These are not to be confounded 
with the perfumes placed with the burnt 
bones in the urn; see i. 17, 22. Among 
the articles consumed on the pyre Virgil 
(din. vi. 224) enumerates ‘thurea dona, 
dapes, fuso crateres Olivo.’ The immense 
quantity of perfumes used in funerals may 
be inferred from Juvenal, iv. 109. 

25.] Sce introductory note to the first 
elegy of this Book. The construction is: 
‘sat magna est mea pompa, si sint tres 
libelli,’ &c. The best copies give sat mea 
sit magni si Ke. 

29,71 Pones. In the imperative sense, 
like segueris v.27. Kuinoel has ponas, 
from some inferior copies, which likewise 
give sequare. This use of the future is 
principally confined to persons, being an 
imitation of the Greek optative with ἄν. 
On this principle the poet writes accipiat 
rather than accipiet, v.32. On manes for 
ossa, see note on v.11, 1. 

33.] Busto is used in the proper sense, 
for the spot on which the body was burnt. 

35.] All the good copies agree in horrida. 
Kuinoel and even Jacob give arida from 
the corrected MSS. Hertzberg well ob- 
serves on the vulgate: ‘ Tristes et deformes 
mortui reliquias compto illi et eleganti 


quondam Venerei hominis cultui oppositas 
puta.’ The first part of the distich may 
have been siste, viator, iter, or some such 
familiar formula of address. 

38.] Phthii viri, i.e. of Achilles, over 
whose tomb Polyxena was sacrificed. The 
construction is remarkable: on minus 
notescet quam busta fuerant (nota). On the 
inchoative form of the substantive verb 
esco, like the Greek ἔσκον for ἦν, Hertzberg 
has a good note: but the limits of the 
present work only allow a reference to it. 
See Varronianus, p. 396. 

39.] ‘Hoc ait:’ Tu quoque aliquando 
moricris—nee unquam velim hoe oblivis- 
care—sed opto, ut diu etiam in vivis sis, 
neve nisi anus ad inferos et sepulera 
venias; illic ego semper tui memor ero.’— 
Hertzberg. ‘When you too shall come to 
die, come (¢.e. may you come) at a ripe 
age to join me in Hades, where be sure 
that I shall expect your arrival.’ See on 
i. 19, 17.—lapides, i.e. me sepultum. Supra, 
vy. 32, where see note. There is an an- 
tithesis in cana and memores, rather implied 
than expressed. Compare i. 19, 17. ‘Quam- 
vis te long remorentur fata senectee, Cara 
tamen lacrymis ossa futura meis.’ But 
the verse is probably corrupt. No other 
pentameter in the elegy ends with three 
syllables; and the correction ‘memento— 
cara yenire meos’ is plausible. 

LIBER III. 4 (5). 


Interea cave sis nos aspernata sepultos: 
Nonnihil ad verum conscia terra sapit. 

Atque utinam primis animam me ponere cunis 
Jussisset queevis de tribus una soror! 

Nam quo tam dubiz servetur spiritus hore ? 

Nestoris est visus post tria secla cinis; 
Cui si longzevee minuisset fata senecte 
Gallicus Iliacis miles in aggeribus, 

Non ille Antilochi vidisset 

Diceret aut: O mors, cur mihi sera venis ? 

corpus humari, 

Tu tamen amisso non numquam flebis amico: 
Fas est preeteritos semper amare viros. 

Testis, cui niveum quondam percussit Adonin 
Venantem Idalio vertice durus aper. 

Ulis formosum jacuisse paludibus, illue 

41.] Interea, between the present time 
and your yet remote decease. The sense 
is, ‘slight me not in the grave, for the 
dead have some perception of what is pass- 
ing on earth, and therefore can be pained 
by being forgotten.’ The pantheistic doc- 
trine of earth itself being a divinity possessed 
of consciousness and volition, is here enun- 
ciated. Whether we should construe ad 
verum sapit or ad verum conscia, seems un- 

43.] Having spoken of the uncertainty 
of the time of death, he passes into a 
natural reflection, that it would be better 
to die young than to live long in a state of 
suspense and anxiety. In a word, the 
subject of death is followed out to the con- 
clusion of the elegy in a manner, to say 
the least, not inconsistent with the senti- 
ments already expressed. Hertzberg calls 
these verses ‘pannus infeliciter assutus.’ 
See however the introductory note. 

45.] ‘For to what purpose should life 
be preserved for an event so unforeseen 
and uncertain as death ? 

47.] The best copies read Quis tam 
longeve &c., of which it seems impossible 
to make any plausible sense, though it is 
retained by Keil. With Lachmann, I have 
admitted an anonymous conjecture Cwi s?, 
approved also by Jacob. Hertzberg, loath 
to part with tam, gives Cui tam longeve, 
understanding s? ; which is very awkward 
and unsatisfactory. Barth reads si tam 
longeve ἕο. When Cui si had been cor- 
rupted into quis, it was natural to add tam 
to prop up the metre. 


48.] The word Gallicus seems corrupt; 
nor has any very probable conjecture been 
proposed. Lachmann reads Siius Iliacis, 
‘me probante,’—says Jacob. It appears 
to me to be liable to the same objection as 
Colchis Colchiacis ii. 1, 54. Kuinoel ex- 
plains: ‘Gallicus miles, Phrygius, Tro- 
janus, a Gallo Phrygie fluvio, de quo y. 
Ovid, Fast. iv. 364. Stephanus de urbibus: 
Γάλλος ποταμὸς Φρυγίας. Hertzberg 
thinks it barely possible that Propertius 
may have borrowed the name from some 
Alexandrine or Cyclic poet, or even from 
Callimachus, referred to by Pliny, WV. H. 
vi. 1. 

49.] Antilochi. A remarkably parallel 
passage occurs in Juvenal, x. 260, ‘ Atten- 
das, quantum de legibus ipse queratur 
Fatorum, et nimio de stamine, cum videt 
acris Antilochi barbam ardentem,’ &c. 

51.] ‘Yet you will be sorry to lose me, 
and if you long survive me, will regret for 
the rest of your life that you loved me so 
little.’ — preteritos, oixopévouvs. ‘It is 
usual to love when too late,’—fas est, 7. ὁ. 
mos hominum. 

53.] Testis (Venus) cui &e. The MSS. 
and early edd. have Zestis gui, which in- 
troduces the manifest absurdity of a boar 
being a witness to a moral truth. Hertz- 
berg, Lachmann, and the later editors have 
admitted eu? from the conjecture of Huschk. 
Kuinoel gives Testis, quem niveum quondam 
percussit, Adonis, &e. 

55.] The construction is, ‘illis paludibus 
(dicitur eum) formosum jacuisse; illic tu 
diceris isse’ &c. Kuinoel has flevisse for 




Diceris effusa tu, Venus, isse coma. 
Sed frustra mutos revocabis, Cynthia, Manes: 
Nam mea quid poterunt ossa minuta loqui ? 


Non ita Dardanio gavisus Atrida triumpho est, 
Cum caderent magne Laomedontis opes; 
Nec sic errore exacto letatus Ulixes, 
Cum tetigit care ltora Dulichie, 
Nee sic Electra, salvum cum vidit Oresten, 5 
Cujus falsa tenens fleverat ossa soror, 
Nec 516 incolumem Minois Thesea vidit, 
Deedaleum lino cum duce rexit iter, 
Quanta ego preterita collegi gaudia nocte: 

Immortalis ero, si altera talis erit. 


At dum demissis supplex cervicibus ibam, 

jacuisse, from some of the early editions. 
Lachmann, from his own conjecture, die 
Jormosis jacuisse &e. The construction of 
the vulgate reading is so harsh that its 
correctness cannot be relied upon. Miiller’s 
emendation, vocitasse for jacuisse, seems to 
have but small probability. 

57—8.] ‘You will vainly call on me in 
the grave. Shew your affection for me 
while I have the faculty of speech, and 
can return it.’—dogui, 7. e. respondere. ef. 
28, ‘nec fueris nomen lassa vocare meum.’ 
—minuta, when reduced to fragments on 
the pyre. 

V. ‘Letitia exultat, quod amica tandem 
et preter opinionem suam potitus fuerit. 
Letitiam suam inde perceptam aflirmat 
majorem fuisse et esse, (1—8) letitia Aga- 
memnonis, Troja capta; Ulyssis, cum finito 
errore in patriam revenisset; Electra, cum 
salyvum adspexisset Orestem; Ariadne, 
cum Thesea sospitem vidisset. Duo priora 
exempla (1—4) gaudium indicant post 
longum temporis spatium perceptum ; pos- 
teriora, (6—8) nec opinatum.’—Awinoel. 

4.] Dulichig. See onii. 2, 7. In Homer, 
the name is always written Δουλίχιον, nor 
does any passage in either of his poems 
imply that this island was part of Ulysses’ 
dominions. On the contrary, each of the 
adjacent group seems to have had its 
regulus or hero-chief. Here, however, 
(and compare iii. 12, 13), Dudichia stands 

for Ithaca; or rather, a part of the domin- 
ions is put for the whole. The word is 
perhaps a form of δολιχός, ‘Long Island.’ 

6.] alsa ossa, the urn with the pre- 
tended ashes of Orestes, as described in the 
Chephorce and in the Electra of Sophocles. 

7.1 Nee sic, i.e. letus or laetatus.—cum 
vexit &e., when she had guided his steps 
safely out of the labyrinth of Dedalus by 
the clue of a thread. 

11.] Demissis cervicibus, i. 6. demisso 
capite, humiliated and forlorn as one re- 
jected.—The expression sicco lacu vilior 
can only be understood by reference to 
local customs. In volcanic districts, where 
water 15 at once bad and scarce, tanks 
were, and still are, used (the λάκκοι of the 
Greeks: see on y. 1, 124) for collecting 
and preserving the precious gift of nature. 
The well-known epigram of Martial (iii. 
57) is thus to be explained: ‘Callidus im- 
posuit nuper mihi caupo Ravenne; Cum 
peterem mixtum, vendidit ille merum;’ 
that is, water was dearer than wine, as the 
preceding epigram distinctly asserts: ‘ Sit 
cisterna mihi quam yinea malo Ravenne, 
Cum possim multo vendere pluris aquam.’ 
When these tanks were dry, the disappoint- 
ment of the thirsty traveller who had ex- 
pected a supply from them, induced him 
to turn away with disgust, and originated 
the proverb ‘more worthless than a dry 
tank.’ The tanks in Rome, supplied by 
the aqueducts, can hardly be meant, since 

—— τὶ 

LIBER III. 5 (6). 

Dicebar sicco vilior esse lacu. 
Nee mihi jam fastus opponere querit iiquos, 
Nec mihi ploranti lenta sedere potest. 

Atque utinam non tam sero mihis nota fuisset 

Conditio! cineri nunc medicina datur. 
Ante pedes czcis lucebat semita nobis; 
Scilicet insano nemo in amore videt. 
Hoe sensi prodesse magis: Contemnite, amantes; 

Sic hodie veniet, si qua negavit heri. 

Pulsabant alii frustra dominamque vocabant ; 
Mecum habuit positum)lenta puella caput. 
Heee mihi devictis. potior victoria Parthis, 
Hee spolia, hee reges, heee mihi currus erunt. 

Magna ego dona tua figam, Cytherea, columna, 

Taleque sub nostro nomine carmen erit: 


Nune in te, mea lux, veniat mea litore navis 

these were never sicc?. Compare iii. 14, 2. 
‘Tpsa petita lacu nune mihi dulcis aqua 

13,] Fastus. See note on i. 1, 3.—op- 
ponere mihi, i.e. ‘to reply to my entreaties 
by a cold refusal.’ 

14.] Potest, ‘has she the heart.’ —Jenta, 
apathetic, heartless, indifferent, as inf. 22, 
se. lenta aliis. Cf. i. 15, 4. 

16.] Conditio. That the way to over- 
come contempt in a mistress is to show 
contempt for her in return. This appears 
from y. 19, where some have perverted the 
sense of the whole passage (15—20) by 
reading contendite from an interpolated MS. 
—cinert medicina datur, 7. ὁ. the remedy is 
known too late. A proverb, perhaps; ‘’tis 
too late to give drugs to dead men.’ 

17.) Ante pedes ἕο. ‘The road lay 
clear and bright before us as we walked, 
but we were blind and saw it not; people 
never do see, when madly in love.’ Hence 
the saying that Cupid is blind. The mean- 
ing is, that the poet did not perceive, 
blinded by his love, that the best way of 
treating Cynthia was to requite her with 
affected indifference. 

24.] Hee ἕο. The more usual idiom 
is ‘Ai reges, hi mihi currus erunt.’ 

25.] Tua columna. On the pillars of 
the temples it was the custom to hang 
votive verses: see iii, 20, 43. ‘ Pro quibus 

optatis sacro me carmine damno.’ In the 

present instance, probably always, some 
gift was attached, like the ‘gilt palm’ in 
Tibullus, i. 9, 82. See also Ovid, Am. ii. 
13, 25 (quoted by Kuinoel). ‘The votive 
tabule attixed to the walls are well known 
from Hor. 04. 1. 5, 14.—sub nostro nomine. 
Kuinoel gives munere on the authority of 
a late MS. We must suppose that the 
gift was accompanied with the dedicatory 
words ‘ Propertius posuit,’ and that wnder 
the name the distich was written.— Exuvie 
must be understood in continuation of the 
metaphor in y. 23, ἡ. 6. Cynthia’s favours 
wrested from his rivals, and represented by 
some offering to Venus. 

27.] The use of the plural edes (mean- 
ing a temple and not a house) is remark- 
able. Kuinoel and even Lachmann read 
@dem from Scaliger’s correction. 

29.] ‘Henceforth it depends on you 
whether my bark is to come safe to shore, 
or to be stranded on the shoals.’ The 
MSS. and editions have ad te, which I 
have ventured, with Heinsius, to alter to 
in te. The vulgate is retained by Keil and 
Miiller, who think the difficulty removed 
by an interrogation at vadis. tm te was 
altered to ad te, as I conceive, in con- 
sequence of veniat.. Kuinoel adopts (in his 
note; for he retains ad te in his text, by 
an oversight), α te from one MS., which 


Servata, an mediis sidat onusta vadis. 



Quod si forte aliqua nobis mutabere culpa, 
Vestibulum jaceam mortuus ante tuum. 


O me felicem! o nox mihi candida! et o tu 
Lectule, deliciis facte beate meis! 

Quam multa apposita narramus verba lucerna, 
Quantaque sublato lumine rixa fuit! 

Nam modo nudatis mecum est luctata papillis, 5 
Interdum tunica duxit operta moram. 

Illa meos somno lapsos patefecit ocellos 

Ore suo, et dixit: 

Siccine, lente, jaces ? 

Quam vario amplexu mutamus brachia! quantum 

Oscula sunt labris nostra morata tuis! 


Non juvat in ceco Venerem corrumpere motu : 

Si nescis, oculi sunt in amore duces. 
Ipse Paris nuda fertur periisse Lacena, 
Cum Menelaéo surgeret e thalamo ; 

Nudus et Endymion Phoebi cepisse sororem 

Dicitur et nudz concubuisse deez. 
Quod si pertendens animo vestita cubaris, 

Scissa veste meas experiere manus; 

Quin etiam, si me ulterius provexerit ira, 

Ostendes matri brachia lesa tue. 

he explains by a questionable ellipse, @ te 
pendet. Lachmann reads ‘nunc da te, 
mea lux, venit mea litore navis servata: 
an mediis sidat onusta vadis??—For sidat 
Jacob has given sistat from the Groning. 
MS.: but the common reading seems much 
more appropriate. Jacob indeed maintains 
the reverse, but on grounds not connected 
with the reading given in the text. Cf. 
iv. 24, 16. 

81. ] ‘If you should unfortunately change 
your feelings towards me through any fault 
of mine, my wish then is that I may be 
found dead before your door, and so give 
a proof of my affection to the last.’ See 
i. 16, 17 seqq. On vestibulum see Becker, 
Gallus, p. 237. 

VI. The subject is continued from the 


last, and probably refers to the same oc- 
casion. He reiterates his profession of 
ardent attachment and fidelity to Cynthia. 

1.7 Felicem. The hiatus, or non-elision 
of the final m, is remarkable. In Plautus 
it seems often to occur, where modern 
editors thrust in some word to evade 1. 
In this case it would be easy to read o te 
nox mihi candida. 

7.] Zila has the same emphasis as if he 
had said illa ipsa suo carissimo ore &e. 

13.] Fertur. Some lost ‘Homeric’ or 
‘Cyclic’ account is clearly alluded to. 

ie J Cubaris. We may notice here and 
inf. 7, 23, the archaism cubavi for the 
more usual cubui. The address to Cynthia 
is sudden, but this is a common practice 
with the poet, e.g. ii. 9, 16. 

LIBER III. 6 (7). 

Necdum inclinate prohibent te ludere mamme ; 
Viderit hee, si quam jam peperisse pudet. 

Dum nos fata sinunt, oculos satiemus amore: 
Nox tibi longa venit, nec reditura dies. 

Atque utinam herentes sic nos vincire catena 2 


Velles, ut numquam solveret ulla dies! 
Exemplo junctze tibi sint in amore columbe, 

Masculus et totum femina conjugium. 
Errat, qui finem vesani queerit amoris: 

Verus amor nullum‘\novit habere modum. 

Terra prius falso partu deludet arantes, 
Et citius nigros Sol agitabit equos, 
Fluminaque ad caput incipient revocare liquores, 
Aridus et sicco gurgite piscis erit, 

Quam possim nostros alio transferre dolores: 

Hujus ero vivus, mortuus hujus ero. 

Quod mihi si secum tales concedere noctes 
Illa velit, vite longus et annus erit; 

Si dabit hc multas, fiam immortalis in illis: 

Nocte una quivis vel deus esse potest. 

Qualem si cuncti cuperent 
Et pressi multo membra 
Non ferrum crudele neque 

21.] Necdum, ‘et nondum.’ ‘ Besides, 
such Jusus befits your youth,’ τῷ νέῳ τε 
καὶ σφριγῶντι σώματι, Eur. Androm. 196. 
—viderit hec-&c., ‘let that be the concern 
of those who regret they are past child- 
bearing,’ which you are not. See inf. 9, 

25.] Catena, ‘jugo Veneris.’ Jacob.— 
velles, addressed to Cynthia, ‘I would that 
you might consent,’ &c. Kuinoel has 
vellent, i.e. fata; the conjecture of Bur- 
mann. The allusion in catena is to the 
well-known legend of Mars and Venus in 
Hom. Od. viii. 275, &c. 

28.] Totum conjugium, ὦ. 6. qui solo suo 
conjugio fruuntur; quo toti sibi, non aliis, 
dediti sunt. The order of the words is, 
‘masculus et femina, totum (in se ipsis) 
conjugium.’ ‘Unus columbus non nisi 
unam columbam in coniugio habet.’— 

31.] Falso partu, monstroso, ‘unna- 
tural.’ Juyenal, Sat. xiii, 64, ‘Egregium 

decurrere vitam, 

jacere mero, 
esset bellica navis, 

sanctumque virum si cerno, bimembri Hoc 
monstrum puero, vel miranti sub aratro 
Piscibus inventis, aut fete comparo mult.’ 

33.] Revocare. See 1. 15, 29.— piseis 
erit, ἃ, ὁ. live fishes will be found in the 
dry bed ofa river. That this, here spoken 
of as a prodigy, is literally true under 
certain circumstances, is asserted by Sir 
Emerson Tennent in his Natural History 
of Ceylon, chap. x. 

35.] Jacob and Lachmann, with Barth 
and Kuinoel, read calores from the Aldine. 
—dolores is much more elegant, and may 
easily bear the same sense. 

39.] ‘Even a single year will seem long 
for my life.’ With the next verse com- 
pare v. 10 of the preceding: ‘immortalis 
ero, si altera talis erit.’ 

41.] Jacob alone has deducere from the 
Groning. MS. The sense is, ‘If all man- 
kind would worship Venus and Bacchus, 
the service of Mars would soon cease.’ 



Nec nostra Actiacum verteret ossa mare, 

Nec totiens propriis circum oppugnata triumphis 

Lassa foret crines solvere Roma suos. 
Hee certe merito poterunt laudare minores: 

Leserunt nullos pocula nostra deos. 

Tu modo, dum lucet, fructum ne desere vite: 
Omnia si dederis oscula, 

Ac veluti folia arentes liquere corollas, 
Que passim calathis strata natare vides, 

Sic nobis, qui nune magnum speramus amantes, 
Forsitan includet crastina fata dies. 

44.] Verreret, Barth and Kuinoel with 
Sealiger. Lachmann defends the vulgate 
by Virgil’s use of volvere, Georg. iv. 25, 
to which Hertzberg adds An. i. 100, 
‘scuta virum galeasque et fortia corpora 
volves.’ But volvo and verto are not sy- 
nonymous; and the conjecture of Scaliger 
has much to commend it. 

45.] ‘Rome beset all around by its own 
victories’ is a bold figure. Propriis tri- 
umphis is interpreted by Kuinoel evvidibus 
victoriis ; and perhaps propriis may signify 
de se ipsa reportatis. ‘The idea however is, 
that its victories have been but so many 
defeats, and that it has been wearied in 
weeping for its own citizens. Solvere 
crines refers to the dishevelled hair of cap- 
tives. See v. 11,38. ‘Africa tonsa,’ which 
relates to the same custom, since either 
cutting off or letting fall the long hair im- 
plies the same disregard of personal adorn- 
ment. So Livy, i. 26, ‘Solvit crines, et 
flebiliter nomine mortuum sponsum ap- 
pellat.’—Lassa solvere, as lassa vocare, iii. 
4, 28. 

47.] Hee, sc. what he ayows in the 
next verse, that the gods have never been 
outraged by his intemperance. See v. 42. 
It is probable that there is an allusion to 
Antony’s well-known propensity, since this 
would be in keeping with the reference to 
the battle of Actium ν. 44. This however 
is mere supposition, the sense being com- 
plete in itself, ‘Whatever posterity shall 
say of our pleasures, they cannot charge 
us with the crime of provoking the gods to 
take vengeance on our country.’ 

49.] Dum lucet, t.e. antequam adyes- 

pauca dabis. 50 
perascit. Compare supr. vy. 2. Lachmann 

and Kuinoel give dum licet, hunc &e. The 
Groning. MS. has dwm liceat, the ed. Rheg. 
dum licet, the Naples MS. alone dum lucet. 
Miiller reads dum licet, o fructum &e., the 
good copies omitting hunc.—ne desere, noli 
deserere, μὴ προδῷς, do not relinquish or 
resign it. 

51.] A very choice and original simile, 
or rather, a new way of expressing an old 
one. ‘Life is as frail as the leaves which 
fall from the garlands on the heads of the 
guests, into the goblets.’ This sense of 
calathus (usually ‘a flower-basket’) is 
found in Virg. Eelog. v.71, ‘ Vina novum 
fundam calathis Ariusia nectar.’ Compare 
111. 25, 37. 

53.] Lachmann and Kuinoel prefer spi- 
ramus; a conjecture, though a probable 
one, of Scaliger’s. It is adopted also 
by Keil and Miiller, and by Barth, who 
compares μέγα πνεῖν and μέγα φρονεῖν. 
Yet with magnum we may understand 
Sructum from ν. 49. 

54.] Includet fata. This is generally 
interpreted ‘finiet vitam.’ Hertzbeag has 
suggested a more natural meaning of the 
words, ‘crastina dies nos mortuos Orcino 
thesauro tradet,’ and he ingeniously ex- 
plains from this verse the obscure one in 
Hor. Od. i. 24, 17, ‘Non lenis precibus fata 
recludere.’ In fine, fata being used for 
mortuos, the notion of inclosing in the 
tomb is so natural a one, that it is found 
under some form or other in many passages, 
e.g. Vv. 11, 2, ‘Panditur ad nullas janua 
nigra preces.’ 

᾿ LIBER III. 7 (8). 



Pretor ab Illyricis venit modo, Cynthia, terris, 
Maxima preeda tibi, maxima cura mihi. 

Non potuit saxo vitam posuisse Cerauno ? 
Ah, Neptune, tibi qualia dona darem! 

Nune sine me plena fiunt convivia mensa, 5 
Nunc sine me tota janua nocte patet. 

Quare, si sapis, oblatas ne desere messes, 
Et stolidum pleno, veliere carpe pecus. 

Deinde, ubi consumpto restabit munere pauper, 

Dic alias iterum naviget Lllyrias. 


Cynthia non sequitur fasces, nec curat honores; 
Semper amatorum ponderat illa sinus. 

At tu nune nostro, Venus, 0 succurre dolori, 
Rumpat ut assiduis membra libidinibus. 

Ergo muneribus quivis mercatur amorem ? 
Juppiter, indigna merce puella perit. 

VII. Written to upbraid Cynthia for re- 
newing a connexion with a certain wealthy 
but unintellectual official, already alluded 
toi.8. He will not allow himself to sup- 
pose she cares for anything but his money; 
hence he directs his approaches rather 
against her avarice than the fickleness of 
her attachment. 

“1.1 Illyricis. From i. 8, 2, it appears 
that the pretor was governor of the pro- 
vince of Illyricum; and as on a former 
occasion he had proposed to carry Cynthia 
with him from Rome, so now on his return 
he desires to renew an old acquaintance. 
It may appear strange that the poet should 
dare to speak so insolently (v. 8 and 24) 
of a dignity like the Praetorian presidency 
ofaprovince. Yet Tacit. Ann. iv. 52, calls 
Domitius Afer, ‘recens pretura, modicus 
dignationis:’ whence it may be inferred 
that expretors (to whom under Augustus 
the provinces were generally assigned, Asia 
and Africa being proconsular appointments), 
were of no very high rank. The student 
will refer to the ‘ Dictionary of Antiquities,’ 
under Provincia, for a full account of their 
administrative powers. That the govern- 
ment of a province was a most lucrative 
appointment is certain from abundant tes- 
timonies. See Juvenal, viii. 87—122. 

7.] δὲ sapis &e., said, of course, in 

bitter irony. 

8.7 Pleno vellere. ‘Pluck him while 
his fleece hangs thick upon him,’ ὦ. 6. before 
he is stripped of it by those who are ready 
and willing to plunder him. ‘There is per- 
haps an allusion to the golden fleece, so 
that pleno might mean, ‘full of gold dust.’ 
So Caligula called Junius Silanus, pro- 
consul of Asia, ‘pecus aurea,’ Tac. Ann. 
xill. 1. 

10.] Alias &c., that he may get rich by 
plundering another province. 

11.] Having told Cynthia, in a taunting 
manner, to make the most of her prize, he 
adds, in the same strain, ‘’tis not so much 
rank and honour that my Cynthia cares 
for,as money. She always feels the pockets 
of her lovers to see if they are heavy.’ 
There is perhaps a double sense in sinus, 
the folds of the toga and the feelings of 
the heart; and if so, he ironically means 
that Cynthia does zot care for the deyotion 
of lovers, but only for their wealth. 

14.] Rumpat ut, i.e. faciendo ut &e. 

16.] Indigna merce, ‘for an inadequate 
price.’ Lachmann reads, Juppiter, indig- 
num! merce puella perit! But he rightly 
explains the vulgate, ‘indigna hercle ista 
merx est, qua puella veneat,’ while he less 
correctly objects that such a sense should 
have followed a specific mention of gold 



Semper in Oceanum mittit me querere gemmas, 
Et jubet ex ipsa tollere dona Tyro. 
Atque utinam Rome nemo esset dives, et ipse 

Straminea posset dux habitare casa! 


Numquam venales essent ad munus amice, 
Atque una fieret cana puella domo. 

Non, quia septenas noctes sejuncta cubaris, 
Candida tam fcedo brachia fusa ὙΠῸ ; 

Non quia peccaris, testor te, sed quia vulgo 


Formosis levitas semper amica fuit. 
Barbarus excussis agitat vestigia lumbis, 

Et subito felix nunc mea regna tenet. 
Aspice quid donis Eriphyla invenit amaris, 

Arserit et quantis nupta Creusa malis. 


Nullane sedabit nostros injuria fletus ? 
An dolor hic vitiis nescit abesse tuis ? 

and gems, and not a gencral enuntiation, 
muneribus. Hertzberg gives a sufficient 
reply to this: ‘puella merce perit, indigna 
(re) qua puella pereat. Semper enim in- 
digna merx, qua puella talis pereat.’-—pervt, 
‘is thrown away,’ ‘is lost,’ perditur. 

17.] Mittit me. The connexion is, ‘I 
now see that it was from her natural 
avarice that she was ever asking me for 
gifts.’ The expression is of course hyper- 
bolical. See oni. 14, 12. 

20.] ‘I would that the emperor himself 
could have lived, like Romulus of old, in 
a thatched hut.’ There is an allusion to 
the casa Romuli, on which see v. 1, 9. 

23.] Septenas. Here used for septem. 
—fusa brachia, a Grecism like flores in- 
seripti nomina. Virg. Ec. ὃ, 1006. περι- 
πεπλεγμένη ὠλένας. See oni. 3, 34. 

25.] The editors agree in pecearis, which 
(according to Jacob, but not to Lachmann 
and Hertzberg), is the reading of the MS. 
Groning. The rest give pecearim. ‘ Phi- 
lippus Beroaldus correxit.’ Lachmann. 
‘Non te testem appello tui unius peccati, 
sed communis formosarum mulierum levi- 
tatis, 7. ὁ. non tantum indignarer, si sola tu 
hoc commisisses scelus, quantum quod jam 
nulli puelle confidere licet.’—Hertzberg. 
The sense is, ‘I make this appeal to your 
feelings, not so much from offence at your 
fault in particular, but because frailty seems 
inseparable from beauty.’ These verses 
contain in fact an apology for her conduct 
rather than a reproof. Jacob has adopted 

a punctuation which destroys wholly the 
even tenour of the passage; sed guia—bar- 
barus &c., the intermediate words being 
taken as parenthetical. 

27.] For excussis Miiller suggests ecce 

28.] Mea regna, ‘the queen of my 
heart.’ Cf. v. 7, 50, ‘longa mea in libris 
regna fuere tuis.’ 

29.] Aspice—quid invenit. See on i. 2, 
9. The story of Eriphyle, wife of Am- 
phiaraus, who betrayed her husband for 
the bribe of a necklace from Polynices, 
and was put to death in consequence by 
Alemzon, Apollodor. iii. 6, 2, is familiar to 
most.—To Creusa, alias Glauce, daughter 
of Creon king of Corinth, Medea sent an ~ 
embroidered robe besmeared with phos- 
phorus. Hertzberg objects that this is 
not a case in point, since it does not 
appear that Creusa was bribed; and he 
supposes the poet to have followed, as else- 
where, an account now lost. But the 
general idea in view is the evil arising 
from gifts, and the danger of women re- 
ceiving them under any circumstances. 

31.] ‘Sedadit fletus, efficiet ut Cynthiam 
contemnam, ab eaque discedam.’—Auinoel. 

32.] ‘Am I to grieve for ever at your 
perfidious conduct, or shall I not cast you 
off if you continue to offend? τ. 6. ‘an 
ego, quamvis dolens, nunquam potero a te 
vitiosa decedere > For tus Kuinoel gives 
suis, with the Naples MS. and ed. Rheg. 
Lachmann reads ah dolor from his own 

LIBER III. 7 (8). 


Tot jam abiere dies, cum me nec cura theatri, 
Nec tetigit Campi, nec mea Musa juvat. 

At pudeat certe, pudeat: nisi forte, quod aiunt, 

Turpis amor surdis auribus esse solet. 

Cerne ducem, modo qui fremitu complevit inani 
Actia damnatis eequora militibus. 

Hune infamis amor versis dare terga carinis 

Jussit, et extremo querere in orbe fugam. 


Cesaris hee virtus et gloria Cesaris hee est: 
Illa, qua vicit, condidit arma manu. 

Sed quascumque tibi'vestes, quoscumque smaragdos, 
Quosve dedit flavo lumine chrysolithos, 

Hee videam rapidas in vanum ferre procellas, 


Que tibi terra, velim, que tibi fiat aqua. 
Non semper placidus perjuros ridet amantes 

Juppiter, et surda negligit aure preces. 
Vidistis toto sonitus percurrere clo 

Fulminaque etheria desiluisse domo: 50 
Non hee Pleiades faciunt, neque aquosus Orion, 

Nee sic de nihilo fulminis ira cadit: 

conjecture. (Hertzberg is wrong in attri- 
buting ah to MS. Gron. the mistake arising 
from confounding this with y. 35). 

35.] Pudeat, ἠσχυνόμην ἄν. This is 
said in respect of the advice so often 
tendered by his- friends. See i. 1, 26. 
a, pudeat certe, Miiller, with MS. Gron. 

36.] Turpis amor, i.e. infamis, ‘ disre- 
putable attachments refuse to hear the ad- 
vice of friends.’ 

87.] ‘Look at the case of Antony, and 
his infatuated attachment, and then say if 
it is easy to pause in the career of love 
before it has brought ruin.’ 

38.] Damnatis, cf. v. 6, 21, ‘altera 
classis erat Teucro damnata Quirino.’ 72. 
11, 15, ‘damnate noctes, et vos, vada 
lenta, paludes.’ The construction is not 
very clear; probably damnatis militibus is 
the ablative absolute, ‘when his crew 
were condemned to defeat by the deified 
Romulus.’ Barth explains it, ‘ quos sena- 
tus cum duce Antonio hostes judicaverat.’ 

39.] Insanus amor Miiller, with the in- 
ferior copies. He says these words are 
sometimes confused by transcribers.—amor, 
viz. Cleopatre. 

40.] Extremo orbe, t.e. by making sail 
for Egypt, v. 6, 63. 

42.] Condidit, he sheathed the sword 

with the same hand by which he conquered. 
For, as Aristotle says, Eth. N. x, 7, πολε- 
μοῦμεν ἵνα εἰρήνην ἄγωμεν. 

43.] Smaragdos. On the metrical pe- 
culiarity see on v. 4, 48. 

44.) Dedit, sc. praetor iste. 

46.] Fiat. So all the editors but Jacob, 
who gives fiet from the MSS. while he ad- 
mits the necessity of the correction. The 
meaning of vy. 43—6 is, ‘Perish the gifts 
he has given you! May they turn to vile 
earth and water in your possession!’ The 
expression is proverbial. Kuinoel quotes 
Hom. 71. vii. 99, ἀλλ᾽ ὑμεῖς μὲν πάντες 
ὕδωρ καὶ γαῖα γένοισθε. Tibull.i. 10, 11, 
‘ At deus illa In cinerem et liquidas munera 
vertat aquas.’ 

47—52.| See oni. 15, 25, and compare 
Juvenal, xiii. 223; Persiusi. 24; Aristoph. 
Nub. 399, from which it is clear that the 
ancients thought death by lightning the 
proper and peculiar punishment of perjury. 
Kuinoel refers to Tibull. iii. 6, 49, ‘ perjuria 
ridet amantum Jupiter, et yentos irrita 
ferre jubet.’ 

δ. For fulminis ira cadit Miiller con- 
jectures numinis ira calet. Compare how- 
ever Asch. Theb. 424, οὐδὲ τὴν Διὸς ἔριν 
πέδῳ σκήψασαν ἐκποδὼν σχεθεῖν. 



Perjuras tune ille solet punire puellas, 
Deceptus quoniam flevit et ipse deus, 

Quare ne tibi sit tanti Sidonia vestis, 


Ut timeas, quotiens nubilus Auster erit. 


Mentiri noctem, promissis ducere amantem, 
Hoe erit infectas sanguine habere manus. 

Horum ego sum vates, quotiens desertus amaras 
Explevi noctes, fractus utroque toro. 

Vel tu Tantalea moveare ad flumina sorte, 5 
Ut liquor arenti fallat ab ore sitim; 

Vel tu Sisyphios licet admirere labores, 
Difficile ut toto monte volutet onus: 

Durius in terris nihil est, quod vivat, amante, 

Nec, modo si sapias, quod minus esse velis. 


Quem modo felicem, invidia admirante, ferebant, 
Nune decimo admittor vix ego quoque die. 
Nune jacere e duro corpus juvat, impia, saxo, 

53.] Tune, 7. ὁ. quoties fulminat. 

55.] ‘A Tyrian garment is an uneasy 
possession, if the owner has to fear every 
storm ;’—‘exanimis primo quoque mur- 
mure cli,’ Juven. xiii, 224. 

VIII. He complains of having been 
deceived by a promise of admittance. 

1—2.] ‘To disappoint a lover is as bad 
as to be a murderess.’ This alludes to 
v.13, where he threatens to kill himself. 
Hence ‘hoe erit,’ i. ὁ. you will be answer- 
able for my death. Compare for the senti- 
ment iii. 13, 46. 

8.7] Horum ego sum vates. ‘TI foretell 
that such an event will happen, (ze. I 
think of suicide) whenever I have to pass 
the night alone.’ ‘Per utrumque torum 
intelligitur utraque tori pars, sc. sponda 
interior et exterior.’ Ovid, Am.1, 14, 82. 
‘Cur pressus prior est interiorque torus? 
fractus, nam qui somno frui non_ potest, 
membra hue et illue versat.’—Auinoel. 
Compare v. 3, 31, ‘tum queror in toto non 
sidere pallia lecto,’ and on 1. 14, 21, ‘et 
miserum toto juvenem versare cupili.’ He 
means both sponda and pluteus (Becker, 
Gallus, p. 291). For fractus, 1. ὁ. fatigatus, 
Miiller feebly reads stratus, a conjecture of 
Keil’s. Hertzberg has a long note in ex- 

planation of uterque torus for utrague pars 
tort, which he defends on the principle 
that adjectives of number are often added 
to singular substantives to express the 
component parts of a whole, as non omnis 
moriar, multa aqua &c., and perhaps he 
ΤΕ have added totum conjugium, iii. 6, 

5—10.] ‘You may commiserate Tan- 
talus and Sisyphus, but a lover is more 
truly deserving of your pity.’ The con- 
struction is, ‘licet vel moveare Tantali ἡ 
sorte ad flumina (stantis), quomodo liquor 
ab ore (recedens) fallat sitim, ¢.e. sitien- 

11.] Invidia admirante, ‘Envy herself 
standing aghast at my good fortune.’ 
Martial, ep. v. 6, 5, ‘et sis invidia fayente 

13.] Nune—juvat. ‘Now Iam disposed 
to commit suicide.’ I doubt if the reader 
would stop to raise an objection against 
this passage, were he not told ‘corruptum 
locum critici omnes senserunt,’ and that 
Lachmann, in a note of two pages in 
length, defends his conjectural reading 

Jubet for juvat, while Hertzberg devotes 

more than a page to prove that the two 
distichs 13—16 should be transposed, and 
licet substituted for juvat ; both of which 

LIBER III. 9 (10). 


Sumere et in nostras trita venena manus. 

Nee licet in triviis sicca requiescere luna, 


Aut per rimosas mittere verba fores. 
Quod quamvis ita sit, dominam mutare cavebo. 
Tum flebit, cum in me senserit esse fidem. 


Assiduz multis odium peperere querelle: 
Frangitur in tacito, femina szepe viro. 
Si quid vidisti, semper vidisse negato; 

Aut si quid doluit forte, 

dolere nega. 

Quid si jam canis «tas mea candeat annis, 5 

corrections he admits into the text. But 
the chief seat of the corruption is presumed 
to be in v. 15, where all the MSS. have 
nec licet. Kuinoel gives nune licet, Hertz- 
berg nee juvat. Rejecting these alterations 
as altogether uncertain and by no means 
necessary, we may translate, ‘Nor is it 
possible to sleep in the streets when the 
moon is waning, and so to whisper through 
a chink in the door.’ Probably (at least 
the hypothesis is not an extravagant one) 
the Romans thought the night air pecu- 
larly unwholesome when the moon was 
waning ; and every one knows what danger 
there is in the malaria of an Italian night. 
Sicca luna, a singular expression, derived 
from a popular notion that the apparent 
expansion and diminution of the moon's 
disk arose from the vapours which it im- 
bibed or parted with. The commentators 
refer to Anacreon xix. 5, and Pliny, NV. H. 
xvii. 9. Lachmann supposes nee licet to 
refer to the care taken by his rival the 
Pretor, mentioned in the foregoing elegy, 
and probably alluded to in this, to prevent 
his access to Cynthia: to which Hertzberg 
objects that decimo quoque die he was per- 
mitted to see her, which would hardly 
have been the case under such circum- 

14.] Trita. So the Groning. and Naples 
MSS. Hertzberg supposes there is a re- 
ference intended to the embrocades (éy- 
χριστά) of the ancient pharmacy. Kui- 
noel's tetra has but little authority. 

17—18.] ‘However, I shall take good 
care not to leave her for another; and 
perhaps in the end my constancy will 
move her to relent.’ 

IX. In this elegy the poet grows not 
only impatient of Cynthia’s cruelty, but so 
unpolite as to taunt her with becoming old, 
and dyeing her hair. There is something 
amusing in the pettish spite with which he 
denounces this innocent article of the toilet 
(v.27). It seems extraordinary, since the 
two taunts are so naturally connected, that 
Lachmann and Jacob, and even Kuinoel, 
Keil, and Miiller (who, however, generally 
follow Lachmann), should suppose a new 
elegy commences with v. 23. ‘There is no 
more reason for thinking with Jacob and 
Kuinoel that something may have been 
lost after v. 32: and here Lachmann holds 
the contrary opinion. 

1—2.] ‘Too much complaining often 
engender dislike; while keeping silence 
(ἡ. 6. enduring in silence) often regains an 
estranged mistress.’ Herizberg shrewdly 
remarks on this, ‘Ipse secum agit poeta, 
et dum in rebus amatoriis vulgaris sapien- 
tize preceptis in ordinem redigere ipsum 
se fingit, figurata hac et composita oratione 
falsam istam doctrinam irridere se signi- 

3.] Vidisse negato. Compare Juvenal, 
1, 56, ‘doctus spectare lacunar, Doctus et 
ad calicem vigilanti stertere naso.’ 

4.1 Doluit, ἐλύπησε, used transitively, 
as in i. 16, 24.—dolere, i. e. nega id tibi 
dolori esse. 

5.] Lachmann, Jacob, and Hertzberg 
adopt the reading of MS. Gron. and ed. 
Rheg., as given in the text. Kuinoel and 
Miiller have guid mea si canis etas can- 
desceret annis, in which they follow the 
Naples MS., except that the latter has 
canesceret. Some of the latter MSS. give 



Et faciat scissas languida ruga genas ? 
At non Tithoni spernens Aurora senectam 
Desertum Eoa passa jacere domo est. 
Illum seepe suis decedens fovit in undis, 

Quam prius adjunctos sedula lavit equos. 


Tlum ad vicinos cum amplexa quiesceret Indos, 
Maturos iterum est questa redire dies, 

Tila deos currum conscendens dixit iniquos, 
Invitum et terris preestitit officium ; 

Cui majora senis Tithoni gaudia vivi, 


Quam gravis amisso Memnone luctus erat. 
Cum sene non puduit talem dormire puellam, 
Et cane totiens oscula ferre come. 
At tu etiam juvenem odisti me, perfida, cum sis 

Ipsa anus haud longa curva futura die. 


Quin ego deminuo curam, quod sepe Cupido 

caneret. Barth ventures to edit ‘quid si 
jam canis tas mea caneret annis?’ Hertz- 
berg thinks the passage corrupt, on the 
ground that candeo ‘de splendido maxime 
colore dicitur.. The argument does not 
seem worth much, especially as he quotes 
Tibull. i. 10, 48, where it is used of grey 
hair. Anyhow, the meaning of the poet 
is perfectly clear: ‘If you slight me in my 
youth, how would you treat me as an old 

6.] Languida, ‘attesting the fecbleness 
of age.’ 

7.1 ‘Aurora could love Tithonus, old as 
he was; whereas I (vy. 19) am still in the 
prime of manhood.’ ‘These verses are very 
beautiful, and by no means difficult, though 
much altered and perplexed by the com- 
mentators. Hoa domo, ‘in Oriente, ubi sol 
surgere visus.’ The ‘abode’ of Aurora is 
in the East. When she was obliged to 
depart to perform her duties of giving light 
to the world (y. 14), she did not leave him 
without a parting embrace, but fovit, nyd- 
πησε, ‘hugged him,’ and that seis ix undis, 
where, as the dawn first rises (to an 
Italian) over the sea, her chamber was 
feigned to lie. Jacob quotes Hom. Hymn 
in Ven. 227, where it is said that Tithonus, 
while young, vate map’ ᾿Ωκεανοῖο pons ἐπὶ 
πείρασι γαίης, but when old he was petted 
by the goddess in her home, αὐτὸν δ᾽ αὖτ᾽ 
ἀτίταλλεν ἐνὶ μεγάροισιν ἔχουσα. Lavit 
equos refers to the plunge through the sea 

from the submarine stabulum in which they 
had passed the night. Kuinoel, Barth, and 
even Lachmann, totally pervert the mean- 
ing of these lines by reading unis and 
abjunctos. Keil and Miiller also read 
ulnis, retaining adjunctos. 

10.] Quam prius. For priusquam. 
Surely this is a remarkable usage. For 
to compare, as Kuinoel does, Ovid, Trist. 
iv. 9, 31, ‘hoc quoque, quam volui, plus 
est,’ is clearly nothing to the purpose. It 
would only have been applicable had the 
present passage been ‘quam layit, prius 
fovit ;’ a construction by no means with- 
out examples. The peculiarity here is the 
placing the particle of comparison quam, 
without the action compared, before the 
comparative adverb prius. The commen- 
tators generally pass it over without re- 
mark. See however on ili. 17, 26. 

12.] JDfaturos, ‘all too soon.’ 

16.] Amisso Memnone. This is not 
mentioned by Homer, who only records 
the name Od, xi. 522. 

20.] Anus futura. From this verse, 
and perhaps we may add, from the fact 
that she was childless (v. 33), it might be 
inferred that Cynthia was somewhat ad- 
vanced in life. See however iii. 6,21. The 
word juvenis is so indefinite that it is not 
clear whether she was older than the poet. 

21.] Quin ego diminuo curam. ‘Let me 
however console myself with the reflection, 
that Cupid is fickle, and often punishes 

LIBER III. 9 (10, 11). 


Huic malus esse solet, cui bonus ante fuit. 
Nune etiam infectos demens imitare Britannos, 
Ludis et externo tincta nitore caput ? 

Ut natura dedit, sic omnis recta figura est: 

Turpis Romano Belgicus ore color. 
fh sub terris fiant mala multa puelle, 
Qu mentita suas vertit inepta comas! 
De me, mi certe poteris formosa videri: 

Mi formosa satis, si modo sepe venis. 


An si ceruleo quedam sua tempora fuco 
Tinxerit, idcirco catula forma bona est ? 
Cum tibi nec frater nec sit tibi filius ullus, 
Frater ego et tibi sim filius unus ego, 

those whom he before favoured.’ This use 
of guin, properly asking a question, ‘ Why 
do Inot?’ and thence in a hortatory sense, 
is familiar to every scholar. 

23.) Infectos, ‘stained with woad.’ 
nune etiam, t.e. at your time of life, when 
these follies might reasonably cease. 
Though perhaps in Cynthia’s view it was 
just the time to begin them. From the 
practice of dyeing the hair, the poet draws 
an exaggerated comparison of staining the 
whole body.—Ludis, ἀφροδισιάζεις : com- 
‘pare Jusu, 111. 24, 29. The ancient Britons 
are said to have stained themselyes with 
woad (¢satis tinctoria), to which colour he 
alludes in ceruleo, v.31. Compare Martial, 
ep. xi. 53. The Eastern practice of staining 
the eyes, nails, &c. with henna probably 
led to the adoption of similar customs in 
Rome. See the curious fragment of Ovid, 
Medicamina Faciei, which contains the re- 
cipes for various cosmetics. Id Rem. Amor. 
351, ‘Tum quoque, cum positis sua collinet 
ora venenis, Ad dominze yultus, nec pudor 
obstet, eas. Pyxidas invenies, et rerum 
mille colores, &c. Dyeing the hair is 
frequently alluded to: cf. Ovid, Amor. i. 
14, 1, ‘Dicebam, medicare tuos desiste 
eapillos: Tingere quam possis, jam tibi 
nulla coma est.’ Tibull. i. 8, 48, ‘Tum 
studium forme: coma tum mutatur, ut 
annos Dissimulet viridi cortice tincta nu- 
cis;’ which appears to refer to the peel of 
fresh walnuts. 

24.1 Nitor is here the glossy colour of 
the flavi crines of which the Romans were 
so fond. See ii. 2, 5. 

25.] Recta est, καλῶς ἔχει. 
see i. 4, 9. 

On figura 

26.] Belgicus color. There is some 
doubt as to the precise meaning of this 
expression. Both Kuinoel and Hertzberg 
agree with D’Orville that ‘Dutch soap,’ 
spuma Batava, Martial, viii. 23, 20, is 
meant, a preparation with which the an- 
cient German tribes inhabiting that country 
used to dye their hair red, the ‘flava 
ceesaries’ (Juven. 13, 165) of that people 
being well known. Compare also Martial, 
xiv. 26, ‘Caustica Teutonicos accendit 
spuma capillos.’ The same writer (iii. 43) 
mentions the practice of staining gray hair : 
‘Mentiris juvenem tinctis, Lentine, ca- 
pillis; Tam subito corvus, qui modo cyg- 
nus eras.’ See also lib. iv. ep. 36. 

29.] De me, ‘quod ad me attinet.’ 
Kuinoel, who refers to iii. 24, 21, not quite 
appositely. Compare Martial, ep. i. 18, 4, 
‘de nobis facile est; scelus est jugulare 
Falernum.’—ypoteris, i.e. sepe yeniendo. 

30.] Sat es for satis Miiller after Lach- 
mann and Heinsius. But it is easy to 
supply videris from the preceding. 

31.] ‘Supposing it were the fashion to 
dye the hair blue; would it be becoming 
merely because it was fashionable” By 
an absurd supposition he endeavours to 
throw ridicule upon the custom. 

34.] The editors, by placing a full stop 
at ego have made out a plausible excuse 
for the supposed lacuna after y. 32. The 
sense however is clear enough, and closely 
connected with the preceding verses: ‘Since 
you have no relations to dress for, and 
only me to please, keep to your own en- 
gagements, and do not study personal 
adornment so much.’ In cuwstodia he al- 
ludes to the keepers (see i. 11, 15; iii. 14, 


Ipse tuus semper tibi sit custodia lectus, 


Nee nimis ornata fronte sedere velis. 
Credam ego narranti, noli committere, fame : 
Et terram rumor transilit et maria. 


Etsi me invito discedis, Cynthia, Roma, 
Leetor quod sine me devia rura colis. 

Nullus erit castis juvenis corruptor in agris, 

Qui te blanditiis non sinat esse probam ; 

Nulla neque ante tuas orietur rixa fenestras, 5 
Nee tibi clamatze somnus amarus erit: 

Sola eris, et solos spectabis, Cynthia, montes, 
Et pecus et fines pauperis agricole. 

Illic te nulli poterunt corrumpere ludi, 

Fanaque peccatis plurima causa tuis. 


Illic assidue tauros spectabis arantes, 
Et vitem docta ponere falce comas ; 
Atque ibi rara feres inculto tura sacello, 
Hiedus ubi agrestis corruet ante focos; 

14) who were appointed to protect and 
watch the actions of women in Cynthia’s 
position.—tuus lectus, ὁ. ὁ. your pledges to 
me.—nimis ornata, cf. i. 2, 1 seqq. 

37.] The meaning appears to be, ‘noli 
committere ut ego credam fame de te 
mala narranti.’ Kuinoel explains the verse 
very differently : ‘Credam ego fame de te 
narranti, propterea noli committere, noli 
peceare, nam nihil tacetur.’ Nor is this 
in itself objectionable.—narranti, ‘ gossip- 

38.] Zerras Lachmann. 

X. Addressed to Cynthia on her con- 
templated excursion into the country, and 
written in a cheerful and affectionate tone, 
which presents a strong contrast with his 
anxiety at her absence at Baie, i. 11. A 
very elegant poem, and displaying a fine 
sense of the beauties of nature, to which 
Humboldt (Cosmos, vol. ii. p. 15) considers 
the Romans in general to have been but 
little sensitive. 

2.1 Quod sine me, t.e. quod, quum me 
presto non habeas, &c. For colts, the 
reading of the authentic copies, Lachmann, 

Hertzberg, and Miiller give coles from one 
or two of the later MSS. It is true that 
Cynthia is about to depart, and therefore 
that co/’s must be taken for cultura es ; but 
there seems no great difficulty in such a 
use of the present. 
8.1 Juvenis corruptor. See i. 11, 18, 
9.7 Ludi, i.e. theatrales.—fana, because 
under pretence of religion these places 
were made the scenes of secret meetings 
&e. Compare v. 8,16. Juvenal, ix. 24, 
‘Nam quo non prostat femina templo δ᾽ 
12.] Docta falce, ‘skilful,’ because on 
the art of the pruner the crop of fruit in 
great measure depends. From the judg- 
ment required in selecting proper surcult, 
and cutting away the rest, putare, ‘to 
prune,’ and amputare (ἀμφὶ), ‘to cut away 
on both sides, leaving a central twig,’ sug- 
gested the cognate meaning of rejecting all 
superfluous and intrusive ideas, and fixing 
the mind on one subject, ἡ, ὁ. of thinking. 
13.] tara, ‘only now and then,’ ¢.e. 
your dreaded visits to temples will be few 
and far between. So raris Kalendis, y. 3, 

Protinus et nuda choreas imitabere sura, 

᾿ Omnia ab externo sint modo tuta viro. 

Ipsa ego venabor. 

Suscipere, et Veneri ponere vota juvat. 
Incipiam captare feras, et reddere pinu 

Cornua, et audaces ipse monere canes. 

Non tamen ut vastos ausim temptare leones, 
Aut celer agrestes cominus ire sues: 

Hee igitur mihi sit lepores audacia molles 
Excipere et stricto figere avem calamo, 

LIBER III. 10 (12). 95 
Jam nune me sacra Diane 

Qua formosa suo Clitummnus flumina luco 

Integit, et niveos abluit unda boves. 
Tu quotiens aliquid conabere, vita, memento 
Venturum paucis me tibi Luciferis. 

15.] ‘There you shall dance forthwith,’ 
(protinus, without let or hindrance from 
me) ‘ with bared leg in the festive dance of 
the rustics, so long as no rival is there as 
a spectator.’ 

17.] Sacra. Hertzberg regards this as 
an adjective agreeing with vote. The 
passage, which is obscure, is thus explained 
by him: ‘Jam recuperato Cynthice amore, 
Veneri gratus vota pono suscepta; jam 
nova Dian suscipio, et si propitia mihi 
fuerit in venando, in delubris ejus (he 
autem sunt silvee) prede partem, cornua 
excelsa, suspensurum me voto damno.’ 
Ponere vota is solvere, ἀνατιθέναι, suspen- 
dere. But the simpler sense is, ‘I will 
now make my vows (for success) to the 
goddess of the chase, and lay aside the 
vows I have hitherto made to the goddess 
of love.’ A contrast seems intended be- 
tween the two infinitives, the one to take 
up, the other as it were to Jay down, or get 
quit of certain vows. The custom of 
hanging the spoils of the chase on the 
forest trees is interesting, as showing the 
origin of that ancient and chivalrous adorn- 
ment of baronial halls, horns and heads of 
beasts captured in hunting. See Plutarch, 
Quest. Rom. Siv.; Virg. Eel. vii. 80. Kui- 
noel, who misinterprets the whole passage 
17—20, reads reddere pennis on Burmann’'s 
improbable conjecture. 

21.] The MS. Gron. has temerare, the 
Naples and ed. Rheg. temptare.—vastos, 
‘huge,’ as ‘ vasti ducis,’ v. 10, 40.—Leones 
must be taken as an hyperbolical expres- 
sion, unless any one will seriously maintain 

that the Italian woods sheltered that crea- 
ture in the Augustan age. Yet lions once 
existed in Britain; they are found to this 
day in Asia Minor, and the upper part of 
Greece seems to have been infested with 
them even in the time of Pausanias, who 
says (vi. 5, 3) οὗτοι πολλάκις of λέοντες 
Kal ἐς τὴν περὶ τὸν “OAuuTOV πλανῶνται 
χώραν. The question, perhaps, deserves 
investigation. See Georgie ii. 151; Mar- 
tial, xiv. 30.—The accusative follows co- 
minus tre, as if aggredi was the word he 
had intended. 

23.] Mthi, emphatic; ‘let this then be 
my venture, to lay in wait for the harml@&s 
hare.’— Exeipere, a word used of the hunter 
who les in waiting near his nets, Awor- 
Tomwevos.—stricto calamo, 1, 6. sagitta ad 
jaculandum parata. 

25.] Clitumnus. Sea on y. i. 124. 
Georg. τι. 146-7.—xtveos abluit, a Grecism, 
‘washes them white ;’ because by drinking 
the water of that river cows were believed 
to produce white calyes, so much required 
for sacrifices. The shady banks of the 
river, where it passed through or near the 
poet's paternal estate, are spoken of as 
‘hiding the stream in its own woods.’ 

27.) Aliquid conabere. The commen- 
tators understand by this ‘aliquid nefandi,’ 
so that venturum me would imply a kind of 
threat,—an argument against the hope of 
wronging him with impunity. They are 
perhaps right, though the tender expression 
vita does not seem well to accord with this 
view. May not the poet mean ‘aliquid in 
venando’ ὃ 



Sic me nec sole poterunt avertere silve, 

Nee vaga muscosis flumina fusa jugis, 


+Quin ego in assidua mutem tua nomina lingua ; 
Absenti nemo non nocuisse velit. 


Quid fles abducta gravius Briseide? quid fles 
Anxia captiva tristius Andromacha ? 

Quidve mea de fraude deos, insana, fatigas ? 
Quid quereris nostram sic cecidisse fidem ? 

Non tam nocturna volucris funesta querella 5 
Attica Cecropiis obstrepit in foliis, 

Nee tantum Niobe bis sex ad busta superba 

29.] Sole silve. Not those of his own 
retirement at home, but Cynthia’s country 
abode. ‘Not even your present seclusion 
can prevent me from haying your name 
continually on my tongue,’ (i. 18, 31), ἢ, ὁ. 
from anxieties and fears on your behalf. 
Hertzberg, in a very long note, maintains 
that metare is for movitare; and that in 
this passage it is to be taken literally in 
the latter sense, as in Virgil, Zed. vy. 5, 
‘Zephyris mutantibus umbras,’ and vi. 28. 
En. ν. 707, where motare has less MS. 
authority than mutare. Jacob ingeniously 
suggests metuam, ‘from fearing your name 
on everybody’s tongue,’ (7. 6. the frequent 
mé@htion of you, and your celebrity for 
talent and beauty, which will render your 
real seclusion a difficult matter), ‘lest some 
one should wrong me while absent,’ or 
should try to withdraw your affections 
from me. Perhaps we should read mussem, 
(a word that occurs Virg. 4, xii. 657 and 
elsewhere,) ὦ. ὁ. ‘mutter,’ ‘secretly invoke.’ 
Barth gives the sense thus: ‘silvas, flumina, 
formosam Cynthiam resonare assidue do- 
cebo, atque ita linguis fascinantibus et 
male laudantibus obstrepere non desinam, 
ne tibi nocere possint.’ 

32.] Hertzberg with good reason ob- 
jects to ne nemo velit for ne quis velit, as 
false Latinity. He himself reads non for 
me, with the Naples MS., placing a colon 
at the end of the preceding verse ;—‘ any 
one will be willing to wrong me in my 
absence from you.’ Miiller follows Lach- 
mann in reading ze. Keil edits as given 
in the text above. ‘Lest no one should 
be willing’ can only imply a wish that 

some one should be willing; whereas nemo 
non is quivis, ‘any one may wish’ &e,, ὦ, 6. 
any rival of mine. The passage is difficult, 
and both of these interpretations make 
considerable demands on one’s faith in the 
integrity of the MSS. One of the later 
copies has me for ne. May mé for mihi 
have been the true reading? The sense 
would then be optative, ‘may no one 
wrong me’ &c. Compare utinam nolit, 
11, 2, 15; wtinam velles, 111. 6, 25. 

XI. Kuinoel says, ‘ Hee elegia est una 
ex illis, quas poeta ante omnes reliquas, 
etiam primi libri, scripsit.’ It is difficult 
to say wherein he finds the proof of this; 
in fact, he is generally content to re-echo 
the statements of his predecessors. That 
neither Propertius nor Cynthia observed 
strict fidelity to each other is certain from 
many passages already noticed; and the 
recrimination of the one, followed by pro- 
testations of regard from the other, may be 
supposed to have been frequent during the 
whole course of their connexion. In this 
instance the poet seems to have been the 
offender; for the present elegy is manifestly 
a reply to her expostulations (vy. 33). 

5.] Funesta volucris Attica, Philomel, 
daughter of Pandion.—obstrepit, properly 
ἀντιφωνεῖ, sings against other birds: see 
on i. 16, 46. 

7.1 Niobe—superba are to be taken to- 
gether. The epithet refers to her conceit 
in preferring the beauty of her own off- 
spring to that of Latona, for which offence 
she was punished by the loss of her twelve 
children,—4dis sex ad busta affords a curious 

LIBER III. 11 (13). 


Sollicito +lacrimas defluit a Sipylo. 
Me licet eratis astringant brachia nodis, 

Sint mea vel Danaés condita membra domo; 


In te ego et eratas rumpam, mea vita, catenas, 
Ferratam Danaés transiliamque domum. 

De te quodcumque ad surdas mihi dicitur aures; 
Tu modo ne dubita de gravitate mea. 

Ossa tibi juro per matris et ossa parentis,— 15 

Si fallo, cis heu sit mihi uterque gravis !— 
Me tibi ad extremas mansurum, vita, tenebras: 
Ambos una fides auferet, una dies. 
Quod si nec nomen, nec me tua forma teneret, 

Posset servitium mite tenere tuum. 

instance of the want of the article in the 
Latin tongue (τῶν dé5exa).—tantum, fol- 
lowing tam, need not create any difficulty, 
as some have thought. Compare Moschus, 
14. iti. 37 —44, οὐ τόσον εἰναλίαισι παρ᾽ 
ἀόσι μύρατο δελφὶν, κ.τ.λ. 

8.1 Lachmann, Jacob, Keil, Miiller, and 
Hertzberg, retain the MSS. reading defluit. 
Kuinoel and Barth have depluit, the probable 
conjecture of Scaliger. For the active use 
of defluere Lachmann adduces no more 
satisfactory authority than two passages 
from Claudian. Hertzberg adds the tran- 
sitive construction of ῥεῖν in Eur. Hee. 528. 
Miiller adopts the correction of the elder 
Burmann, Jacrime, 7. e. ‘nec tantum lacri- 
mez defluit a Sipylo ad busta bis sex (libe- 
rorum superbe Niobe.’ But lacrime is 
too far removed from tantum,; and the 
singular is strangely used for tantwm lacri- 
marum. Lachmann reads superne for sz- 
perba or superbe, i.e. superne definit. Even 
this seems unsatisfactory. Perhaps /acri- 
mis, as the poets use fluere sanguine, sudore, 
mero &c. The beautiful legend of Niobe 
turned to stone manifestly arose from a 
water-dropping crag, which at a distance 
resembled the human form. Pausan. Lib. 
i. cap. 21,5, ταύτην τὴν Νιόβην καὶ αὐτὸς 
εἶδον ἀνελθὼν ἐς τὸν Σίπυλον τὸ ὄρος" 7 
δὲ πλησίον μὲν πέτρα καὶ κρημνός ἐστιν, 
οὐδὲν παρόντι σχῆμα παρεχόμενος γυναικὸς, 
οὔτε ἄλλως, οὔτε πενθούσης: εἰ δέ γε 
πορρωτέρω γένοιο, δεδακρυμένην δόξεις ὁρᾶν 
καὶ κατηφῆ γυναῖκα. The ‘Group of Nio- 
be,’ in the Florence collection, is engraved 
in p. 552 of Smith’s History of Greece. 

10.] Domo, the ‘turris aénea,’ Hor. 
Carm. iii. 16, 1, in which Danae was con- 
fined by her father Acrisius. 


11.] Jn te, ‘in your case,’ ¢.e. propter te. 

13.] The construction is, ‘quodcunque 
de te dicitur, id dicitur mihi ad surdas 
aures.’ Cynthia, as Kuinoel observes, had 
evidently offered some explanation for a 
rumour which had reached the poet re- 
specting her conduct. He ingeniously 
turns aside the complaints against himself, 
by assuring Cynthia he never listens to 
what people say of her; implying that she 
ought equally to disregard evil reports re- 
specting himself. — gravitas in the pen- 
tameter is opposed to /evitas, and therefore 
means constantia. 

15.] From this verse we learn that both 
the poet’s parents were dead. Hence the 
allusion ini. 11,23. His father died when 
he was very young: see y. 1,127. The 
use of parentis for patris, as opposed to 
matris, is, as Hertzberg observes, re- 
markable, and the more so because it is 
properly 4 τίκτουσα. The impossibility of 
misunderstanding its meaning 15 a suflicient 
excuse; nor is paterna, which some have 
proposed, likely to be the true reading. 

17.] Mansurum, constantem futurum ; 
or supply fidwmn or in fide. 

18.] Una fides awferet. A poetic way 
of saying in wna eademque fide (cf. vy. 34) 

19.] Nomen. ‘Genus, nobilitas.’—Kui- 
noel. This is clearly wrong: see note on 
i. 1,1. We must understand her reputa- 
tion for beauty and talent, so often alluded 
to before.—mite servitium tuum, ‘the in- 
fluence which you possess, and so gently 
exercise over me, might have retained me,’ 
—an elegant way of saying mitia imperia 
tua, the apparent contrary; but servitium 
tuum is τὸ ἐμὲ δουλεύειν σοι. 




Septima jam plenz deducitur orbita lune, 
Cum de me et de te compita nulla tacent ; 

Interea nobis non numquam janua mollis, 
Non numquam lecti copia facta tui; 

Nec mihi muneribus -nox ulla est empta beatis ; 

Quicquid eram, hoc animi gratia magna tui. 
Cum te tam multi peterent, tu me una petisti; 

Possum ego nature non meminisse tue ? 
Tum me vel tragice vexetis Erinyes, et me 

Inferno damnes, Alace, judicio, 


Atque inter Tityi volucres mea poena vagetur, 
Tumque ego Sisyphio saxa labore geram. 

Nec tu supplicibus me sis venerata tabellis: 
Ultima talis erit, quae mea prima fides. 

Hoc mihi perpetuo jus est, 

quod solus amator 

Nec cito desisto, nec temere incipio. 


Ah quantum de me Panthi tibi pagina finxit, 
Tantum illi Pantho ne sit amica Venus! 

Sed tibi jam videor Dodona verior augur? 
Uxorem ille tuus pulcher amator habet. 

Tot noctes periere! 

21.] Deducitur. ‘ Recte Jacobs. confert 
Ovid, Met. vii. 530, ‘Luna quater plenum 
tenuata retexuit orbem.? Nam deducere 
proprium de opere textorio verbum.’— 
Hertzberg. See i. 16, 41; inf. 25, 38. 

23—4.] Jacob is inclined to prefer non 
unquam with the Naples MS. But the 
sense is obvious: ‘during the last seven 
months all the world has been talking of 
us, (ὦ. 6, saying things to our discredit) and 
yet many times has your door been opened 
to me, and that from regard, not for gifts 
received from me.’ Compare nonnihil for 
plurimum, i. 12, 16.— mollis, opposed to 
dura, crudelis, i. 16, 17—8. 

26.] Quidquid eram (tibi), ‘tue beni- 
volentiw acceptum debeo.’—Kwinoel. 
28.] Nature tue, 1. 6. indolis, 


29.] Tune, z. e. si quando obliviscar. 

30.] ace, see v. 11, 19. 

31.] Mea pena vagetur, inter yagas 
volucres sit. 


Nihil pudet? aspice, cantat 5 

33.] ‘Write me no more supplicatory 
letters: my affection will never change; 
I am not as other lovers, fickle and ca- 
pricious; but my way is not to be easily 
smitten nor soon tired.’—hoe jus est, hance 
legem habeo, hune morem sequor.—The 
last distich is omitted in MS. Gron. 

XII. He boasts of having foreseen the 
true character of one Panthus, a rival, who 
had deceived Cynthia and married another. 

1—2.] ‘In the same degree as Panthus 
has misrepresented and slandered me in his 
correspondence with you, may Venus prove 
adverse,’ i.e. may his recent marriage be 
an unhappy one. For ah, MS. Gron. has 
an. Barth and Kuinoel edit at, the con- 
jecture (a probable one) of Heinsius. 

3.] ‘Do I now seem to have predicted 
truly, when I told you he did not really 
love you? Behold, he has married a wife.’ 

5.] Periere, ‘have been thrown away.’ 
—cantat liber, i.e. vacuus, tui amore non 

LIBER III. 12 (14). 


Liber; tu nimium credula sola jaces. 

Et nune inter eos tu sermo es; te ille superbus 
Dicit se invito seepe fuisse domi. 

Dispeream, si quicquam aliud quam gloria de te 

Queritur; has laudes ille maritts habet. 


Colchida sic hospes quondam decepit Iason: 
Ejecta est; tenuit namque Creusa domum. 

Sic a Dulichio juvene est elusa Calypso: 
Vidit amatorem pandere vela suum. 

Ah nimium faciles aurem prebere puelle, 

Discite desertze non temere esse bone. 
Huic quoque, qui restat, jam pridem queritur alter. 

Experta in primo, stulta, 

cavere potes. 

Nos quocumque loco, nos omni tempore tecum 

Sive egra pariter sive valente sumus. 

obligatus.—cantare implies the indifference 
of one who has no other concern to occupy 
his thoughts. Tw sola jaces, i.e. illo con- 
juge non potiris. 

7—8.] ‘At this very time Panthus and 
his wife are talking about you, and he is 
trying to persuade her that it was not by 
his desire that you so often remained at 
home, but that you were so fond of him’ 
&e. Esse domi, like our familiar phrase, 
implied the intention of admitting a visitor. 
‘Ait te domi fuisse, non quod ille jusserit 
et condixerit, sed quod tu volueris. —Barth. 

9.] Gloria. Compare i. 13, 5, ‘dum 
tibi deceptis augetur fama puellis.’—has 
laudes. ‘ Now that he is married, he boasts 
of your affection for him: he glories in 
having deceived you, just as Jason deceived 
Medea and married Creusa; or as Ulysses 
won the regard of Calypso and then left 
her.’— ille maritus, ironical; ὁ πόσις 6 

12.1 TZenuit namque Creusa domum. So 
Lachmann, Jacob, Hertzberg. with the 
MS. Groning. The common reading is 
tenuis domo. Kuinoel gives ejecta tenuit 
namque Creusadomum. Barth reads ‘Electa 
est tenui namque Creusa domo.’ Miiller 
*ejectee tenuit’ &c., after Ruhnken, who 
also proposed locum for domum. The sense 
however is sufficiently clear: ‘she was 
cast off because Creusa became the wife.’ 
—On Dulichius juvenis, see 111. 5, 4. 

16.] Non temere esse bone, ‘not on such 


slight grounds to earn the title of bone,’ 
ἴ. 6. faciles, from your admirers. The con- 
struction of the nominative is a Grecism: 
see on ii. 9, 7. Hertzberg’s note is rather 
obscure; ‘Déscite hic quasi imperativus 
verbi posse est.’ Rather the verb assumes 
the construction of nolo, incipio, desino &e. 

17.] Hune quoque, Kuinoel. Hine quo- 
que MS.Gron. Keil reads huie quoque qui 
restet; Barth, nune quoque, qui restet ; 
Miiller, Aine quoque qui restat? Lach- 
mann, huie quoque qui restat ὁ Hertzberg 
appears to be right in his view of the 
passage, which has perplexed the commen- 
tators not a little: ‘Hee quoque, (i.e. 
puella nostra, Cynthia,) modo repudiata 
nihil pcena sua didicit; jam enim querit 
alterum amatorem eum, qui restat, quem- 
que in talem eventum 5101 quodammodo 
reseryaverat. In quo idem eam periculum, 
quod in priore modo experta sit, manere 
ait Propertius.’—hute quogue, 7. 6. puelle, 
Cynthiz ; in reference to pwelle used gener- 
ally in 15.—gui restat probably refers to 
the Pretor, supr. El. 7. 

19—20.] ‘You can rely on my devyo- 
tion to you both in health and in sickness.’ 
‘Videtur 1116 rivalis Cynthiam egram 
neglexisse.—Kuinoel. This view is justi- 
fied by ii. 9, 28.—ypariter, t.e. sive egra 
sis sive valeas. The argument is, ‘since 
therefore you can depend upon me alone, 
resign all others and attach yourself to 




Scis here mi multas pariter placuisse puellas, 
Scis mihi, Demophoon, multa venire mala. 
Nulla meis frustra fustrantur compita plantis; 
O nimis exitio nata theatra meo! 
Sive aliquis molli diducit candida gestu 5 
Brachia, seu varios incinit ore modos, 
Interea nostri querunt sibi vulnus ocelli, 
Candida non tecto pectore si qua sedet, 
Sive vagi crines puris in frontibus errant, 

Indica quos medio vertice gemma tenet. 


Que si forte aliquid vultu mihi dura negarat, 
Frigida de tota fronte cadebat aqua. 
Queris, Demophoon, cur sim tam mollis in omnes ? 

Quod queris QUARE non 

XIII. In an epistle to a feigned friend 
the poet describes his own temperament, 
and confesses his weaknesses in a very in- 
genuous strain. It may be inferred from 
y. 20—1, that he had been reproached with 
injuring his health by his follies; he calls 
such reproofs invidia, and, as usual, quotes 
precedents in his favour from Grecian an- 
tiquity. This elegy is concluded by Jacob 
and Lachmann with v. 42. 

1.] Here. The day before he seems to 
have been at the theatre, and expressed his 
admiration for mute puelle whom he saw 
there.—venire, ἴ,6. ea ex causa. Lachmann 
awkwardly and unnecessarily inserts Aine, 
‘scis mi hinc, Demophoon,’ &c.— mala 
means nothing more than amoris vulnera, 
as iii. 17, 48. 

8.1 Lustrantur, ‘are traversed,’ iii. 1, 1. 
No allusion seems intended to the Com- 
pitalia, which would be quite out of place. 

4.1 O nimis &e. ‘And as for the 
theatres—alas! they were made for my 
ruin.’ Such is the sense of this verse. 
Kuinoel and Barth, following the inter- 
polated copies, give omnia in extitium— 
meum. The reading, as Jacob observes, 
seems to have arisen from a mistake, after- 
wards corrected, of the transcriber of the 
Groning. MS. O nimis in exitio, Lach- 
mann, followed by Keil and Miiller, place 
a comma at meo, and a note of admiration 
at modos. But this would make Propertius 
an admirer of the actors; whereas he says 
that while the acting is going on (interea), 

habet ullus amor. 

he is looking at the women in the theatre. 
Lachmann explains interea by ‘dum puelle 
illos artifices spectant.’ 

5.] Diducit Lachmann and Hertzberg 
with Passerat. The MSS. have deducit. 
He speaks of dancers gracefully extending 
their arms, gesticulantes, while performing 
in the lewd farces called mimes, and pro- 
fesses his indifference to the acting, how- 
ever good. 

9.7 Puris, ‘apertis et splendentibus.’— 

10.] Medio vertice. The top-knot, κρώ- 
Bvaos (apparently the English word erope 
or crop), which appears to have been 
fastened with a jewelled pin, perhaps after 
the fashion of the modern Italian women 
(Martial, xiv. 24). This (Roman) method 
of dressing the hair is described in the 
article on acus in the Dictionary of An- 
tiquities. An engraving (art. coma, p. 268), 
is given of a top-knot from the head of 
Diana, and this is perhaps the costume 
alluded to. Compare Ovid, 4. A. iii, 143, 
‘altera succinct religetur more Diane.’ 

14.] The true meaning of this verse 
was first seen by Lachmann; ‘hoc Quare, 
quod tu queris, rationem ewr aliquis amet, 
non habet ullus amor.’ Cur and quare 
(qua re, quur, quor, cur) being different 
forms of the same word, or rather words, 
this repetition is quite appropriate. Hertz- 
berg has collected several instances of this 
custom of guoting a word (which the Greeks 
so neatly express by prefixing the neuter 


Cur aliquis sacris laniat sua brachia cultris, 

Et Phrygis insanos ceditur ad numeros ? 
Unicuique dedit vitium natura creato ; 

Mi fortuna aliquid semper amare dedit. 
Me licet et Thamyre cantoris fata’ sequantur, 

Numquam ad formosas, 

Sed tibi si exiles videor tenuatus in artus, 

Falleris: haud umquam 
Percontere licet; saepe est 

Officium tota nocte valere meum. 

Juppiter Alemenz geminas requieverat Arctos, 

Et celum noctu bis sine rege fuit: 
Nec tamen idcirco languens ad fulmina venit: 

Nullus amor vires eripit 

Quid? cum e complexu Briseidos iret Achilles, 

Num fugere minus Thessala tela Phryges ? 

Quid? ferus Andromache 

article), among which that from Persius, 

v. 87, is the best, ‘Zicet illud et wt volo 
tolle,’ Δ. ἐκεῖνο τὸ ἔξεστι Kal τὸ ὅπως 

θέλω. Compare also Antig. 567, ἀλλ᾽ 
‘HAE μέντοι μὴ λέγ᾽. See inf. iii. 17, 2. 
Miller reads ewe with Huschk, ὦ ὁ. amor 
non curat ; and Lachmann thinks the cor- 
rection plausible. 

15.] ‘You may as well ask the reason 
of the infatuation which makes some votary 
of Cybele cut himself with knives at the 
sound of the Phrygian flute.’ 

17.] Creato, ‘at his birth,’ γεινομένῳ. 
For fortuna Barth and Kuinoel repeat na- 
twra, following as usual a late MS. There 
is no réason for supposing, with Lachmann, 
that fortuna is the ablative, and under- 
standing zatura from the preceding verse, 
—‘ut semper forte fortuna aliquid amet.’ 
The influence of Fortune in love is men- 
tioned ii. 8, 8. 

19.] The sentiment seems a singular 
one, ‘Though I should be struck blind 
like Thamyras or Thamyris (17. ii. 595—-9), 
I shall never be blind to beauty.’ He 
means, however, ‘Though I should be 
blind to all other objects,’ &e. 

25.] Geminas Arctos, i.e. duas noctes, 
Kuinoel’s idea that reguieverat is for requi- 
escere fecerat, is refuted by Jacob at great 
length. A fact so obvious as that requiesco 
is and can be only an intransitive verb 
scarcely requires five pages in the way of 

13 (15, 16). 101 
invide, czecus ero. 20 
est culta labore Venus. 
experta puella 
1056. suas. 

lecto cum surgeret Hector, 

proof. The notion of its active sense 
seems principally to have arisen from an 
unsound remark of Servius on Virg. Μοὶ, 
viii. 4, ‘ Et mutata suos requierunt flumina 
cursus,’ where the accusative depends on 
mutata. But the same learned critic is 
less happy in his brief note: ‘Ceterum 
Alemene genitivus est, qui dependet a 
Jovis nomine, ut Alemene Juppiter ex 
amantium more dicatur.’ It is the dative 
‘acquisitively’ used, ix gratiam Alcmenes. 
See Plautus, Amphitryo, Prolog. 113, ‘et 
hee ob eam rem nox est facta longior, 
Dum cum illa quacum volt voluptatem 
capit.’—geminas Arctos, i.e. duas noctes 
dum se vertunt ea sidera. 
31.] Andromache. ‘This is the reading 
of all the good copies. Hertzberg, who 
whas examined the question with great mi- 
nuteness, (Quest. p. 163—4), contends that 
Propertius always prefers the Greek geni- 
tive in es, rather than the Latin in ae, in 
Greek names of this declension, and that if 
in certain instances the MSS. agree in the 
latter, some reason must be looked for, or 
some corruption be suspected. Hence in 
i. 13, 30, he reads ‘et Lede e partu,’ and 
in the present passage ‘Andromache e 
lecto.” Iam not sufficiently convinced of 
the certainty of the fact, to which there 
are several exceptions, the authority of the 
MSS., or the consistency of the poet in 
such details, either to follow him or to 



Bella Myceneee non timuere rates? 

Ille vel hic classes poterat, 

vel perdere muros. 

Hic ego Pelides, hic ferus Hector ego. 

Aspice uti czlo modo sol, modo luna ministret: 

Sic etiam nobis una puella parum est. 
Altera me cupidis teneat foveatque lacertis, 
Altera si quando non sinit esse locum: 

Aut, si forte irata meo sit facta ministro, 

Ut sciat esse aliam, que 
Nam melius duo defendunt 

velit esse mea. 


retinacula navim, 

Tutius et geminos anxia mater alit. 
Aut, si es dura, nega: sin es non dura, venito! 
Quid juvat et nullo ponere verba loco? 

write Andromaches with Lachmann. This 
learned scholar is of opinion that the names 
Andromeda, Clytemnestra, Leda, Cinara, 
and generally Electra, forming the Greek 
nominative in a, not in 7, always form the 
genitive in @ But not even this rule can 
be considered an absolute one: he admits 
the occurrence of Hypermnestre and Andro- 
mede in Ovid, and also supr.i. ὃ, 4; v. 7, 
638, and 67. 

33.] A confused expression for vel ile 
(Hector) classes, vel hie muros perdere po- 
terat : where the usual rule for the use of 
hic and ille is not observed. See on ii. 1, 
37.—‘ hie ego nempe in amoris militia.’— 
Kuinoel. For the concluding ego perhaps 
we should read with MS. Gron. evo. In 
either case hic is the adverb, sc. in hac 
nostra militia. 

36.] Sie etiam, viz. by change and ro- 

39.] Meo ministro. See on v. 3, of the 
next elegy. He appears to allude to some 
offence given to Cynthia by his servant. 
Jacob proposes mero, i.e. inter vina. There 
is no necessity for the change, were it¥ 
better than it is.—auwt—wut sciat gives a 
second reason why another girl should be 
held, as it were, in reserve; the first being 
si quando non sinit, ἕο. ‘Or that she may 
know I have another girl who will consent 
to be mine, if ske should pout and show ill 
temper.’ By placing full stops at the end 
of 87 and 38, with Barth, Kuinoel shows that 
he did not understand the poet’s meaning. 

41.] Duo retinacula, %. 6. due anchore, 
or, which is much the same thing, duo 
funes (πρυμνήσια). The Greek proverb is 
well known. See Pindar, Οἱ. vi. 100, 
ἀγαθαὶ δὲ πέλοντ᾽ ἐν xemepla νυκτὶ Bods 

ἐκ vads ἀπεσκίμφθαι δύ᾽ ἄγκυραι. “Τὸ 
have two strings to your bow’ is the 
equivalent modern proverb. 

42.] A mother was supposed to {have 
more care for each child, when she had 
several, than for an only child. The opin- 
ion is not confirmed by modern experience. 
Kuinoel quotes two beautiful lines from 
Ovid, Remed. Am. 463, ‘Fortius e multis 
mater desiderat unum, Quam que flens 
dicit, Tu mihi solus eras.’ 

43.] Lachmann and Jacob, followed by 
Keil and Miiller, commence a new elegy 
with this verse. Hertzberg however (Quest. 
p. 118 ἄς.) has remarked that Propertius 
is peculiarly apt to apostrophise persons of 
whom he was before speaking in the third 
person. This being admitted, it is clear 
that the poet is pursuing the idea in vy. 38. 
The general sense is, ‘ Refuse or assent as 
you please; it matters not to me, who have 
another in reserve.’ This is not said to 
Cynthia in particular, but to any one of 
his acquaintances indefinitely. The con- 
struction is rather irregular for aut nega, 
aut venito. 

44.] Ponere verba nullo loco, ‘hie debet 
esse, nullius auctoritatis vel ponderis verba 
proloqui: at random quod Angli aiunt.’ — 
Jacob, Miiller reads a, nullo &e. (te. 
ah!) ‘Cur nihili facis verba, id est, pro- 
missa tua?>’—LZachmann. See on i. 19, 
17—20. Barth and Kuinoel follow Bero- 
aldus, in nullo pondere verba logui, and tells 
his readers, ‘ prepositio iz redundat.’ The 
expression (in this sense) is unusual. Per- 
haps he had in view οὐδαμοῦ τίθεσθαι. 
Hertzberg considers that ‘not to value 
words,’ and ‘to throw away or waste 
words,’ are correlative ideas. Yet it 

LIBER III. 14 (17). 

Hic unus dolor est ex omnibus acer amanti, 45 


Speranti subito si qua venire negat. 
Quanta illum toto versant suspiria lecto, 

Cum recipi, quem non noverit illa, putat. 
Et rursus puerum querendo audita fatigat, 

Quem, que scire timet, dicere plura jubet. 



Cui fuit indocti fugienda hee semita vulgi, 

Ipsa petita lacu nunc mihi dulcis aqua est. 
Ingenuus quisquam alterius dat munera servo, 

Ut promissa suze verba ferat domine ? 
Et querit totiens: Quzenam nunc porticus lam 5 

scarcely follows that they are convertible 
terms. The poet’s meaning is this: ‘ What 
is the good of promising, merely to keep 
peace for a time, when you do not intend 
to perform?’ He proceeds to show the 
annoyance arising from such conduct. 

46.] Kuinoel joins sudito venire. Rather, 
I should say, swbito negat, which alludes to 
sending a sudden excuse. 

48.] Cum recipi, &e. ‘Cum sibi pre- 
ferri alium ignotum amatorem putat.’— 
Kuinoel, who reads guem non noverit ile. 
This ‘vexatissimus versiculus,’ as Lach- 
mann calls it, is variously read in the 
MSS. The best copies have eur for eum, 
que and ille for quem and ila ; and vetat 
for putat. The reading in the text is that 
of Lachmann and Jacob, with Keil and 
Miiller, from the excerpta of Pucci. The 
sense is, ‘ he is tortured with jealousy, be- 
lieving she has admitted some one else, to 
whom in fact she is a perfect stranger.’ 

49.] Rursus querendo audita, ‘by re- 
repeating questions already answered.’ 

50.] This verse is wanting in the Naples 
MS., whence there is some reason to suspect 
that the conclusion is imperfect. The sense 
appears to be, ‘whom (1.6. the slave) he 
urges to tell him more fully the circum- 
stances of which he (the expectant) fears 
to be informed.’ In a few words, ‘he im- 
plores him to tell the worst.’ But guerere 
plura is the reading of the MSS. and most 
of the edd. Lachmann says: ‘puerum, 
qui se causam, cur puella non yeniat, scire 
negavit, plura, que ipse timet scire, qua- 
rere jubet.” And he marks the loss of 
some yerses next following. 

XIV. He compares the pride of high- 
born women with the facile compliance of 
the humbler classes. This, like the next, 
is a difficult elegy ; both have given much 
trouble to critics and comrffentators. 

1—2.] ‘I, who formerly thought that 
I ought to shun the vulgar path, now find 
the water sweet drawn from the common 
tank.’ That is, I who once thought my- 
self too clever to act like others, now dis- 
cover my error, and find satisfaction in re- 
turning to the old ways. He blames him- 
self for aspiring to the favour of Roman 
ladies above his position in life. For the 
metaphor in y. 2, see note on 11]. 5, 12.— 
‘semita vulgi, alludit ad semitarias meri- 
triculas..— Barth. Cynthia, it will be re- 
membered, was not one of these. 

8-4. ‘Is a gentleman to bribe the 
servant of another to carry the message 
which he has engaged to convey (and 
therefore is bound to convey without a 
gift) to his mistress?’ Or promissa may 
mean, ‘promised by the lover at some 
former interview.’ It is probable that 
services of this description formed a regular 
trade at Rome. To be a ‘ go-between’ was 
to make a handsome livelihood. Juvenal, 
Sat. 111. 45. 

5—8.] ‘Is he to put himself to endless 
trouble to find out in what piazza or in 
what part of the Campus Martius she takes 
her walk, merely to be favoured with a 
note from her, asking for a present?’ On 
the peculiar construction guisguam dat, 
where we should expect the subjunctive, 
see lil. 26, 1. 



Integit? et: Campo quo movet illa pedes? 
Deinde, ubi pertuleris, quos dicit fama, labores 

Herculis, ut scribat: Muneris ecquid habes ? 
Cernere uti possis vultum custodis amari, ἢ 

Captus et immunda spe latere casa? 


Quam care semel in toto nox vertitur anno! 
Ah pereant, si quos janua clausa juvat! 

Contra, rejecto quae libera vadit amictu, 
Custodum et nullo septa timore, placet ; 

Cui spe immundo Sacra conteritur Via socco, 


Nec sinit esse moram, si quis adire velit. 

Differet heee numquam, nec poscet garrula, quod te 
Astrictus ploret szepe dedisse pater ; 
Nec dicet: Timeo: propera jam surgere, queso: 

Infelix, hodie vir mihi rure venit! 


Et quas Euphrates et quas mihi misit Orontes, 
Me juerint: nolim furta pudica tori. 

9.] Amari, ‘cross.’ Kuinoel and Barth 
give avari from the Aldine. 

10.] Captus, metuens ne deprehendatur 
marito superveniente.—casa, the wooden 
shed of some slave, the porter, perhaps. 
Hor. Sat. i. 2, 132, ‘discincta tunica fugi- 
endum est ac pede nudo; Deprendi mi- 
serum est.’ 

11.] Quam cde, ‘at how high a price 
a single night in the whole year comes 
round to your turn!’ The MS. Gron, has 
verterit. Kuinoel venditur, the conjecture 
of Hemsterhusius.—noz, 7. 6. unius noctis 
fructus.—janua clausa, aditu difficilis; si 
quos juvat seepius excludi quam admitti. 

13.] Libera, ad suum arbitrium; ubi- 
cunque et quandocunque vult;  mariti 
timore non impedita, &e.—reecto amictu. 
These words naturally refer to the custom 
of muffling the face for fear of being re- 
cognised. Hertzberg explains it, ‘domi 
relicta toga a meretrice,’ comparing the 
tunicatus popellus of Horace, Ep. i. 7, 64, 
which however probably refers only to 
males,—as we should say, ‘in shirt-sleeves.’ 
Another interpretation proposed by him is 
that the recinium (Festus, p. 274, Miller), 
or dress of the nobiles feming, marked with 
the laticlave, is meant; a word supposed 
to be derived a rejiciendo (mapa τὸ ava- 
βάλλεσθαι). Varro, L. L. γ΄. § 182, ‘An- 
tiquissimis amictui ricinivm. Id, quod eo 

utebantur duplici, ab eo quod dimidiam 
partem retrorsum jaciebant, ab rejiciendo 
ricinium dictum.’ Perhaps the domino or 
mask of more recent times. JLbera must 
then mean carens, for he is speaking not of 
ladies, but ‘contra,’ of those who are in 
common life.—Timore custodum, 1.e. cus- 
todibus timendis. Kuinoel and Barth read 
tumore, from the Aldine; ὁ, 6. the ὄγκος, or 
‘parade’ of attendants. 

15.] Soceus was the loose overshoe used 
by both sexes in their ordinary out-of-door 
avocations. Hence immundus, lutulentus. 
Ladies were carried in their lectice. 

17.] Differet, ‘abuse you.’ See oni. 4, 
22.—‘ Promissis ducet.’—Barth. 

20.] Infelix, supply swm.—rure venit, 
redit; cf. Hor. Sat. i. 2, 127, ‘nec me- 
tuo ne—vir rure recurrat.’ 

21.] Juven. iii. 62—5, ‘Jam pridem 
Syrus in Tiberim defluxit Orontes, et lin- 
guam et mores, et cum tibicine chordas— 
Vexit, et ad Circum jussas prostare puellas.’ 
—juerint, i.e. juverint. So Hertzberg 
from the Naples MS., which gives juverint. 
The rest have capiant. One reading or 
the other is manifestly a correction; and 
as a question of probability, the chances 
are in favour of the least usual form being 
the genuine one. Jwerint oceurs Catull. 
Ixvi. 18.—furta pudica tori, i.e. pudici tori, 

LIBER III. 15 (18). 


Libertas quoniam nulli jam restat amanti, 
Nullus liber erit, si quis amare volet. 


‘Tu loqueris, cum sis jam noto fabula libro, 
Et tua sit toto Cynthia lecta foro ?’ 
Cui non his verbis aspergat tempora sudor 7 
Aut pudor ingenuis, aut reticendus amor. 
Quod si tam facilis spiraret Cynthia nobis, 5 
Non ego nequitiz dicerer esse caput ; 
Nec sic per totam infamis traducerer urbem, 
Urerer et quamyis, nomine verba darem. 

23—4.] ‘Since every lover of necessity 
loses his liberty, none must love who wish 
to be free.’ Jacob places a colon at v. 22, 
and a full stop at v.23, ‘ne in protasi 
idem esset quod in apodosi: Quoniam 
memo amans liber, nemo amans liber est.’ 
Hertzberg rightly restores the old punctu- 
ation. Miiller follows Fischer in regarding 
the last verse as ‘ab interpolatore confic- 
tum.’ Perhaps volet may be rendered, ‘if 
he shall persist in loving,’ 7. ὁ. free women. 

XV. The same subject’ is continued. 
He excuses himself for his faithlessness to 
Cynthia, on the plea that she acts towards 
him the capricious part before described as 
peculiar to the ladies of Rome. This elegy 
is difficult, nor do the commentators agree 
either as to sense, reading, or punctuation 
in many places. 

1.] Tu loqueris? As in El. 9, supr. he 
commences with a quotation, and is reply- 
ing to an imaginary rebuke: ‘Do yow talk 
of haying abandoned your pursuit of women 
in the better rank of life, when all the 
world knows, by your published poems, 
your attachment to Cynthia ?’—xoto libro, 
See introductory note on iii. i. 

2.1 Cynthia lecta. The first book of 
Elegies was inscribed ‘Cynthia,’ as has 
been already stated. Hence, /ecta must be 
taken literally. 

3.] ‘Is there not some reason to feel 
distressed at the just reproach >’ 1.6. Have I 
not subjected myself to just ridicule? With 
Jacob and Lachmann [ have followed the 
reading of all the MSS. in retaining sudor, 
which in fact the sense of the verse almost 
imperatively demands. Hertzberg, Barth, 
and Kuinoel give surdo from Scaliger’s 
conjecture, and make pudor and amor the 

nominatives to aspergat, v. 3. The whole 
passage is very obscure, and has been vari- 
ously interpreted. One difficulty is, whether 
the second distich continues the reproach, or 
contains the poet’s reply. The fourth verse 
is commonly read thus: aut pudor ingenuus, 
aut reticendus amor. For the first aut the 
MS. Gron. has at, which* Jacob admits. 
Lachmann incloses the whole verse in 
brackets, as ‘spurius et subditivus:’ a 
supposition extremely improbable. None 
of the editors seem to have taken offence 
at the metrical licence at the end of the 
first penthemimer, which is in some degree 
justified by vinczs in ii. 8, 8. Nevertheless, 
ingenuis is surely the true reading. The 
sense is, ‘men of good birth must either 
expect to be put to the blush, or they 
must keep secret their love.’ Or thus: ‘if 
young nobles have any shame, they will 
not talk of their loves.’ In plain words, 
‘If a man will write verses on his mistress, 
(he being txgenuus and she a meretrix), he 
cannot avoid becoming fabula in toto foro.’ 
Miiller reads haut pudor ingenuis, haut &e.’ 
with Haupt, and makes this distich to 
continue the speech or address of the first 
two lines. 

5.] ‘Were Cynthia a little less cruel, 
I should never have been called a profligate,’ 
z.e. 1 should not have exposed myself by 
writing verses. tam facilis, ‘as compliant 
as you say that she is.’ On spiraret see 
iii. 3, 8. 

8.] Nomine, by concealing my name. 
If, he says, Cynthia were less obdurate, 
I would not make myself notorious by 
writing verses about her; however much 
I was in love (wrerer), I would not let out 
the secret, reticerem amorem, sup. 4. From 
infamant however (10) it might be surmised 



Quare ne tibi sit mirum me querere viles: 

Parcius infamant; num tibi causa levis? 


Et modo pavonis caudz flabella superbe, 
Et manibus dura frigus habere pila, 

Et cupit iratum talos me poscere eburnos, 
Queeque nitent Sacra vilia dona Via. 

Ah peream, si me ista movent dispendia; sed me 


Fallaci dominz jam pudet esse jocum. 


Hoe erat in primis, quod me gaudere jubebas ? 
Tam te formosam non pudet esse levem ? 

Una aut altera nox nondum est in amore peracta, 
Et dicor lecto jam gravis esse tuo. 

Me modo laudabas, et carmina nostra legebas: 5 
Ille tuus pennas tam cito vertit amor ? 

that Cynthia had spoken against him to his 

11.] He passes to another objection, 
alluded to in v.8 of the preceding elegy. 
‘ Besides, she is extravagant, and is ever 
wishing to possess a flapper (fan) of pea- 
cock’s feathers, or a ball for cooling her 
hands; and she requires me, already ex- 
asperated by her demands, to beg for her 
(emere, Hertzberg) ivory dice.’ The μα- 
bellum was used, as it now is in hot coun- 
tries, for making a cool breeze: Martial, 
iil. 82. Plautus, Zrimwm. 252 enumerates 
the flabellifere among the many attendants 
of fashionable courtesans. What the pila 
was, alluded to in vy. 12, appears to be 
hitherto unexplained. Kuinoel says, ‘ pila 
ex crystallo, quam matron delicatiores 
zstivo tempore ad calorem frigore ejus 
mitigandum manibus tenere solebant. Vide 
Pliny, NV. H. xxxvii.2; Martial, xi. 8,’ (v. 
37), where mention is made of amber, but 
in a manner not applicable to the present 
passage. A conjecture may be hazarded, 
in the absence of any direct testimony. 
Claudian has a series of epigrams (vi—xiv.) 
‘de crystallo cui aqua inerat,’ which the 
Romans appear to have considered (or 
rather perhaps, poetically to have repre- 
sented) as ice, partly congealed to stone, 
partly liquified in the interior. The cold 
sensation to the touch is more than once 
alluded to: ep. viii. ‘Solibus indomitum 
glacies Alpina rigorem Induerat, nimio yam 

pretiosa gelu ;’ and ep. xi. ‘Dum crystalla 
puer contingere lubrica gaudet, Et gelidwm 
tenero pollice versat onus’ &c. Pieces of 
rock-erystal may be seen in museums in 
which water or globules of air are enclosed. 
To this day ignorant vendors of minerals 
tell their customers that quartz, sulphate of 
lime, and fluor spar, are ‘ congealed water.’ 
And from the same erroneous idea, per- 
haps, the epithet aguosa is applied to crystal 
in y.3, 52. The cold feel, attributed to 
crystal, arose from the notion of its being 
mineralised ice. It is common to see in 
toy-shops glass globes containing water 
with bubbles or particles of light matter 
which float within on being shaken. 

XVI. This elegy is a continuation of 
the preceding in all the MSS. There can 
be no reasonable doubt that the editors 
have rightly separated it. It is addressed 
to Cynthia, and the subject is a comparison 
of his own fidelity with the insincerity of 
his rivals. ‘Mollissimus regnat in hoe 
carmine sensus, qui et ad commiserationem 
mirifice animum movet.’—uwinoel. 

1.1 Hoe erat ἕο. ‘Heccine tua pro- 
missa, que meum animum letitia per- 
fundebant? itane constans es in amore?” 
Kuinoel.—gaudeo not unfrequently governs 
an accusative, like the Greek ἥδεσθαί τι. ---- 
in primis gaudere, ‘so greatly to congratu- 
late myself upon.’ 

LIBER III. 16 (19). 


Contendat mecum ingenio, contendat et arte, 
In primis una discat amare domo; 

Si libitum tibi erit, Lernzeas pugnet ad hydras 
Et tibi ab Hesperio mala dracone ferat ; 



Tetra venena libens, et naufragus ebibat undas, 

Et numquam pro te deneget esse miser; 
Quos utinam in nobis, vita, experiare labores! 
Jam tibi de timidis iste superbus erit, 

Qui nunc in tumidum jactando venit honorem; 

Discidium vobis proximus annus erit. 
At me non etas mutabit tota Sibylle, 
Non labor Alcidze, non niger ille dies. 
Tu mea compones, et dices: ‘Ossa, Properti, 

Hee tua sunt; heu heu, 

tu mihi certus eras. 20 

Certus eras heu heu, quamvis nec sanguine avito 
Nobilis, et quamvis haud ita dives eras.’ 
Nil ego non patiar; numquam me injuria mutat; 

7—12.] ‘Let my favoured rival shew 
himself as clever, as patient, as obedient to 
your behests as I, before he makes the 
same pretensions to your esteem.’ — in 
primis discat &e. ‘ Above all, let him learn 
to be constant to one.’ The connexion 
with the preceding seems sufficiently plain : 
but Miiller marks a lacuna after v. 6, 
‘oratione aperte hiante,’ as he says. 

10.] ‘Let him prove his devotion by 
performing at your will some Herculean 
task.’ Barth remarks that this verse is 
taken from Theocritus, 714, 28, 37: 

νῦν μὲν κἠπὶ τὰ χρύσεα μᾶλ᾽ ἕνεκεν σέθεν 
βαίην, καὶ φύλακον νεκύων πεδὰ Κέρβερον. 

Ibid.) Ebibat. Lachmann raises a 
groundless objection to this word as if it 
could only mean ‘let him drink up the 
sea,’ and reads indibat. From iy. 7, 52, 
it will be seen that nothing more is meant, 
than ‘let him brave shipwreck, and gulp 
the briny wave.’ Zpotus however means 
‘drunk up,’ Juven. x. 177. 

11.] Zita for tetra Miller, who shows 
that these words are sometimes confused. 

13—15.] ‘And then try the same toils 
and troubles in me, and you will find, by 
the contrast, that your proud and boastful 
lover is a coward.’ All the editors adopt 
a punctuation of v.13 which appears to 
me completely to pervert the sense. Keil 
and Miiller, with Barth and Kuinoel, in- 
close it as a parenthesis; the others regard 

it as an abrupt and interpolated exclama- 
tion. Yet the general sense seems 51Π- 
ciently clear. Utinam experiare in nobis 
eosdem labores, may certainly signify, ‘I 
only wish you would put me to the test in 
performing the same task.’ 

15.] In tumidum honorem is both an 
unusual and a questionable expression. 
Kuinoel explains, ‘honor qui tumidum et 
inflatum reddit.’ The editors give gui 
nune se in tumidum &e., but the MS. Gron. 
omits se, and so Hertzberg (in his com- 
mentary): jactando will thus be used ab- 
solutely for jactantia. But perhaps we 
should read, Qui nune se tumidum (i.e. 
tumide) jactando invenit honorem. 

16.] Lessidium, Kuinoel with the Naples 
MS. and ed. Rheg. 

22.] Non ita is the conjecture of Bero- 
aldus. The MSS. have navita, which 
seems to have arisen from the agnomen 

Jauta attached in most copies to the names 
Sextus Aurelius Propertius; or conversely 
(as Hertzberg and others think), the cor- 
ruption of the present passage suggested 
the addition of the name. Jacob, with 
Heinsius, prefers haud ita; and this is 
nearer to Navita, hauwd or haut being some- 
times written haw, according to Gronovius 
on Tac. Ann. vi. 43, quoted by Hertzberg, 
[where the Medicean MS. has hac?.]—On 
the birth and fortune of the poet, see on 
γ. 1, 128; iii. 26, δ. 



Ferre ego formosam nullum onus esse puto. 

Credo ego non paucos ista perilisse figura ; 


Credo ego sed multos non habuisse fidem. 
Parvo dilexit spatio Minoida Theseus, 

Phyllida Demophoon, hospes uterque malus ; 
Jam tibi Iasonia amota est Medea carina, 

Et modo servato sola relicta viro. 


Dura est, que multis simulatum fingit amorem, 
Et se plus uni si qua parare potest. 

Noli nobilibus, noli conferre beatis: 
Vix venit, extremo qui legat ossa die. 

Ii tibi nos erimus; sed tu potius precor ut me 

Demissis plangas, pectora nuda, comis. 

xV i: 

Unica nata meo pulcherrima cura dolori, 

24.] Ferre fermosam. There isa play on 
the verb between the literal sense and that 
of ‘putting up with the caprices of’ ζῶο. 

26.] Fidem, sc. quam ego habeo. 

29.| The MSS. and early editions give 
nota est. ‘Jam artius conjunge cum Jasonia 
carina, et vide an satis apta hee evasura 
sit sententia: ‘Notum est tibi, Medeam 
jam fuisse in nave Iasonis: et tamen mox 
perfide desertam.’’—Hertzberg. Jam fuisse 
in nave he explains as equivalent to jam ab 
illo tanquam uxorem avectam. The omission 
of fuisse is a grave objection to such an in- 
terpretation. There is less difficulty in et 
for et tamen, with the defence of which the 
greater part of the learned commentator’s 
note isoccupied. Lachmann, with Jacob’s 
approval (!) reads Jam tibi Iasonia votum 
est, Medea, carina, i.e. ‘habes quod optabas 
in nave Iasonis;’ and he quotes some pas- 
sages where votwm means ‘one’s wish.’ 
Jacob says: ‘nota est erit: modo innotuit 
nobis illue venisse, et jam deseri eam vi- 
demus.’ None of these views appear ten- 
able. The context seems to require amota 
est, which accordingly I have ventured to 
restore. ‘Then again, you have (in story) 
Medea carried off by Jason in his ship, 
and deserted by a husband whose life she 
had so lately saved.’ The sense of jam 
may also be, that she was no sooner carried 
off than she was deserted. For the ac- 
quisitive use of ἐὐδὲ see on i. 5, 8. 

32.] Parare se. So the Greeks use 

ἑτοιμάζειν of preparing for nuptial pur- 
poses, Eur. Suppi. 454. 

33.] Conferre, ‘to draw comparisons 
with the noble and the wealthy.’ Barth 
thinks it may mean ‘confer your fayour 
on,’ χαρίζεσθαι. 

34.] Vix venit, raro inventus est. 

35.] Pectora nuda. Kuinoel reads pectore 
with Scaliger. Nuda is of course the 
nominative. The sense is, ‘I hope how- 
ever that you will survive me.’ This is 
said, as it were, avertendi ominis gratia, 
since in y. 34 allusion is made, though in 
a general sentiment, to Cynthia’s death. 

XVII. He asserts that though there is 
a time for all things to cease, yet he can 
never cease to love; and (vy. 21) warns his 
rivals not to rely on the permanence of the 
favour they now enjoy. This is one of the 
more difficult of the elegies, 

1.1 “0 tu, que pulcherrima mihi cura 
nata, quamvis dolenti, quod tam raro ad- 
mittor, unica tamen cura es.’—Hertzberg ; 
who rightly connects guwontam in the second 
verse with meo dolori.—sepe veni, τὸ πολ- 
λάκις ἐπιφοιτᾶν. See on iii. 13,14. This 
explanation is due to Jacob, before whose 
edition the most extravagant alterations 
and interpretations had been proposed. 
Lachmann on his own conjecture reads 
‘excludi quoniam sors mea sepe vehit;’ 
Barth, ‘excludi quoniam sors mea sepe, 
venis.’ Miiller and Keil edit as in the text. 

LIBER III. 17 (20). 


Excludit quoniam sors mea SPE VENI; 
Ista meis fiet notissima forma libellis, 
Calve, tua venia, pace, Catulle, tua. 

Miles depositis annosus secubat armis, 5 

Grandevique negant ducere aratra boves, 
Putris et in vacua requiescit navis arena, 
Et vetus in templo bellica parma vacat; 

At me ab amore tuo deducet nulla senectus 
Sive ego Tithonus, sive ego Nestor ero. 



Nonne fuit satius duro servire tyranno, 
Et gemere in tauro, seve Perille, tuo ? 
Gorgonis et satius fuit obdurescere vultu; 

Caucasias etiam si pateremur aves. 

Sed tamen obsistam: teritur rubigine mucro 


Ferreus, et parvo sepe liquore silex; 
At nullo domine teritur +sub limine amor, qui 
Restat et immerita sustinet aure minas. 

Ultro contemptus rogat, et 

4.] Calvus was the friend of Catullus, 
and like him a writer of amatory verses. 
Ovid, Am. iii. 9, 62, ‘Obvius huic venias, 
hedera juvenilia cinctus Tempora, cum 
Calvo, docte Catulle, tuo.’ He apologises 
to them for haying used the superlative, 
notissima, etiam notior vestris; implying 
that Cynthia’s celebrity would be greater 
than the mistresses of either of those poets, 
viz. Quintilia and Lesbia, inf. iii. 26, 87— 

5—10.] ‘The soldier lies by when aged, 
the ox at length leaves off ploughing, the 
old ship and the old shield become useless ; 
but of my love there will be no end, if 
I live as long as Nestor.’ 

9.] Lachmann reads diducet. See on 
iii. 13, 5. In this instance there is no 
reason for altering the reading of all good 

11.] ‘And yet have I not endured more 
torture than? &c. Still, I will not give 
in. The obduracy even of a rock is worn 
down by the continued efforts of the un- 
ceasing water-drop.’ — Perillus was the 
maker of the brazen bull for the tyrant 
Phalaris, and was himself burnt alive in it. 
‘Et Phalaris tauro violenti membra Perilli 
Torruit: infelix imbuit auctor opus.’ — 

13.] Obdurescere, to be changed into 
stone by looking at the head of Medusa.— 

peceasse fatetur 

Caucasias aves, the vulture of Prometheus, 
With etiam understand satius fuit. 

17.] ‘ Desperatus versus.’—Jacob ; who 
gives the reading of the MS. Gron., “4¢ 
nullo de me teritur sub lumine amor qui, 
and proposes to read at nullo domine teritur 
spes limine, amorque Restat &e. interpreting 
nullo limine by nulla exclusione. As may 
be anticipated, he has not found a follower 
in Hertzberg, who retains the vulgate, and 
explains Zimen of the Jintel, ὑπερθύριον. 
Miller reads teritur molimine amator, from 
Davis and Heins, but he doubts the genu- 
ineness of teritur. Possibly sub nuilo 
domine limine may mean, as Barth has ex- 
plained it, ‘domine limen in quo jaceo 
pernox, non potest amorem meum terere 
et consumere.’ Sub limine must be taken 
literally, but elliptically, for exeubando sub 
limine, i.e. ‘close under,’ and nullo gives 
the sense of nunguam to the whole verse. 
But if any should prefer to take sub Limine 
for sub domo, there would be no difficulty, 
especially if for amor gui we read amator. 
estat will thus mean ‘he holds out,’ καρ- 
τερεῖ, ‘remains obstinate,’ even though he 
is forced to listen to threats which he 
thinks he has not deserved. 

19.1] Ultro is properly used when any- 
thing is done proprio motu; unasked, un- 
challenged, unprovoked: properly, beyond 
what the laws of yar pari referto require. 


Lesus, et invitis 1056 redit pedibus. 



Tu quoque, qui pleno fastus adsumis amore, 
Credule, nulla diu femina pondus habet. 

An quisquam in mediis persolvit vota procellis, 
Cum sepe in portu fracta carina natet ? 

Aut prius infecto deposcit preemia cursu, 

Septima quam metam triverit ante rota? 
Mendaces ludunt flatus in amore secundi. 

Si qua venit sero, magna ruina venit. 
Tu tamen interea, quamvis te diligat illa, 

In tacito cohibe gaudia clausa sinu ; 


Namque in amore suo semper sua maxima cuique 
Nescio quo pacto verba nocere solent. 

Thus, wtro bellum inferre is to commence 
hostilities without any previous injury. 
In the case of separated lovers, the party 
who first makes overtures for a reconcilia- 
tion is said wltro vocare. Hence Persius, 
yv.172, ‘ne nunc, cum accersor, et wtro 
supplicat, accedam ?’—peccasse fatetur lesus, 
z. e. when the lover, though the fault is not 
really on his side, is willing to bear it in 
his anxiety to make up the quarrel. The 
editors place a full stop at minas. Possibly 
the construction is continued from restat, 
viz. amator. 

21.] He warns his rival, in a. very 
elegant couplet, that he will not give up 
his claims to Cynthia because he has been 
rejected; but may yet supplant him in the 
contest for her regard.—fastws. See oni. 
1. 8. 

23—6.] ‘No one reckons on safety in 
a storm, or victory in a race, before he has 
realised it: do you therefore not presume 
too much on your fancied success.’—eum 
sepe, &e., 7.e. when even in the harbour 
itself ships are sometimes lost: ‘ fallit 
portus et ipse fidem,’ iv. 7, 36.— natet, 
‘floats helpless,’ or ‘water-logged”’ <A 
singular meaning of the word, which seems 
so used in y. 1, 116, ‘et natat exuviis 
Grecia pressa suis.’—septima rota, septimo 
cursu. Both in the Greek stadium and the 
Roman circus, the racers took twelve turns 
round the pillar. Soph. ΔΙ. 755, τελοῦντες 
ἕκτον ἕβδομόν τ᾽ ἤδη δρόμον. The chario- 
teer was said radere, stringere, or terere 
metam, words signifying the actual scraping 
of the wheel against the pillar, but imply- 
ing only the close proximity.—prius-quam 
ante trwerit seems to be the construction 
intended, ante being redundant by a well- 

known use, as “sch. S. 6. Theb. 694, λέ- 
youca κέρδος πρότερον ὑστέρου μόρου. 
Hertzberg joins guam-ante, for antequam ; 
see on ill. 9,10, ‘Quam prius adjunctos 
sedula lavit equos.’ The examples he ad- 
duces from Tibull. i. 3, 9; iv. 1, 33, Ovid, 
Trist. iv. 9, 31, are not really to the point 
for the reason mentioned on the former 
passage. But that from the Copa, com- 
monly attributed to Virgil, v. 4, is appro- 
priate: ‘Quid juvat ezstivo defessum pul- 
vere abesse, Quam potius bibulo decubuisse 
toro;’ ὦ. 6. potius quam. The redundance 
of ante after prius is well defended by 
Kuinoel from Virg. An. iv. 24—7, ‘Sed 
mihi vel tellus optem prius ima dehiscat, 
—ante, Pudor, quam te violo.’ 

27.] Secundi. Kuinoel, with Heinsius, 
reads secundo. Hertzberg rightly approves 
of Lachmann’s explanation: ‘mendaces 
isti venti sunt, si qui propitii amantibus 
flare videntur.’ ‘In love, fair gales play 
but to deceive.’ 

29.) Zu tamen. That is, quamvis te 
diligat, tu tamen cohibe &e. ‘Do not 
boast of your good fortune lest you should 
be put to the blush when it leaves you.’ 
The evils arising from proud words are 
well expressed in the following distich; 
‘in speaking of his own success in love, 
some how or other it happens that his own 
big words are ever wont to bring a lover 
his bane.’ 

32.] From speaking with too much bold- 
ness and freedom, the poet passes to the 
danger of acting in such a way as to excite 
tnvidia. Both the Greeks and the Romans 
considered that it was easy to provoke the 
gods to withdraw the felicity bestowed on 
those who made an unworthy or thankless 

LIBER III. 17 (20). 

Quamvis te persepe vocet, 


semel ire memento: 

Invidiam quod habet, non solet esse diu. 

At si secla forent antiquis grata puellis, 35 
Essem ego, quod nunc tu; tempore vincor ego. 

Non tamen ista meos mutabunt secula mores: 
Unusquisque sua noverit ire via. 

At vos, qui officia in multos revocatis amores, 

Quantum sic cruciat lumina vestra dolor! 


Vidistis pleno teneram candore puellam, 
Vidistis fusco: ducit uterque color. 
Vidistis quandam Argiva prodire figura, 
Vidistis nostras: utraque forma rapit. 

Illaque plebeio, vel sit sandicis amictu: 

Heee atque illa mali vulneris una via est; 
Cum satis una tuis insomnia portet ocellis, 
Una sit et cuivis femina multa mala. 

use of it. Lachmann singularly misun- 
derstood this doctrine: ‘ineptum hoc est, 
immo putidum, quod quamvis spe a puella 
vocetur, semel tantum, neque amplius, ire 
jubetur.’ Jacob pronounces semel ‘ ridicu- 
lum,’ and would read simulare memento. 
Kuinoel’s explanation appears perfectly 
right :—‘ne abutaris benignitate domine, 
sed parce utere ea, ut decet circumspec- 

35—6.] The meaning of this distich, 
which has much perplexed the editors, and 
which Lachmann and Miiller regard as 
corrupt, appears to be this: ‘ But if the 
times now were, which the girls of the 
olden time so much liked, (7. 6. the times 
when lovers were constant, and did not 
trust to bribes,) I should be what you now 
are (viz. in favour with Cynthia;) it is by 
the custom of the age (not by your merits) 
that I am beaten in the contest.’ He goes 
on in the same strain: ‘However, this 
fashion of yours,’ ὦ. 6. of bribing, ‘shall not 
change my manners; every man will know 
best how to pursue his own way,’—you by 
gifts, I by my constancy. 

39.] Revocatis, ‘withdraw from one to 
bestow upon another.’— ‘You who set 
your fickle affections on many women, 
what pain do you inflict on your own eyes 

by this conduct!’ This uneasiness, which 
he here assigns to others, the’ poet ayows 
to be his own habitual malady, supr. El. 13. 

42.] Fusco, sc. colore. Miiller reads 
fuscam on his own conjecture. 

43.] <Argiva figura, ‘of Grecian form.’ 
(‘Grecian bend,’ we might almost render it 
in modern phrase). See on i. 15, 22, and 
i. 4, 9. 

45.] Sandicis, ‘of purple’ — sandizx, 
(Virg. Eel. iy. 45) or sandyx was a dye ex- 
tracted from a plant. Others (Pliny, V.H. 
35, 23) make it a bright red mineral colour. 

46.] Hee atque illa &e. ‘Each of 
these individually inflicts a wound.’ 
Hertzberg observes on this: ‘mirum, quod 
puella ipsa via vulneris dicitur, quam pro 
causa Latine poni nego.’ He therefore 
thinks that the vu/nus spoken of is from 
the darts of Cupid, who ‘pulchris excubat 
in genis’ puelle. And this seems a reason- 
able view. Cupid inflicts the wound, 
which comes through the girl by whose 
beauty the party is struck. 

48.] Et cuivis, supply alii, se. mihi. 
‘ As one woman causes sleeplessness enough 
to your eyes, so one woman may well be 
the cause of many evils to any one else,’-— 
that is, Cynthia to me. 




Vidi te in somnis fracta, mea vita, carina 
Tonio lassas ducere rore manus, 
Et quecumque in me fueras mentita fateri, 
Nec jam humore graves tollere posse comas, 
Qualem purpureis agitatam fluctibus Hellen, 5 
Aurea quam molli tergore vexit ovis. 
Quam timui, ne forte tuum mare nomen haberet, 
Atque tua labens navita fleret aqua! 
Que tum ego Neptuno, que tum cum Castore fratri, 

Queeque tibi excepi, jam dea Leucothoé ? 


At tu, vix primas extollens gurgite palmas, 

Szepe meum nomen jam 

XVIII. He endeavours, by relating a 
feigned dream, to deter Cynthia from a 
voyage she was about to make (vy. 29); but 
concludes by professing his readiness to 
follow her, should she adhere to her reso- 
lution, From not sufficiently attending to 
the poet’s custom of relenting and unsaying 
at the end what he had threatened or pre- 
dicted at the beginning, most of the editors 
have commenced a new elegy at v. 21. 
Hertzberg has followed the arrangement 
in the MSS., observing that it would be 
absurd to relate a dream without following 
it up by some conclusion. He regards it 
as an allegory, implying the favour of the 
gods towards a poet, (v.18; but this is 
sid of Cynthia, not of Propertius); and 
his own fidelity, symbolized by leaping 
after her from a rock, y. 19.—It is a most 
elegant poem. 

5.] Qualem Hellen. More usually guadlis 
Helle ; but the accusative is by attraction 
to te preceding. Barth is clearly wrong 
in construing qualem ovis aurea vidit Hellen. 
Hertzberg remarks on purpureis (the Ho- 
meric πορφυρέον κῦμα), that the southern 
seas do under certain circumstances assume 
a purple tint; arising, of course, from the 
reflection of the sky. See on v. 2, 13.— 
tergus, it is proper to remark, differs from 
tergum ; though the latter is used for the 
former by Tacit. dmx. iv. 72, and xy. 44. 
Virg. din. i. 368. 

7.1 Tuum nomen, The elegance of the 
compliment is enhanced by guam timut, as 
if he could not lose her even for the geo- 
graphical immortality of a ‘Mare Cynthi- 
acum.’ — For atgue Hertzberg proposes 

peritura vocas. 

teque, observing that out of 43 places 
where the poet has used the word, in one 
other only (y. 2, 52) it occurs without 
elision. The reluctance of the Roman 
poets generally to place atgue before a 
consonant is well known: perhaps meve 
would be a still more probable correction. 

9.] Que (vota) excepi, ie. suscepi Nep- 
tuno. So 111. 7, 4. ‘Ah! Neptune, tibi 
qualia dona darem!’—jam dea, ‘once a 
mortal, now a goddess,’ Jacob. Keil and 
Miiller, with Kuinoel and Lachmann, read 
tum dea, after Beroaldus. Hertzberg is 
more successful; ‘jam ad te me converti, 
Leucothoe, que simili quondam periculo 
per undas jactata misera mulier, dea facta 
sis naufragis propitia ;’ though this amounts 
to nothing more than making jam equiy-* 
alent to twm. The same critic retains the 
MSS. reading Leucothoe. The others change 
it to Leuwcothée, a questionable form. The 
Greeks used either Λευκοθόη or Λευκοθέη, 
the Latins appears to have preferred Leu- 
cothea. The derivation of both is from 
θέειν, Gods, as Hertzberg remarks. Com- 
pare Cymothoe v. 16.—Ino, the daughter of 
Cadmus, was enamoured of Athamas, and 
threw herself into the sea with the body of 
her son Melicertes, Learchus, the brother 
of the latter, having been killed by his 
father Athamas in a fit of madness. See 
Apollodor. iii. 4, 3, who writes the word 
Λευκοθέα. Inf. El. 20, 19. 

11—12.] Miiller, after Baehrens, trans- 
poses this distich to follow 18. He thinks 
it absurd that the poet should wish to 
assist Cynthia, when the dolphin was at 
hand to help her, unless some new cause 

LIBER ΠῚ. 18 (22). 


Quod si forte tuos vidisset Glaucus ocellos, 
Esses Joni facta puella maris, 

Et tibi ob invidiam Nereides increpitarent, 


Candida Nesé, czerula Cymothoé. 
Sed tibi subsidio delphinum currere vidi, 
Qui, puto, Arioniam vexerat ante lyram. 
Jamque ego conabar summo me mittere saxo, 
Cum mihi discussit talia visa metus. 20 
Nune admirentur, quod tam mihi pulchra puella 
Serviat, et tota dicar in urbe potens. 
Non, si Cambysze redeant et flumina Cressi, 
Dicat: De nostro surge, poeta, toro. 

Nam mea cum recitat, dicit se odisse beatos: 25 

Carmina tam sancte nulla puella colit. 
Multum in amore fides, multum constantia prodest: 
Qui dare multa potest, multa et amare potest. 
Seu mare per longum mea cogitet ire puella, 

Hane sequar, et fidos una aget aura duos. 


Unum litus erit sopitis, unaque tecto 
Arbor, et ex una spe bibemus aqua, 

Et tabula una duos poterit componere amantes, 
Prora cubile mihi, seu mihi puppis erit. 

Omnia perpetiar; szvus licet urgeat Eurus, 35 

of alarm had occurred. But this argument 
does not seem a cogent one. The idea of 
the description is borrowed from Helle 
when drowning stretching out her hand 
to her brother Phrixus. 

13.] Quod si ἕο. If some sea-god had 
then seen you, my aid, as well as that of 
the dolphin, would have been useless; you 
would have been carried off to be made 
queen of the sea, and to excite the jealousy 
of the Nereids. 

15.] Οὐ invidiam. Pre invidia Barth 
and Kuinoel, the reading of the inferior 

18.] Zyram. Hertzberg remarks on 
the use of this word to express the mu- 
sician himself. He should have used this 
verse in defence of the much more singular 
expression tmbelles lyre for ‘the Muses,’ 
in y. 6, 36. But nothing more is conveyed 
by the phrase than ‘ Arion and his lute.’ 

21.] Nune admirentur. He proceeds to 
show, that it is through fondness for his 
verses, and not for money, that Cynthia 


attaches herself to him. ‘Not for all the 
gold of Pactolus’ (he adds, v. 23) ‘ would 
she reject me to the admission of a rival.’ 
Probably he has in view his enemy the 
Preetor, 111. 7. 

23.) Jam Gyge, for Cambyse Miiller, 
after Schrader. 

24.] Poeta, t.e. ‘qui carmina tantum, 
non numos, mihi das.’ Cf. v. 5, 57, ‘Qui 
versus, Coz dederit nec munera vestis, 
Istius tibi sit surda sine ere lyra.’ F 

27.] ‘There is much, too, in a constant 
lover, who is with good reason preferred 
to a rich one, inasmuch as his very riches 
supply the means of tampering with the 
affections of many.’ 

28.] Multa amare, ‘multas puellas nulla 
constantia.’— Kwinoel. 

31—4.] These beautiful lines evidently 
allude to some voyage which Cynthia was 
about to make.’—tabula una, &e. ‘Asingle 
plank shall form our common couch,’— 
componere is συγκοιμίζειν. Compare Asch, 
Ag. 1417, ναυτίλοις δὲ σελμάτων ἰσοτρίβης. 




Velaque in incertum frigidus Auster agat, 
Quoteumque et venti miserum vexastis Ulixen, 
Et Danaum Euboico litore mille rates, 

Et qui movistis duo litora, 

Dux erat ignoto missa columba mari; 

cum rudis Argus 

Illa meis tantum non umquam desit ocellis, 
Incendat navem Juppiter ipse licet. 

Certe isdem nudi pariter jactabimur oris. 
Me licet unda ferat, te modo terra tegat. 

Sed non Neptunus tanto crudelis amori; 

Neptunus fratri par in amore Jovi. 
Testis Amymone, latices dum ferret, in Argis 
Compressa, et Lerne pulsa tridente palus. 

Jam Deus amplexu votum 

Aurea divinas urna profudit aquas. 

persolvit; at ill 

Crudelem et Boream rapta Orithyia negavit ; 

Hic deus et terras et maria alta domat. 

Crede mihi, nobis mitescet 

37.] The Groning. MS. alone gives 
quodeunque ; the rest guicunque, and so 
Kuinoel and Lachmann, and the later 
editors. Hertzberg guotewngue ; which is 
a happy restoration of the true reading.— 
Euboico litore. See on συ. 1, 115, 

39.] Duo litora. The Symplegades. 
See on v. 6, 27. Miller thinks Uitora 
(littora) has crept in from the preceding 
verse, but he suggests no substitute.— 
movistis, ‘qui venti concurrere fecistis.’— 
Barth.—rudis Argus is a correction of raiis 
Argo first made in the edition of 1488. 
Apollon. Rhod. 11. 562. 

ὁ δ᾽ dita: πτερύγεσσιν 

Εὔφημος προέηκε πελειάδα: τοὶ δ᾽ 


ἤειραν κεφαλὰς ἐσορώμενοι' ἡ δὲ δι αὐτῶν 


41-- 4.1 In fine, lightning may strike 
the ship, provided only I do not lose sight 
of you: and if we are to be cast on the 
waters, I will not leave you, alive or dead. 
I shall be content to float on the wave, 
provided you are covered with a little 
sand.’—certe, ‘be assured that I shall not 
leave you; if we are cast ashore, it shall 
be in each others arms.’ 

47.] Testis, sc. Neptunum amori esse 
deditum. Hertzberg follows Jacob in read- 
ing dwn for cw from the Naples MS., and 
interpreting, ‘on condition of receiving 



Scylla, nee umquam 

water.” On this use of 7εγγο (φέρεσθαι) 
see on i. 20, 28. Apollodor. 11. 1, 4, μία 
δὲ αὐτῶν (sc. Δαναΐδων) ᾿Αμυμώνη ζητοῦσα 
ὕδωρ ῥίπτει βέλος ἐπὶ ἔλαφον, καὶ κοι- 
μωμένου Σατύρου τυγχάνει: κἀκεῖνος πε- 
ριαναστὰς ἐπεθύμει συγγενέσθαι. Ποσει- 
δῶνος δὲ ἐπιφανέντος 6 Σάτυρος μὲν ἔφυγεν» 
᾿Αμυμώνη δὲ τούτῳ συνευνάζεται. καὶ αὐτῇ 
Ποσειδῶν τὰς ἐν Λέρνῃ πηγὰς ἐμήνυσεν. 
See Ovid, Met. i. 283. 

48.] Lerne Hertzberg, with the Naples 
MS., and so Kuinoel. Zernes Lachmann, 
Lerne Jacob, Keil, and Miiller. 

49.] Amplexu. ‘Non dativum pro am- 
plexui, sed ablativum pretii.’—Hertzberg. 

51.] Kuinoel gives negabit. The later 
editors have rightly restored negavit from 
the MSS. ‘Amymone Neptunum amori 
facilem testificata est, Boream Orithyia.’— 
Lachmann. The argument is, that lovers 
need not fear either winds or waves, since 
both these elements can sympathise with 

53.] Nee unquam Scylla vorans. 1. 6. et 
Scylla (mitescet) nunquam vorans sc. naves 
estu absorbens. Hertzberg is the only 
one who has rightly understood this pas- 
sage. He compares iii. 20, 52, ‘ Vobiscum 
Europe; nec proba Pasiphae,’ 7. 6. et non 
proba Pasiphae. Kuinoel, with one or two 
interpolated copies, reads alternas revomet ; 
which Lachmann in a long note shows to 

LIBER IIT. 19 (28). 

Alternante vorans vasta Charybdis aqua. 

Tpsaque sidera erunt nullis 



obscura tenebris ; 

Purus et Orion, purus et Heedus erit. 
Quod mihi si ponenda tuo sit corpore vita, 
Exitus hic nobis non inhonestus erit. 


At vos incertam, mortales, funeris horam 
Queritis, et qua sit mors aditura via; 
Queritis et clo, Phceenicum inventa, sereno, 
Que sit stella homini commoda quieque mala, 
Seu pedibus Parthos sequitur seu classe Britannos, 5 
Et maris et terre ceca pericla vie. 
Rursus et objectum fletis capiti esse tumultum, 
Cum Mavors dubias miscet utrimque manus; 

Preeterea domibus flammas, 
Neu subeant labris pocula nigra tuis. 

Solus amans novit, quando 

+domibusque ruinas, 
periturus et a qua 

Morte; neque hic Borez flabra neque arma timet; 

Jam licet et Stygia sedeat 
Cernat et inferne tristia 

be wrong, though he himself understands 
erit, and Jacob follows him. Miiller reads 
vacans for vorans, after Haupt. But Lach- 
mann well compares Ovid, Jet. xiii. 731, 
‘vorat hee raptas revomitque carinas.’ 
57.) Tuo corpore. The sense is, if Iam 
to be drowned in your embrace, 7. ὁ. in try- 
ing to save you, it will be an honourable 
death. On the ablative see i. 17, 21. 

XIX. The manner of death is uncertain 
to all but the lover, who alone knows that 
the ardour of his affection must bring him 
to the grave. This sentiment seems con- 
nected with some popular superstition on 
the ‘charmed life’ of a lover. See y. 1, 

3.] Phenicum inventa. The accusative 
in apposition to the sentence gue sit stella 
&e. He attributes to the Phenicians the 
art of astrology, perhaps confounding them 
with the Chaldeans from the well-known 
skill of the former in navigating by ob- 
servation of the stars. Cfv. 1, 83, ‘feli- 
cesque Joyis stellas Martisque rapacis, Et 
grave Saturni sidus in omne caput. 

sub arundine remex, 
vela ratis: 

5.] Sequimur Kuinoel, with the Naples 
MS. and ed. Rheg. In either case the 
transition to fletis in vy. 7, is rather harsh, 
though much more so by the ordinary 
punctuation, which places a full stop at 
mala, v. 4, and only a colon or semicolon 
at viz, v.6. The nominative homo is im- 
plied from the preceding verse.—viz maris 
et terre, ἴ. 6. itineris mari vel terra facti. 

7.1 Caput esse tumultu (1. 6. tumultut) 
Miiller, who gives caput on the authority 
of ‘ optimus liber’ without naming it. 

9.] Ruinas, i.e. casus. The fall of a 
house, an event so rare in modern times, 
seems to have been a danger constantly 
dreaded in Rome. See Juvenal Sat. iii. 
190—6, ‘Quis timet aut timuit gelida 
Preneste ruinam,’ &c.—For domibusque, 
which appears to be corrupt, Lachmann 
reads dominisque, Miiller, on his own con- 
jecture, which is probable, metwisque. 

13.] Remex, ‘with oar in hand.’ Virg. 
En, vi. 320; Arist. Ran. 201 &e. Virgil 
also (Georg. iv. 478) describes the ‘limus 
niger et deformis arundo Cocyti.’ 


Si modo damnatum revocaverit aura puelle, 



Concessum nulla lege redibit iter. 


Juppiter, affectee tandem miserere puellee ! 
Tam formosa tuum mortua crimen erit. 
Venit enim tempus, quo torridus estuat aer, 

Incipit et sicco fervere terra Cane. 


Sed non tam ardoris culpa 

est, neque crimina celi, 5 

Quam totiens sanctos non habuisse deos. 

Hoe perdit miseras, hoc perdidit ante puellas: 
Quicquid jurarunt, ventus et unda rapit. 

Num sibi collatam doluit Venus ipsa paremque ? 

Ῥγ se formosis invidiosa dea est. 

An contempta tibi Junonis 

15.] ‘Amator vel morti vicinus revi- 
yiscet, si modo fugientem animam revyo- 
caverit puella amata.’—Auinoel. Compare 
vy. 7, 28, ‘At mihi non oculos quisquam 
inclamavit euntes: Unum impetrassem, te 
revocante, diem.’—The reading damnatum 
(i.e. morti addictum) is only found in the 
MS. Groning. Kuinoel, Barth, and Lach- 
mann give clamantis with the other copies. 
Apart from the question of authority, dam- 
natum, or perhaps clamatum appears the 
preferable word.—aura is obscure: Hertz- 
berg seems to be right in understanding it 
of the flashing light or glimpse of a passing 
object; comparing, with Jacob, Hor. Od. 
ii. 8,24, ‘tua ne retardet aura maritos.’ 
Perhaps aura and aurum may be considered 
cognate, as ‘that which flashes’ has the 
same connexion with ‘that which passes 
quickly by,’ as corusco, mico, &e., in their 
double meaning of to shine and to move 
quickly. It is at least remarkable that 
Virgil combines these two words, 42n. vi. 
204, ‘Discolor unde auri per ramos aura 
refulsit.’ See, however, Varronianus, p. 
113, ed. 2. 

XX. This beautiful poem was written 
on an occasion of Cynthia’s dangerous ill- 
ness. Nothing can be more refined and 
tasteful than the mythological allusions by 
which he at once compliments and consoles 
her. At the same time he warns her that 
sickness is sent as a punishment for broken 
vows. On the date of the elegy, see on 
ii. 9, 25. 

templa Pelasge, 

1.1 Affecte, sc. morbo, egrotanti.—tam 
formosa mortua, τὸ Thy τοιαύτην ἀποθανεῖν, 
erimen erit tibi, sc. dedeeus tibi, utpote in 
formosas propenso. 

3.] The unhealthiness of Rome in sum- 
mer and autumn is well known. Hence 
enim refers to mortua, and implies that the 
hopes of her recovery were but slight at 
that season. The MS. Gron. has Incipiunt 
sicca fervere rura cane ; which none of the 
editors haye preferred, though it appears 
fully as good as Incipit et &e. 

δ.) Zam would not be missed if the 
MSS. ignored it. 

9.] The Groning. MS. alone preserves 
the true reading ipsa paremque. The rest 
give per eque or pereque. ‘Num forte, 
inquit, cum ipsa Venere tuam formam 
contulisti? Hoe malum tibi dolor dee 
parem te sibi agnoscentis immisit.’—LZach- 

10.] Pre se formosis, i.e. se formosi- 
oribus. Lachmann’s objection is scarcely 
fair, that this is incompatible with parem- 
que in the hexameter. It is merely, as it 
were, improving upon it: ‘ Venus is ever 
jealous of equal and superior charms.’ 

achmann reads per se, and Miiller follows 
him. Hertzberg proposes semper, believing 
the vulgate corrupt. I entertain no doubt 
of its being the true reading. 

11.] Juno Pelasga (see on ii. 1, 76. 
Hera was κατ᾽ ἐξοχὴν the goddess of the 
Argive or Pelasgic race. Inf. v. 8, 3. 
JEisch. Suppl. 287.—bonos, sc. pulchros; in 
allusion to some foolish discussion of the 

LIBER IIT. 20 (24). 


Palladis aut oculos ausa negare bonos 7 
Semper, formosz, non nostis parcere verbis. 
Hoe tibi lingua nocens, hoc tibi forma dedit. 

Sed tibi, vexatz per multa pericula vite, 

Extremo veniet mollior hora die. 
Io versa caput primos mugiverat annos: 
Nune dea, que Nili flumina vacea bibit. 
Ino etiam prima terris etate vagata est: 

Hance miser implorat navita Leucothoén. 

Andromede monstris fuerat devota marinis: 
Heee eadem Persei nobilis uxor erat. 
Callisto Arcadios erraverat ursa per agros: 

Hee nocturna suo sidere vela regit. 

Quod si forte tibi properarint fata quietem, 

Illa sepulturze fata beata tue: 
Narrabis Semele, quo sit formosa periclo ; 
Credet et illa suo docta puella malo; 
Et tibi Mzeonias interque Heroidas omnis 

day whether γλαυκῶπις was ἃ compliment- 
ary epithet or the reverse.—ausa, supply 

14.] Hoe, ‘hune morbum.’—Kuwinoel. 
lingua nocens alludes to the supposed offence 
against Juno and Pallas; forma to the 
comparison with Venus, v.9. Barth refers 
to a similar verse in Ovid, Heroid. xv. 68, 
‘hoe mihi libertas, hoc pia lingua dedit.’ 
The transition here from the plural to the 
singular is in accordance with the poet’s 
habit of suddenly apostrophising. For the 
danger of proud words, see iii. 17, 31. 

15.] Vexata—vita Jacob, from Pucci’s 
excerpta, to avoid the ambiguity of the 
common reading, vevate being the dative, 
vite the genitive. The sense is, ‘If you 
die, you will not only be released from the 
dangers and vexations of life, but will re- 
ceive the consolation of being honoured as 
the most beautiful of women in the other 
world.’ And the poet gives examples of 
mortal women who have become goddesses, 

17.] Versa caput. Hertzberg denies 
that lo was represented either by Adschylus 
or others as ὦ cow, and considers that she 
was simply a woman with horns on her 
head. He appeals in proof of this to an- 
cient paintings where she is so represented. 
That such was the idea which Propertius 
entertained there can be no doubt; but it 
is far from certain that he is right with 

respect to Mschylus. At all events, Suppl. 
294—6 can only be understood of the body 
of acow. See note on y. 564 of that play. 
—nune dea, 50. Isis. 

19.] Zerras Kuinoel, with some early 
editions; which is correct Latinity, like 
Virgil’s maria omnia veeti, Ain. i. 524, but 
the good copies agree in ¢erris. Miiller 
reads prima Thebis etate fugatast. On the 
form of the word Leucothoen see on iii. 18, 

25.] Properarint quietem, i.e. preema- 
turam mortem voluerint.—fata sepulture, 
sc. fatum quod post mortem te manet, 
beata erunt. 

28.] Docta suo malo. Semele was killed 
by lightning δίους ὅτι γάμους ἐψεύσατο, 
Eur. Bacch. 15. He therefore means to 
express the danger of beauty combined with 
falsehood and perjury. 

29.] The Groning. MS. alone has znter- 
gue. The rest inter, which the editors have 
preferred. The conjunction seems less ob- 
jectionable than the metrical licence. For 
it 15 easy to understand omnes alias heroidas, 
i.e. heroinas.—Meonias, ‘ab Homero ce- 
lebratas.’ Others understand _4siaticas, 
which is less appropriate to the sense; or 
specifically Zrojanas; which has i. 19, 
13—15 in its favour. Kuinoel compares 
Ovid, Trist, i. 6, 33, ‘Prima locum sanctas 
Heroidas inter haberes.’ 


Primus erit, nulla non tribuente, locus. 



Nunc, utcumque potes, fato gere saucia morem: 
Et deus et durus vertitur ipse dies. 

Hoe tibi vel poterit conjunx ignoscere Juno: 
Frangitur et Juno, si qua puella perit. 

Deficiunt magico torti sub carmine rhombi, 

Et jacet extincto laurus adusta foco, 
Et jam Luna negat totiens descendere celo; 
Nigraque -funestum concinit omen avis. 
Una ratis fati nostros portabit amores 

Ceerula ad infernos velificata lacus. 


Si non unius, queso, miserere duorum. 

Vivam, si vivet; si cadet illa, cadam. 

31.] ‘Now that you are struck with 
illness, submit, as best you may, to fate,’ 
ἦ. ὁ. to whatever is in store for you, be it 
death or recovery.—durus dies vertitur, 
‘even the decree of death when it has 
gone forth is not irrevocable,’ since persons 
have recovered even when despaired of. 
From all these expressions it must be in- 
ferred that Cynthia was or had been in 
great danger. 

33.] Keil and Miiller, with Lachmann 
and Hertzberg, regard conjunx as the voca- 
tive, sc. tibi, O Jupiter. Jacob considers 
hoe as the ablative, ‘on this condition,’ 
(i.e. si morem geris), but proposes to read 
sie. Hoc however is clearly the accusative, 
namely the sparing Cynthia’s life. Ignosco 
is properly identical with ignoro : ‘ignos- 
cere alicui aliquid’ is, ‘to know nothing 
about a thing in reference to a particular 
party;’ the Greek περιιδεῖν, ‘to overlook 
it,’ ‘ignore its existence.’ Conjunx Juno, 
also ‘Juno sacris prefecta maritis,’ Ovid, 
Her. 12, 87, Ἥρα τελεία, hence called 
simply γαμετὴ, ‘the wife,’ in Ausch. Suppl. 
170.—tidi, again a sudden apostrophe, se. 
O Jupiter. Miiller inclines to the view of 
some who would place this distich after 
v. 2; but Lachmann observes that miserere 
in 41 would be unintelligible unless Jupiter 
were before appealed to. 

35.] At this verse a new elegy com- 
mences in the Naples MS. Jacob, Keil, 
and Miiller, follow this arrangement, and 
Hertzberg prints it detached from the pre- 
ceding. But I cannot see any just reason 
for questioning its continuity. ‘We have 
done all that we can,’ says the poet, ‘for 
Cynthia’s recovery, and have tried magic 

arts in vain; the rest must be left to 
Jupiter.’ Moreover, (as above remarked), 
tibi in v. 33, and miéserere in v. 41, are alike 
addressed to Jupiter; consequently the 
whole passage inclusive must be regarded 
as one and the same appeal to him for pity. 
—torti sub carmine rhombi, ‘preeunte car- 
mine ac rhombi vertiginem moderante.’— 
Barth. An imitation of a well-known use 
of ὑπό. 

36.] Ft tacet Lachmann, and so Barth. 

37.] Negat toties, ‘refuses any longer 
to descend to our incantations.’ The con- 
nexion of the moon with sudden affections, 
according to the ancient philosophy, while 
it accounts for the word dunaticeus, ‘moon- 
struck,’ explains the reason why Artemis 
was so often said vis ἀγανοῖς βελέεσσιν 
ἐποιχομένη καταπεφνεῖν, and why Cynthia 
is urged (v. 60) to institute a chorus in 
honour of Diana. Hence witches seem to 
have been engaged ‘to draw down the 
moon’ in cases of serious illness. The 
notion of the temporary absence of that 
satellite from the sky must of course have 
arisen from its frequent eclipses. 

38.] Nigra avis. This is generally ex- 
plained infelizx, infausta, and understood of 
the owl: see v. 8,59. Why not the raven? 
The croaking of this bird is believed by 
some to portend death in a family even to 
this day. K. cites Ovid, Amor. 111, 12, 
2., ‘Omina non albz concinuistis aves.’ 

39.] Ratis fati, for fatalis cymba.— 
velificata &e., ‘sailing for the Stygian 
waters,’ ὁ, 6. to cross them. See vy. 9, 6, 
‘Nauta per urbanas velificabat aquas,’ 
Juyen. x. 174, ‘velificatus Athos.’ 


LIBER III. 20 (25, 26). 179 

Pro quibus optatis sacro me carmine damno: 
Ante tuosque pedes illa ipsa adoperta sedebit. 45 
Narrabitque sedens longa pericla sua. 
Hee tua, Persephone, maneat clementia, nec tu, 
Persephones conjunx, sevior esse velis. 
Sunt apud infernos tot milia formosarum: 
Pulchra sit in superis, si licet, una locis. 50 
Vobiscum est Iope, vobiscum candida Tyro, 
Vobiscum Europe, nec proba Pasiphaé, 
Et quot Troja tulit vetus et quot Achaia formas, 
+Et Pheebi et Priami diruta regna senis: 

Et quecumque erat in numero Romana puella, ᾿ 
Has omnes ignis avarus habet; 




Nec forma eternum, aut cuiquam est fortuna perennis: 
Longius aut proprius mors sua quemque manet. 
Tu quoniam es, mea lux, magno dimissa periclo, 

43.] Damno me carmine, ‘I undertake 
to offer verses in the temple.’ See iii. 5, 
25. Voti reus and voti (or voto) damnatus, 
Virgil, Zci. v.80, are said of those who 
are under obligation to pay what they have 
promised to the gods. 

44.] Salva &. Cf. v. 8, 72, ‘sub- 
scribam, salvo grata puella viro.’ 

45.] -Adoperta, capite velato. To sit 
at the feet of the statute and express viva 
voce gratitude for deliverance seems to have 
been considered an act of greater piety than 
to suspend a votive tablet on the wall. 

47.] Jacob and Lachmann, followed by 
Keil and Miiller, make this the beginning 
of a new elegy. The MSS. agree in con- 
necting it with the preceding. Having 
spoken of what he will do in the event of 
her recovery, he proceeds to speak of it as 
realised, and begs of Proserpine and Pluto 
not to withdraw the boon they have granted. 
Perhaps these lines were added as an after- 
thought, on the illness taking a favourable 
turn. Barth’s explanation is not probable: 
‘etiam tua clementia expectet vota similia 
lis que Jovi solvet.’ 

51.] ope. So Jacob and Hertzberg 
with the Naples MS. and ed. Rheg. The 
MS. Gron. has Jole, which Lachmann pre- 
fers; Barth and others edit Antiope. ope 
is said to have been the wife of Cepheus.— 
nec proba Pasiphae, i.e. et improba Pasiphae. 
See supr. iii. 18, 53, 

53.] Troja. The MSS. agree in this 
reading, which gives a perfectly natural 
sense in connexion with Achaia, since the 
Trojan and Grecian heroine are elsewhere 
mentioned by the poet, ¢.g. i. 13,313 i. 
19, 14. Scaliger, however, finding in one 
copy Aioa, and in the margin hiona, (ap- 
parently a misspelt word clumsily corrected 
by a late scribe), conjectured Jona, in 
which he is followed by Barth and Kuinoel, 
though the word is contrary to all analogy. 
Hertzberg gives Hoa, and in the next verse 
Phebei et muri,—both rather violent and 
by no means plausible alterations, though 
of the latter he does not fear to say, ‘Cer- 
tum est, Propertium scripsisse quod dedi- 
mus.’ The only objection that can be 
raised against the reading 7 γο7α is that the 
next verse implies a repetition. Perhaps 
however we may allow a poet to amplify 
a particular city by adding, in a wider 
sense, the entire dominions of its king, 
The word Phedi is more probably corrupt. 
Jacob proposes δέ Beli, Scaliger et Thebe. 
Hence Miiller gives Thebe. Lachmann 
incloses the distich in brackets, ‘ne legen- 
tem moretur.’ 

59.] Jacob makes the last four lines 
a separate elegy: the improbability of 
which must strike every reader of judg- 
ment, —dimissa is the reading of Hertzberg 
and Lachmann for demissa, 


Munera Dianz debita redde choros; 



Redde etiam excubias dive nunc, ante juvence ; 
Votivas noctes et mihi solve decem. 


Extrema, mea lux, cum potus nocte vagarer, 
Nec me servorum duceret ulla manus, 
Obvia nescio quot pueri mihi turba minuta 
Venerat ;—hos vetuit me numerare timor,— 
Quorum alii faculas, aliiretinere sagittas, 5 
Pars etiam visa est vincla parare mihi. 

Sed nudi fuerant. 

Quorum lascivior unus, 
‘Arripite hunc, inquit, ‘nam bene nostis eum ; 


Hic erat, hune mulier nobis irata locavit.’ 

Dixit, et in collo jam mihi nodus erat. 


Hic alter jubet in medium propellere, at alter: 
‘Intereat, qui nos non putat esse deos ! 
Hee te non meritum totas expectat in horas; 

60.] Diane. See supra on y. 87. 

61.] Excubias, t.e. vigilias. Isis, or 
Io, (see supra v. 17) seems to have brought 
with her to Rome some admixture of Phe- 
nician or Jewish rites, (see iii. 25, 2), one 
of which was the abstinence from conjugal 
rights for ten nights, to which he evidently 
alludes in the decem votive noctes sibi potius 
quam Isidi solvende. 

XXI. In this elegy the poet offers a 
playful excuse for haying wrongly sus- 
pected, and jealously tested, the fidelity of 
Cynthia, by acting as a spy on her privacy. 
He now pretends that it was the result of 
a drunken frolic, and laments the con- 
sequent loss of her regard. 

1.1 The MSS. give hesterma. As it is 
impossible to reconcile with this reading 
the last verse of the elegy, where the poet 
declares that since then he has never spent 
a happy night, I have followed Lachmann 
and Hertzberg in admitting Heinsius’ cor- 
rection Extrema. Soalso Keil and Miiller. 
‘Late at night,’ is when night is coming 
to an end, and morning is approaching, 
Hertzberg remarks that extrema and hes- 
terna are often confused in the MSS. 

2.1 Servorum manus. The slaves of 

a family used to attend their masters home 
with torches: Juvenal, iii. 284. 

3.] Minuta. When anything is broken 
into small pieces, each particle becomes 
‘minute,’ z.e. small. This is one of a 
class of verbal adjectives, (commonly called 
passive participles), which have become by 
use mere adjectives,.as rectzus, celsus, (cello), 
altus, certus (for cretus, cerno), &c. So 
‘remis confisa minutis,’ i. 11, 9. 

5.] Retinere, ‘to have in store for me,’ 
i.e. to keep back for the present. This 
seems more correct than Kuinoel’s ‘ retinere 
pro tenere.’ 

7.] Luerunt for fuerant Miiller, with 

9.1 Locavit, ‘pretio proposito excruci- 
andum tradidit.’ Locare and conducere, 
the reader is aware, are terms used of let- 
ting and accepting contracts, expressed in 
Greek by μισθῶσαι and μισθώσασθαι. 

11.1 Jn medium, és μέσον, as if before 
a court or public assembly. Hertzberg 
gives at alter from the Naples MS. The 
editors generally prefer et alter. 

13.] Zotas in horas, ‘for whole hours 
gare Similarly ‘totis noctibus,’ i. 

LIBER III. 21 (27). 121 

At tu nescio quas queris, inepte, fores. 

Que cum Sidoniz nocturna ligamina mitre 

Solverit, atque oculos moverit illa graves, 
Adflabunt tibi non Arabum de gramine odores, 

Sed quos ipse suis fecit Amor manibus. 
Parcite jam, frates; jam certos spondet amores; 

Et jam ad mandatam venimus ecce domum.’ 20 

Atque ita me injecto duxerunt rursus amictu: 
‘T nunc, et noctes disce manere domi!’ 

Mane erat, et volui, si sola quiesceret 1118, 
Visere: at in lecto Cynthia sola fuit. 

Obstupui; non illa mihi formosior umquam 2 

Visa, neque ostrina cum 

14.] Inepte. ‘Stuporem poete expro- 
brant Cupidines, quod cum pulcherrimam 
puellam gratis habere possit, alterius fastus 
ferre malit.’— Hertzberg.—F or fores Miller 
reads foris, with Douse, in allusion to 
vagarer sup.1. Thus nescio guas means 
puellas. But there is no sufficient reason 
for altering the vulgate. If indeed, we 
read nescio quam, the gue in 15 would refer 
to this meretrix, to whom mitra was ap- 
propriate (Juv. iii. 66, ‘picta lupa barbara 
mitra,’) and ἡ in 16 will mean Cynthia: 
and this will alter the whole tone and 
meaning of the passage. 

15.] Que cum, &e. ‘When Cynthia 
rises in the morning, the most delicate 
fragrance will play around you, and remind 
you of your folly in slighting her charms.’ 
Sidonia mitra, the night-cap of Tyrian dye; 
rather, perhaps, of Tyrian embroidery or 
imagery. The mitra is usually spoken of 
as the head-tire of o/d women, as in v.35, 
72. It was worn like a kerchief folded 
round the head. Thus ‘ligamina mitre’ 
does not mean ‘the night-cap strings,’ but 
mitram circumligatam. 

18.] Love himself is represented as 
possessing a recipe for the perfumes which 
attend the presence of Cynthia. But 
Hertzberg seems to be correct in explain- 
ing the verse of the natural freshness of 
health and youth as opposed to the artificial 
eastern perfumes, of which the poet pro- 
fesses himself to be no admirer, i. 2, 3. 

19.] Spondet, ‘he (our captive) pro- 
mises to be constant for the future.’ Jacob 
reads spondeo from Pucci. This alteration 
is metrically inelegant, and supported by 
an argument of little weight, that the 
leader of the Loves ought rather to give 


fuit in tunica, 

his guaranty for the poet, than the latter 
for himself, ‘in ingente pavore Propertio 

21.] Me—duxerunt. I have retained 
the reading of the MSS. against the united 
judgment of the best editors, who adopt 
the conjecture of Heinsius mi—dixerunt. 
Rursus injecto implies that they had stripped 
off his outer garment. Duxerunt rursus 
(revorsus) might imply that they took him 
at once back to his own house: but the 
point of the story seems to be that the Loves 
brought him first to Cynthia’s house that he 
might see with his own eyes the ground- 
lessness of his suspicions. What follows, 
mane erat &c., implies that in the morning, 
ὦ. e. When he was sober and the dream had 
fled, he wished to go and visit Cynthia. 
This would be from his own house; and 
therefore it was more natural to represent 
that he had been conducted back again by 
the Loves. 

23.] δὲ sola quiesceret, si aliquem secum 
haberet. Compare with this visit the 
beautiful account in i. 3. 

24.] Hertzberg and Jacob give et with 
the Groning. MS., the others at. I do not 
feel the force of Jacob’s remark, that the 
poet ought not to express swrprise at her 
being alone, but satisfaction at his sus- 
picion proving groundless. For the very 
fact of his going to see, implied a doubt of 
her being faithful; which doubt is properly 
followed by at. 

26.] Ostrina tunica. Lachmann refers 
this to the particular dress which Cynthia 
wore when the poet first beheld her; see 
iv. 10, 15. ‘ Dein qua primum oculos cepisti 
veste Properti, Indue, nec vacuum flore 
relinque caput.’ The general sense and 



Tbat et hine caste narratum somnia Veste, 
Neu 5101, neve mihi que nocitura forent: 
Talis visa mihi somno dimissa recenti ; 

Heu quantum per se candida forma valet! 


‘Quo tu matutinus, ait, ‘speculator amicze 7 
Me similem vestris moribus esse putas ? 

Non ego tam facilis: sat erit mihi cognitus unus, 
Vel tu, vel si quis verior esse potest. 

Apparent non ulla toro vestigia presso, 

Signa voluptatis, nec jacuisse duos. 

Aspice, ut in toto nullus mihi corpore surgat 
Spiritus, admisso notus adulterio.’ 

Dixit, et opposita propellens savia dextra, 

Prosilit in laxa nixa pedem solea. 


Sic ego tam sancti +custos excludor amoris. 
Ex illo felix nox mihi nulla fuit. 

connexion are thus given in Hertzberg’s 
paraphrase: ‘nunquam formosior visa. est, 
ne tum quidem cum, quantum memini, 
pulcherrima mihi videretur, quo tempore 
purpurea tunica induta ex hoc ipso cubi- 
culo (Aine) prodiens ad Veste ibat. Nec 
aliter (talis, v.29) nunc recens experrecta.’ 
But, if idat depends upon ewm, and the 
poet’s first sight of Cynthia is referred to 
the time when she was going to relate her 
dreams (primum cepisti,) to Vesta, it is 
difficult to understand her motive in pray- 
ing that they might prove harmless to 
herself and to Propertius (vy. 28), with 
whom she could have had no acquaint- 
ance. On the other hand, if tbat describes 
her action on the present occasion, 7 lecto 
fuit et exire parabat, talis visa mihi in 
v. 29 must be referred back to v. 26, which 
is certainly awkward. The tunic however 
may well have been the same as that 
which first captivated the poet on her ap- 
pearance in it before the time here spoken 
of. Lachmann gives tbat ut hine &c., add- 
ing ‘illo ipso tempore, quo ad Veste temp- 
lum in tunica purpurea iverat, primum 
ocellis suis amatorem ceperat.’ 

28.] New—que. For nequa (i. 3, 29). 
Neu—neve here follow the analogy of sew— 
sive,—both being, as the student is aware, 
different forms of the same words,—whereas 
new generally follows ve, and may be con- 
sidered in translating as equivalent to ef ne. 

29.] Dimissa, The MSS. have demissa, 
as in y. 59 of the preceding elegy. 

30.] En quantum Miiller, on his own 

31.] Quo. ‘Qua mente ? quo consilio ὃ᾽ 

32.] Vestris moribus, ἃ. 6. moribus ho- 
minum qualis tu es. 

383.] Yam fucilis, se. quam putas. 

34.| Verior. Not constantior, but minus 
mendax, according to Hertzberg.  Certus 
is the word generally used for ‘constant,’ 
as iil. 16, 20, and y. 19 of this elegy. 

35.] Vestigia. See on ii. 9, 45. 

38.] Notus, ἃ, 6. ut vulgo fieri notum 

39.] Propedlere, used in its proper sense 
sup. 11, here means repellere. 

40.] Niwa pedem. Compare i. 3, 8, 
‘Cynthia non certis nixa caput manibus.’ 
—prosilit, e lecto, sup. 24. 

41.] The reading of this verse is very — 
uncertain, The MS. Groning.. gives cus- 
tode recludor, the Naples MS. custode re- 
ludor, the ed. Rheg. custodis rector. Kui- 
noel and Lachmann follow Broukhuis, 
custos excludor, understanding custos as 
speculator, explorator, observator. Hertz- 
berg gives eustos recludor, which appears 
from his commentary to be a misprint for 
excludor. Keil reads custode recludor, 
Miiller cxstodi excludor, after Heins. Lach- 
mann conjectures cultu secludor, ‘nihil 
promittens de veritate conjecture.’ The 
reading of ed. Rheg. points to custos rejector, 
the correction of Pucci; but rejecto is a 
rare word, and in Lucretius 11. 327, it 

LIBER III. 22 (28). 


Quo fugis? ah, demens, nulla est fuga! tu licet usque 

Ad Tanain fugias, usque 

sequetur Amor. 

Non si Pegaseo vecteris in aére dorso, 
Nec tibi si Persei moverit ala pedes ; 

Vel si te secte rapiant talaribus aure, 


Nil tibi Mercurii proderit alta via. 
Instat semper Amor supra caput; instat amanti, 
Et gravis ipse super libera colla sedet. 
Excubat ille acer custos, et tollere numquam 

Te patietur humo lumina capta semel. 

Et jam si pecces, deus exorabilis ille est, 
Si modo presentes viderit esse preces. 
Ista senes licet accusent convivia duri: 

means to ‘re-echo.’ Perhaps custodi ludor, 
‘T am batiled by one who so virtuously keeps 
her affections for me,’ tam sancte amorem 
custodit. When the dative was corrupted 
into the ablative (which would have been 
a custode), ludor was not unnaturally 
changed to reludor. Compare ‘tibi ludi- 
tur,’ ‘the game is played by you,’ Persius, 
Sat. 111. 20. 

XXII. This is a difficult elegy. Kui- 
noel, with the earlier commentators, wrong- 
ly imagined that the poet was addressing 
Cynthia, and dissuading her from under- 
taking a voyage ‘ad Parthos vel Indos,’ (!) 
on the plea of withdrawing herself from 
the calumnies of her enemies. Barth is 
even more absurd: ‘ Cynthiam lucri studio 
in bellum (!) proficisci cupientem revocat 
ab incepto,’ &c. The poet however speaks 
of himself in the second person, or in other 
words, holds a dialogue with himself, to 
show the impossibility of escaping from 
the thraldom of love, and the expediency 
of acquiescing in his present fate. He as- 
sumes the Bacchic frenzy, and invites 
Cynthia to join him in a revel in the wild 
woods (25, 39), resolving to indulge in 
gaiety and pleasure, since it is distasteful 
to him to follow the precepts of dull virtue 
(15). Neither Lachmann, who divides the 
present elegy into two at v. 23, nor Jacob, 
who seems to think the first part of the 
poem addressed to a friend, has rightly 
seen the purport of the whole, the chief 
obscurity in which depends on the sudden 

transitions from one person to another, 
which will be pointed out in their proper 

3—6.] There is a slight confusion in 
the disposition of the negatives, if we 
follow the explanation commonly proposed, 
non—nil tibi proderit, in which case vel in 
γ. 5, must be taken for xec. But may we 
not rather understand zon (proderit) sz vec- 
teris, nee si ala &e., vel, si aure te rapiant, 
nil tibi via Mercurtt proderit : where vel-— 
nil in the last distich is equivalent to nec 
quicquam. Or thus: ‘non (fuga est) si 
Pegaso vecteris; si te vel Mercurii talaria 
te rapiant, nihil proderit ejus via.’ 

8.] Jpse. Lachmann and Hertzberg 
approve of the correction of Beroaldus, 
ipsa, 1. 6. etiam super Libera colla, sc. amore 
vacua, But dyse may mean in person, not 
per custodem, nor by mere mental anxieties 

11.] £¢. Lachmann follows Burmann 
in reading sed, with the approval of Jacob. 
Perhaps et may have the sense of et tamen ; 
‘And yet, if any indiscretion shall have 
alienated you for a time from your mistress, 
the quarrel may be made up by a prompt 
confession.’ Indeed, etiam is only another 
way of writing et jam; and other passages 
occur where the meaning is identical, as 
Georg. ili, 189.—presentes, map’ αὐτὸ τὸ 
ἀδίκημα. ‘Quamprimum errata fatere,’ i. 
9, 33. 

13.] Ista convivia may mean hos con- 
victos ; or tua convivia, if we suppose the 
poet addresses Cynthia as a part of himself. 



Nos modo propositum, vita, teramus iter. 

Ilorum antiquis onerentur legibus aures: 


Hic locus est, in quo, tibia docta, sones, 
Que non jure vado Meeandri jacta natasti, . 
Turpia cum faceret Palladis ora tumor. 
Num jam, dure, paras Phrygias nune ire per undas, 

Et petere Hyrcani litora nauta maris 7 


Spargere et alterna communes cede Penates, 
Et ferre ad patrios preemia dira Lares 7 

Una contentum pudeat me vivere amica 7 
Hoe si crimen erit, crimen Amoris erit; 

Equally ambiguous is modo in the next 
line. It may mean nwper propositum, or 
nos modo teramus, ἴ, ὁ. nibil curantes 
senum precepta. 

15.] Construe, @wlorum aures onerentur 
&e., ‘Let them (the senes) be bored with 
old-fashioned rules; this is the school for 
wine and music;’ ef. inf. 37. 

17.] Que non jure &e. “πῶ immerito 
a Minerva abjecta es in Mzandrum, cum 
te inflasset et vidisset genas intumuisse.’— 
Kuinoel. Ovid, Art. Amat. iii. 505, “1 
procul hine, dixit, non es mihi, tibia, tanti, 
Ut vidit vultus Pallas in amne suos.’ Cf. 
Fast. vi. 700; Pind. Pyth, xii. 

19.] Lachmann, Kuinoel, and Keil give 
num jam, dura, paras &e. Jacob and 
Miiller num jam, dure, paras, Hertzberg 
nune jam, dure &c, Dura is the reading 
of the MS. Groning., and seems to have 
arisen from the mistaken idea that it was 
Cynthia and not Propertius who was con- 
templating the journey. The same MS. 
has nune with the Naples MS. and ed. 
Rheg. But nune paras, nune ive is a re- 
petition which could only be defended on 
the ground that the instant urgency of the 
journey (perhaps such a journey as his 
friends had advised him to take, i. 1, 29), 
was the point in question, which does not 
seem to be the case: to say nothing of the 
awkward nunc jam for jam nunc. The 
sense is, ‘Do you still intend?’ &., 1, 6. 
after the considerations just enumerated 
against it. The reading of the MS. Naples 
is remarkable: mon (sie ὦ pr.m.) tamen 
immerito. This, taken in combination with 
21—2, might be considered as ironically 
said; ‘truly, you have good reason for 
wishing to go abroad and fight against 
enemies who ought rather to be friends of 
Rome’ &c. But it does not appear by 

what doctrine of ellipse the infinitives 
could be explained. 

20.] The MSS. have ofa, except one 
of the inferior copies, which gives ata. 
Hertzberg’s correction is so probable that 
I have ventured to admit it. He compares 
Hor. Od. i. 1, 13, ‘ut trabe Cypria Myr- 
toum pavidus nauta secet mare,’ and 7b, 
ii. 4, 30, ‘insanientem navita Bosporum 
tentabo,’ while he shows that so far from 
the shores of the Caspian sea being nota to 
the Romans, they were the very reverse. 
Miller reads Uittora Eoa. 

21.] Communes Penates. Hertzberg 
ridicules, and with good reason, the absurd 
explanation of preceding commentators, 
‘Cynthiz et Propertii edes,’ and compares 
i. 11, 16, ‘communes nec meminisse deos,’ 
the gods common to two sides or parties, 
and similarly Virg. An. viii. 275; xii. 118. 
Allusion is made (Hertzberg, Quest. p. 225) 
to a treaty ratified in the year of the city 
728 between the Romans and Polemo king 
of Pontus, apparently against the rebellious 
and quarrelsome nation of the Parthi. 
‘Itaque communes Penates aut erunt publict 
penates ejus regionis quam bello petitura 
erat expeditio Romana, aut quod multo 
magis placet, quos uterque populus colit.’ 
—Hertzberg. What particular gods the 
Parthians worshipped in common with 
Rome, the learned editor is unable to state. 

23.] With this verse Lachmann com- 
mences a new elegy; but he is not followed 
by the recent editors. ‘My severe censors 
say that I ought to be ashamed of living 
with Cynthia. Ashamed of being faithful 
to one! That is but nature, and therefore 
no sin.’ Compare ii. 1, 47, ‘Laus in 
amore mori; laus altera, si datur uno 
Posse frui.’ 

LIBER III, 22 (29). 

Mi nemo obiciat. 

Libeat tibi, Cynthia, mecum 

Roscida muscosis antra tenere jugis. 
Illic aspicies scopulis herere Sorores, 
Et canere antiqui dulcia furta Jovis: 
Ut Semela est combustus, ut est deperditus Io, 

Denique ut ad Troj tecta volarit avis. 


Quod si nemo extat, qui vicerit Alitis arma, 
Communis culpze cur reus unus agor 7 

Nec tu Virginibus reverentia moveris ora: 
Hic quoque non nescit quid sit amare chorus; 

Si tamen C#agri queedam compressa figura 35 

Bistonius olim rupibus accubuit. 
Hic ubi te prima statuent in parte chores, 
Et medius docta cuspide Bacchus erit, 
Tum capiti sacros patiar pendere corymbos: 

Nam sine te nostrum nil valet ingenium. 

25.) Mihi &e. ‘Let no one charge me 
with a crime for which Love alone is re- 
sponsible.’ He adds, somewhat abruptly, 
‘If we cannot live without these reproaches 
at Rome, retire with me into the country, 
and cultivate literature and poetry (i. 2, 
27) in peace.’ 

29.] 10 (Io?) seems to be the ablative. 
Otherwise the accusative (Ἰὼ) might have 
been defended, as deperditus est = amavit : 
compare ardebat Alexim, Virg. Ecl. ii. 1.— 
avis, t. 6. IN avim, sc. aquilam, mutatus, ad 
rapiendum Ganymedem. The construction 
is similar to Eel. vi. 64, ‘Tum canit, erran- 
tem Permessi ad flumina Gallum Aonas in 
montes ut duxerit una sororum.’ 

31.] Alitis, h. 6. Cupidinis. 

33.] ‘Nor will you put the Virgin 
Muses to the blush: for they also know 
well what itis to love. Reverentia, αἰδοῖα, 
verecunda. The sense is, ‘ Be not deterred 
by their well-known attributes of Vir- 
ginitas and verecundia from invoking them 
‘In composing love-songs.’ 

35.] δὲ tamen. ‘If, in spite of the 
alleged chastity’ &c. See on ii. 4, 10.— 
Gagri figura, ‘by one in the form of 
(agrus ;’ thus leaving it indefinite whether 
he were really (Hagrus or a god. Apollodor. 
1, 8, 2, Καλλιόπης μὲν οὖν καὶ Οἰάγρου, 
κατ᾽ ἐπίκλησιν δὲ ᾿Απόλλωνος, Λῖνος, ὃν 
Ἡρακλῆς ἀπέκτεινε. There is a similar 
story of Terpsichore and the river Strymon, 
Eur. Rhes. 920. 

37.] Lachmann, with the approval of 


Jacob, reads te for me from one of the 
inferior MS. Both Keil and Miiller retain 
me. Hertzberg is scarcely successful in 
his explanation:—‘hic, (1. 6. tecum in 
patriis montibus, non esculetis Hyrcanis), 
si mihi Muse et Bacchus carmina dederint, 
lubens ego me furore poetico rapi patiar,— 
vel si te presente, gelidum nemus fon- 
tesque salubres et vinum ad carmina pan- 
genda paratum me reddiderint, non re- 
fragabor. Nam sine te nostrum non valet 
ingenium.’—He rightly compares, in illus- 
tration of prima in parte chorea, iv. 5, 19. 
But Aic seems rather to refer to hie locus, 
sup. 16, 

38.] Bacchus. On his connexion with 
poetry, see on v. 1, 62.—docta cuspide, τ, e. 
thyrso, quo docte moderatur choro. Com- 
pare docta falce iii. 10,12. Scaliger, fol- 
lowed by Kuinoel, reads tecta cuspide, 
comparing Catull. lxiv. 257, ¢. 6. velata.— 
In medius erit there is a double allusion, 
both to wine being placed on the table 
before Cynthia and Propertius, and to the 
god Bacchus acting as arbiter and exarch 
of the chorus. 

40.] Sinete. Can this refer to Bacchus? 
The change in the person from y. 33, pre- 
sents little difficulty in Propertius. In 
this case, of course, the MSS. reading me 
would be retained in y. 37. But all the 
commentators understand this verse of 
Cynthia, who as it were inspires the poet 
to sing. Compare ii. 1, 4, ‘Ingenium 
nobis ipsa puella facit.’ 




Queris, cur veniam tibi tardior? Aurea Phcebo 
Porticus a magno Czesare aperta fuit. 

Tota erat in speciem Pcenis digesta columnis, 
Inter quas Danai femina turba senis. 

Hic equidem Phoebo visus mihi pulchrior ipso 5 
Marmoreus tacita carmen hiare Lyra; 

Atque aram circum steterant armenta Myronis, 
Quattuor artificis, vivida signa, boves. 

Tum medium claro surgebat marmore templum, 

XXIII. This elegy is one of the poet’s 
earlier productions. The date is deter- 
mined by the circumstances alluded to, the 
solemn dedication and opening of the new 
temple of Apollo on the Palatine, Oct. 24, 
A.u.C. 726, by Augustus in memory of his 
victory at Actium. The same event is 
commemorated by Horace, Od.i. 31. The 
poet excuses his delay in visiting Cynthia 
on the plea of having been present at the 
ceremony. Some have thought this a mere 
fragment of a longer poem describing the 
spectacle in detail: but Lachmann acutely 
remarks that ew veniam, v.1, would have 
been eur venerim, had the poet taken time 
to compose a long account. 

2.] Magno, cf. ii. 7, 5, ‘at magnus 

3.] In speciem, speciose, ‘with a view 
to etfect;’ the architect had laid out. the 
whole design (not only the facade) with 
columns for the purpose of presenting a 
magnificent appearance, not merely for 
structural use. — Penis columnis, of the 
marble now called ‘giallo antico ;’ Hertz- 
berg. See the commentators on Hor. Od. 
li. 18, 4, ‘non trabes Hymettize premunt 
columnas ultima recisas Africa.’ Ovid, 
Am. ii. 2, 3, ‘Hesterna vidi spatiantem 
luce puellam, Illa qua Danai porticus 
agmen habet.’ Trist. iii. 1, 59, ‘Inde 
tenore pari gradibus sublimia celsis Ducor 
ad intonsi candida templa dei; Signa pere- 
grinis ubi sunt alterna columnis Belides, et 
stricto barbarus ense pater.’ Opposite to 
these were the fratres aheni, or equestrian 
statues of the sons of Aigyptus. Persius, 
Sat. ii. 56. 

41] Turba, as v. 11, 76, ‘omnis erit 
collo turba ferenda tuo,’ ὦ. ὁ. omnes liberi. 

5.] LEquidem. A remarkable instance 
of the use of this word in a writer of the 
Augustan age, which tends to disprove its 
alleged derivation from ego quidem. Lach- 

mann reads hie guidam, after Markland. 
It is not easy to assent to the opinion of 
Dr. Donaldson, Varron. Ὁ. 448, that the 
initial 8 is long, and that it must therefore 
have been pronounced in verse égw’em, and 
that in Persius, i. 110, ‘per me equidem 
sint omnia protinus alba,’ we must read 
me quidem and pronounce it per me quem. 
Hertzberg transposes vv. 5—8 to the end 
of the elegy, on the ground that the same 
statue is here described asin v.15. Grant- 
ing this to be the case, and that it would 
have been better to have arranged the 
subject otherwise, the common order is 
sufficiently justified by the haste and 
brevity of what was, perhaps, little better 
than an extempore composition. In truth, 
the four verses in question do not har- 
monise in continuation with v. 16. 

6.] TZuacita lyra, an elegant expression 
for a mute statue. This stature is said to 
have been the work of Scopas (Pliny, 
N.H. xxxvi. 4, 7), and is distinguished by 
Hertzberg from another colossal one of 
bronze, said to have represented Augustus 
himself, and to have stood in the Palatine 
library. Hor. Zp. i. 3, 17, ‘et tangere 
vitet scripta, Palatinus quecunque recepit 
Apollo.’ A copy of this statue, ‘ Apollo 
Citharcedus,’ is in the Vatican collection, 
and is engraved in Dr. Smith’s Student's 
History of Greece, p. 551, 580. The mouth 
is opened, as in singing; hence the pro- 
priety of carmen hiare. 

8.] The MSS. give artificis, which may 
stand, if taken for artifices. See note on 
i, 2, 8. But most editors prefer the latter 
form. What particular mythical event (if 
any) the four cows represented, is not 

9.] Medium. The temple itself appears 
to have stood between two, if not four 
porticos. Hertzberg shows from Sueton. 
Oct. § 29, that more than one were dedicated 

LIBER III. 24 (30). 12s 

Et patria Phcebo carius Ortygia. 


In quo Solis erat supra fastigia currus, 
Et valve, Libyci nobile dentis opus, 

Altera dejectos Parnasi vertice Gallos, 
Altera mceerebat funera Tantalidos. 

Deinde inter matrem deus ipse interque sororem 


Pythius in longa carmina veste sonat. 


Qui videt, is peccat: qui te non viderit ergo, 
Non cupiet; facti lumina crimen habent. 
Nam quid Prznesti dubias, ο Cynthia, sortes, 

by Augustus.—claro marmore, 7. 6. bright, 
polished. Scaliger, followed by Kuinoel, 
reads clario.—et patria Ortygia, ‘even than 
his native Ortygia,’ z. ὁ. than the temple in 
Delos, or as some think, near Ephesus 
(Tac. Ann. iii. 61). That the gods had a 
particular partiality for certain temples is 
well known, and easily explained from the 
jealousies incidental to rival pretensions, 

11.] The MSS. have zz guo, which Keil 
and Miiller retain. Hertzberg reads et 
duo, and erant for erat, proving from 
ancient examples that the figures on the 
pediment were two, one on each side of 
the highest point, as on the Mausoleum in 
Caria. Cf. Ovid, Fast: v. 560. Others 
have proposed azo, or ergo, and read erat. 

12.] ‘This verse is nearly identical with 
one of Martial’s, xiv. 3, ‘Essemus Libyci 
nobile dentis opus.’ 

14.] Merebat. One of the great doors 
represented sculptured in ivory the retreat 
of the Gauls from the temple at Delphi, 
scared by earthquakes and a storm of 
thunder and lightning; the other mourned, 
7. 6. set forth in moving imagery, the death 
of Niobe’s children, slain by Apollo and 
Diana. With Gallos we may supply from 
the context some verb like pingebat.— 
Sunera, ‘the dead children;’ so vy. 1. 97, 
‘fatales pueri, duo funera matris avare.’ 
On the former event see on iv. 13, 53. 

15.] The god stands between Latona 
and Diana, wearing the long dress ( pa//a, 
Tibull. ii. 4, 35) peculiar to the citharcedi. 
It was this which Arion put on before he 
leapt into the waves, Ovid, Fust. i. 107, 
‘ Induerat Tyrio bis tinctam murice pallam.’ 
Deinde means, ‘after passing through the 

XXIV. Written in a fit of jealous alarm 
to upbraid Cynthia for her frequent ab- 
sence from Rome under various pretgnces, 
which he suspects are but vain excuses for 
getting out of his sight, and seeking the 
company of more favoured lovers. 

1—2.] Hertzberg considers Qui videt is 
peccat, as the words of Cynthia excusing 
her conduct, by alleging that she cannot 
help the notice which she attracts. ‘Tu 
frequentiam amatorum eo excusas, quod 
quicunque te viderit, te tentet. Non equi- 
dem nego factum. Sed causam facti pre- 
cidere te jubeo. Fac ne videaris.’ Lumen 
he accordingly interprets ‘ quod semper illa 
in publico et lumine versetur,’ while others 
explain it of the eyes of Cynthia’s admirers, 
which are in fault rather than themselves. 
In the vulg. facti crimina lumen habet, lu- 
men may mean ‘ your frequently exhibiting 
yourself in open day ;’ but the first words 
seem to be not Cynthia’s, but the poet’s. 
‘To see you,’ he says, in a half angry, 
half expostulatory strain, ‘is to be en- 
amoured. Therefore avoid being seen, 
which is the cause of your misbehaviour.’ 
Miller, with Heins and Lachmann, reads 
Jacti lumina erimen habent, the Naples MS. 
giving crimina lumen habent. And they 
are probably right: ‘the eyes have the 
guilt of the deed.’ For, as Shakespeare 
says, ‘how oft the sight of means to do 
ill deeds makes ill deeds done.’ 

3.] The reading of the MSS. Gron. and 
Naples is rightly retained by Hertzberg, 
who shows (what seems obvious enough) 
that it is the locative, ὦ, ὁ. ‘at Preaeneste’ 
So also Keil and Miiller. Jacob and Kui- 
noel give Prenestis ; Lachmann, very im- 

-probably, Nam quid Preneste in dubias, 


Quid petis Aizi mcenia Telegoni ? 

Curve te in Herculeum deportant esseda Tibur ? 


Appia cur totiens te via ducit anum ? 
Hoe utinam spatiere loco, quodcumque vacabis, 
Cynthia! sed tibi me credere turba vetat, 
Cum videt accensis devotam currere tedis 
In nemus et Triviz lumina ferre dee. 10 
Scilicet umbrosis sordet Pompeia columnis 
Porticus auleis nobilis Attalicis, 
Et creber platanis pariter surgentibus ordo, 

&e., ¢.e. ‘Quid Preeneste tendis, illas dubias 
sortes quesitum? The adlative is Pra- 
neste, which misled the commentators. 
Juven. iii. 190, ‘Quis timet aut timuit 
gelida Preeneste ruinam?’ ‘There was a 
temple of Fortune at Przeneste, and the 
reader will find in Cic. de Div. ii. 41, a 
curious account of the sortes Preenestine. 
For @’similar and equally questionable trip 
of Cynthia to Lanuvium, see v. 8, 15. 

4.] Tusculum is here called the ‘fort of 
Telegonus,’ as in Horace, Od. 111. 29, 8, 
‘ Telegoni juga parricide.’ Telegonus was 
the son of Ulysses by Circe, hence called 
the Aizan:’ Hom. Od. x. 135, Αἰαίην δ᾽ 
ἐς νῆσον ἀφικόμεθ᾽" ἔνθα δ᾽ ἔναιεν Κίρκη 

5.] Herculewn Tibur. See on v. 7, 82. 
These two last mentioned places, Frascati 
and Tivoli, were favourite resorts of the 
Romans in the summer. This verse is 
corruptly written in the MSS., but so as 
to leave little doubt of the true reading. 
Miiller gives ‘Cur aut te’ &. The MS. 
Gron. has cum vatem, others eur vatem. 
The Naples MS., by a curious corruption, 
‘curva te herculeum deportantes sed abi- 

6.] The better copies agree in anwm, 
which can only mean ‘old woman as you 
are;’ for the suggestion of an old com- 
mentator ‘ducit te toties ad anum,’ ὦ. 6. ad 
sagam,’ is scarcely admissible. Lachmann, 
Jacob, Hertzberg, and the latest editors, 
read anus, which is found in three of the 
inferior copies. Authority however is 
clearly for anum. Is it then less harsh 
and unusual to call a public highway anus 
via, than to taunt Cynthia with vanity in 
being so fond of displaying her charms 
when she was becoming passée? This 
very fact she is reminded of in terms 
nearly as blunt and undisguised in iii. 9, 
20, ‘cum sis ipsa anus haud longa curva 
futura die.’ On a careful consideration of 

the passage I have not hesitated to retain 
anum, though Hertzberg quotes terra anus, 
charta anus, testa anus, &e., in defence of 
anus via, which the Appian road is con- 
ceived to be called, because it was the first 
constructed of all the Roman roads. See 
Wokey ttl 

8.] Keil and Miller, with Jacob and 
Lachmann, read nam for sed, from the MS. 
Groning. The sense is equally good.— 
turba, 7. e. the crowd who come to see you. 
‘In illa turba hominum, que in ea via 
semper versatur, vereor ne plures insint 
qui te visam depereant.’— Lachmann. 

10.] Zrivie dee. To Diana worshipped 

-at Aricia, called on that account ‘nemoralis 

Aricia’ by Ovid, Fast. vi. 59. Ibid. iii. 
253, ‘Vallis Aricine sylva precinctus 
opaca Est locus, antiqua religione sacer.— 
Seepe potens voti, frontem redimita coronis, 
Femina lucentes portat ab urbe faces.’ 
This worship was connected with the in- 
fernal attributes of Diana as Hecate. She 
was the goddess of light, Lucina, z.e. Luna, 
and as such may have claimed the offering 
of torches: but Zrivia is synonymous with 
Hecate. Ovid gives an explanation, though 
an absurd one, of this ancient custom, Fast. 
iv. 493, viz. that Ceres lighted her torch 
at the crater of Etna in her search for 
Proserpine: ‘Illic accendit geminas pro 
lampade teedas: Hine Cereris sacris nune 
quoque taeda datur.’ 

11.] Seilicet. ‘I suppose, forsooth,’ &e. 
The piazza of Pompey was a favourite and 
fashionable promenade. See v. 8,75, ‘Tu 
neque Pompeia spatiabere cultus in umbra.’ 
Ovid, A.A. i. 67; Mart. ii. 14, 10. 

12.] Tapestry of eastern manufacture, 
professedly or really bequeathed to the 
Romans by king Attalus (see y. 5, 24), 
appears to have been suspended in the 
Portico to shade it from the sun, Hence, 
perhaps, (in part at least) the columns are 
called wnbrose. 

LIBER III. 24 (30). 


Flumina sopito quzque Marone cadunt, 

Et leviter lymphis tota crepitantibus urbe, 

Cum subito Triton ore recondit aquam. 
Falleris; ista tui furtum via monstrat amoris: 
Non urbem, demens, lumina nostra fugis ; 

Nil agis; insidias in me componis inanes ; 

Tendis iners docto retia nota mihi. 

Sed de me minus est: fame jactura pudice 
Tanta tibi miserze, quanta mereris, erit. 
Nuper enim de te nostras me ledit ad aures 
Rumor, et in tota non bonus urbe fuit. 

Sed tu non debes inimicz 


credere lingue : 

Semper formosis fabula poena fuit. 
Non tua deprenso damnata est fama veneno; 
Testis eris puras, Phoebe, videre manus: 
Sin autem longo nox una aut altera lusu 

Consumpta est, non me crimina parva movent. 


Tyndaris externo patriam mutavit amore,’ 

14.] Sopito Marone, ‘from a statue of 
the sleeping Maro.’ Maro is variously re- 
presented as Silenus, a son of Silenus, and 
a son of Bacchus: see Hertzberg, who 
shows in a very excellent note that these 
figures of Silenus, teeming water from a jar, 
were so common in Italy that the conduits 
formed in that fashion were called Silani. 
Hence Lucretius, vi. 1262, speaking of the 
thirst occasioned by the plague, says ‘ cor- 
pora si/anos ad aquarum strata jacebant.’ 
Kuinoel’s brief note is right, though he 
was probably at a loss for details: ‘Marone, 
intell. statua sc. signum Maronis, e quo 
aque cadebant.’ Keil and Miiller read 
Anione for Marone, and in the next verse 
tot leviter &c., ‘when so many fountains 
may be heard plashing in Rome.’ 

16.] Triton, A similar fountain to the 
above is here described, probably spouting 
out water from a shell. For /ymphis the 
Naples MS. has ximphis, whence Kuinoel 
Nymphis. In either case it must be under- 
stood of the babbling of water. The argu- 
‘ment of the poet is this: ‘ You pretend to 
seek for cool shade and refreshing streams 
at Tibur and Tusculum, when you may 
have both in Rome.’ Hence falleris (vy. 
16) is, ‘You are mistaken if you think to 
deceive me by that plea.’ 

20.] Iners, &rexvos, contrasted with 
docto mihi. 

22.] Quanta mereris, ‘in proportion to 
your deserts.’ The meaning is, ‘I do not 
care so much about myself, as about the 
discredit you are incurring by your mis- 

23.] Me ledit. The Groning. MS. has 
pervenit, which appears to be a correction. 
The ellipse of per/atus is awkward, and the 
present tense following nwper suspicious. 
Compare however iii. 8, 6. Miller marks 
the verse with an obelus. 

25.] ‘But’ (you will say to me) ‘you 
ought not to trust report, which has ever 
been unjust to the fair. Granted, that you 
are not accused of poisoning; that you can 
say, ‘ Bear witness, O sun, that my hands 
are pure;’ nay, I am not disposed to take 
you to task for spending one or two nights 
in gaiety; it is ποῦ ἃ little cause that moves 
my wrath.’ 

29.] Luxu Jacob and Keil, from the 
MS. Groning. This word means more 
than ‘luxury’ in the best authors, and is 
equivalent to our term ‘debanchery.’— 
lusu, ‘pastime,’ here means the same, but 
is a less coarse and criminatory expression, 
See iii. 9, 24. 

31.] ‘Helen left husband and home, 
and yet was taken back without formal 
condemnation being passed upon her,’ sine 
decreto, perhaps a ἅπαξ λεγόμενον for sine 
supplicio, The sense is, other persons haye 




Et sine decreto viva reducta domum est; 
Ipsa Venus quamvis corrupta libidine Martis, 
Non minus in celo semper honesta fuit ; 

Quamvis Ida Parim pastorem dicat amasse 


Atque inter pecudes accubuisse deam. 

Hoe et Hamadryadum spectavit turba sororum, 
Silenique senes, et pater ipse chor, 

Cum quibus Idzeo legisti poma sub antro, 

Supposita excipiens Naica dona manu. 


An quisquam in tanto stuprorum examine querit: 
Cur hee tam dives? quis dedit? unde dedit ? 
O nimium nostro felicem tempore Romam, 
Si contra mores una puella facit! 

Hee eadem ante illam impune et Lesbia fecit: 


Quz sequitur, certe est invidiosa minus. 
Qui querit Tatios veteres durosque Sabinos, 
Hic posuit nostra nuper in urbe pedem. 
Tu prius et fluctus poteris siccare marinos, 

Altaque mortali deligere astra manu, 


Quam facere, ut nostra nolint peccare puelle : 
Hic mos Saturno regna tenente fuit, 

committed greater crimes and been for- 

34.] Non minus. I have followed Jacob, 
Hertzberg, and Keil, in the reading of this 
passage. For quamvis (v.33), the Naples 
MS. gives fertur, which Lachmann has 
edited, and both that and MS. Groning. 
have nee minus, non being from Pucci. If 
mec be understood as nee tamen, there is no 
reason for rejecting fertur. But it is a 
difficult critical question to decide between 
the merits of these two MSS., neither of 
which is altogether free from the suspicion 
of conjectural emendation. 

35.] ‘No, not even though mount Ida 
can attest that the goddess was enamoured 
of Paris, and was his consort among the 
flocks of his fold.’ The construction is, 
dicat deam amasse Parim. This legend, it 
must be observed, is not recorded by any 
other writer. It is not impossible that the 
poet, who has elsewhere erred in his my- 
thology (see on vy. 4, 40) has confounded 
Paris with Anchises. Miiller reads palam 
for Parim, after Haupt. 

39.] Legisti, i.e. Ὁ Pari.—Naica dona, 
gifts offered by the Naid Gnone; apples 
gathered by her for you and dropped into 

your hands. 

41.] ‘ Where all are unchaste, does any 
one express surprise or curiosity at the 
magnificent gifts received? Rome were 
too happy if ({. ὁ. it cannot be expected 
that) one girl should act otherwise than 
the rest.’ Stuprorum examen, 7. 6. turba 

45.] Lesbia, the mistress of Catullus. 
‘She was not blamed for infidelity : why 
should I expect Cynthia to be more faith- 
ful? For the non-elision in d/am see 111, 
7,1. Perhaps ante illas, alluding to stu- 
prorum turba in 41. 

47.] Latias veteres, ‘ Latin girls of the 
Olden time,’ Miiller, after Schrader, re- 
taining the vulgate dwrasque Sabinas, 
which Lachmann altered to durosqgue Sa- 
binos. ‘He who expects to find the 
primitive virtue of the Sabines in Rome, 
must have arrived fresh in the city.’ 

50.] Deripere astra Miiller, after Bur- 
mann. It is difficult to defend the vulgate. 

52.] Hie mos, sc. ‘non peccandi.’ So 
Juv. Sat. 6, 1, ‘ Credo pudicitiam Saturno 
Rege moratam In terris.’—ostre, by con- 
trast, means ‘nostri temporis puelle.’ 

LIBER III. 25 (81). 


Et cum Deucalionis aque fluxere per orbem, 
Et post antiquas Deucalionis aquas. 

Dic mihi, quis potuit lectum servare pudicum ? 


Quze dea cum solo vivere sola deo? 
Uxorem quondam magni Minois, at aiunt, 

Corrupit torvi candida forma bovis. 
Nec minus erato Danaé circumdata muro 

Non potuit magno casta negare Jovi. 


Quod si tu Graias, tuque es mirata Latinas, 
Semper vive meo libera judicio. 


Tristia jam redeunt iterum sollemnia nobis ; 
Cynthia jam noctes est operata decem. 

Atque utinam pereat, Nilo que sacra tepente 
Misit matronis Inachis Ausoniis! 

53.] At for et Miiller, as Beroaldus had 
proposed, with a comma after aguas. But 
Lachmann objects, ‘deos ante diluvium 
Deucalionis amoribus non studuisse falsum 
est, si vera narravit Clymene Virg. Georg. 
iv. 347,’ ‘aque Chao densos divum nume- 
rabat amores.’ 

57.] Uxorem Minois, Pasiphae, whose 
amour resulted in the birth of the Minotaur. 

60.] Casta, i.e. quamyis casta. For 
Jovi Jacob has deo, apparently by a mis- 


61.] The best MSS. have imitata, which 
Keil retains. Hertzberg seems right in 
editing mirata from two or three of the 
inferior MSS., on metrical grounds. Lach- 
mann reads ques (zque es), and Miiller 
a@quesque imitata, The sense is, ‘if you 
profess to be an admirer and follower of 
the profligate heroines of Greece and Rome, 
I will not be your judge: follow the bent 
of your own inclination, and suffer for it.’ 

XXY. The poet complains of Cynthia’s 
too rigid observance of certain foreign rites, 
enjoining strict continence for a stated 
period. (See iii. 20, 61; v. 5, 34). With 
an inconsistency not uncommon in profli- 
gate persons, she appears to have paid 
scrupulous attention to the ceremonies of 
religion, while she spent her nights in 
drinking and loose company. 

2.] Operata est. The meaning evidently 
is, ‘has engaged to keep,’ &c., for if the 

time had elapsed there would have been 
little to complain of; if it had not yet 
commenced, the perfect tense could not 
have been used. The word saecris must be 
supplied. Compare Juyenal, vi. 535, ‘Ille 
petit veniam, quoties non abstinet uxor 
Concubitu sacris observandisque diebus.’ 
See the whole passage, 526—441. The 
same rite was strictly kept by Delia. Ti- 
bullus, i. 8, 25; ef. Ovid. Am. iii. 9, 34, 
and 10, 2. 

4.] In his contempt for Egyptian cus- 
toms, he does not hesitate to ridicule the 
cow-goddess (for Isis was the same as Io) 
who has imported from the tropical Nile 
into Rome so much of superstitious novelty. 
The facility with which the Romans en- 
larged their mythological creed to admit 
all sects and professions has often caused 
surprise, and been attributed to various 
motives. The explanation of it is probably 
to be sought in the immense number of 
resident foreigners who were allowed, from 
the necessity of the case, to exercise their 
own religion without restraint. The state 
had no particular fondness for innovation, 
for it could enact stringent laws against 
externe superstitiones, and enforce them too, 
when Christians or Jews were the subjects. 
We find the Emperor Claudius complain- 
ing of the rapid spread of foreign rites, 
Tac. Ann. xi. 15. It may be questioned 
if a national or established religion is ever 
tolerant but from motives of policy. Pas- 

Quze dea tam cupidos totiens divisit amantes, 



Quecumque illa fuit, semper amara fuit. 
Tu certe Jovis occultis in amoribus, Io, 

Sensisti, multas quid sit 

inire vias, 

Cum te jussit habere puellam cornua Juno, 

Et pecoris duro perdere verba sono. 


Ah quotiens quernis lesisti frondibus ora ! 
Mansisti stabulis abdita pasta tuis! 

An, quoniam agrestem detraxit ab ore figuram 
Juppiter, idcirco facta superba dea es ? 

An tibi non satis est fuscis Algyptus alumnis ? 


Cur tibi tam longa Roma petita via est ? 
Quidve tibi prodest viduas dormire puellas ? 

Sed tibi, crede mihi, cornua rursus erunt ; 
At nos e nostra te, seeva, fugabimus urbe: 

Cum Tiberi Nilo gratia nulla fuit. 

At tu, que nostro nimium 

sages like the present show the contempt 
in which the genuine Romans held the 
worship of strange divinities. Augustus 
held in respect only such as were of ancient 
repute in other countries, ‘ceteras con- 
temptui habuit.’—Sueton. Oct. § 93.  Ti- 
berius ‘externas csremonias compescuit, 
Td. Tid. § 36. Infra vy.1, 17, ‘Nulli cura 
fuit externos queerere divos.’ 

6.1 Quecunque illa fuit. ἥτις ποτ᾽ ἦν, 
implying contemptuous disregard who and 
what she really was, ¢. 6. whether identical 
with Io or not. Keil and Miiller place a 
mark of interrogation at amantes, Lachmann 
a mark of admiration. 

7.] The sense is, ‘you at least should 
be the last to cause in others the pain of 
separation which you so bitterly experi- 
enced in your own case.’ Any one may 
be said znirve multas vias who enters on 
many routes but pursues none; that is, 
who wanders vaguely and without purpose. 
Lachmann and others seem wrong in attri- 
buting a less delicate meaning to the words: 
unless indeed we are to regard the whole 
passage (7—12) as a coarse insult rather 
than a peevish banter. But the logical 
sequence is clearer on the other view. 

12.] Mansisti.i—ah quoties must be re- 
peated, though the ellipse is harsh even for 
Propertius, Perhaps δέ has been lost. 
Lachmann reads mansisti ut. ‘ How often,’ 
he says in ridicule, ‘after a dinner on oak- 

placata dolore es, 

leaves, were you shut up all alone to digest 
it! How often you experienced solitude 
and separation, and that too in a manner 
and under circumstances not the most 
agreeable. We might suggest at quotiens 
&e., ‘but when you had dined off rough 
oak-leaves, you had to stay concealed in 
your stall, and secluded from converse with 
your lover.’ 

13.] <Agrestem figuram, μορφὴν θηριώδη. 
‘Have you become proud as a goddess for 
no other reason than that you did not 
always remain a cow?” 

18—19.] He continues to banter the 
unfortunate Isis. ‘You seem, from your 
savage temper, likely to wear your cast-off 
horns again. Methinks it were better for. 
us to turn you out of our city at once.’ 
Barth observes, on the authority of Dio, 
that Agrippa, as prefect of the city, did in 
fact prohibit the worship of Isis at Rome 
in 733. This threat therefore has an his- 
torical import. Seva belongs rather to y. 

21.] Nostro placata dolore. 
candve nimiam operam sumsi, que nimis 
duram te prebuisti..—Barth. Lachmann 
reads inplacata with Heinsius.—Perhaps 
placanda. Noctibus his vacui, i.e. when the 
period of abstinence shall have been com- 
pleted.—iter is the ‘cursus amoris.’—ter 
seems to be added, as if the temporary 
suspension of endearments justified a more 

‘Cui pla- 

LIBER III. 25 (81). 


Noctibus his vacui ter faciamus iter. 
Non audis, et verba sinis mea ludere, cum jam 
Flectant Icarii sidera tarda boves. 

Lenta bibis; mediz nequeunt te frangere noctes. 


An nondum est talos mittere lassa manus ? 
Ah pereat, quicumque meracas repperit uvas, 
Corrupitque bonas nectare primus aquas ! 

Icare, Cecropiis merito jugulate colonis, 

Pampineus nosti quam sit amarus ddor. 


Tuque o Eurytion vino Centaure peristi, 
Nec non Ismario tu, Polypheme, mero. 

Vino forma perit, vino corrumpitur etas, 
Vino spe suum nescit amica virum. 

Me miserum, ut multo nihil est mutata Lyzo! 

Jam bibe; formosa es: nil tibi vina nocent, 
Cum tua prependent demisse in pocula serte, 

frequent renewal. Scaliger’s portentous 
emendation, refaciamus, though a barbarous 
form, has found its way into Barth’s gener- 
ally judicious text. 

23.] Before this verse Hertzberg, after 
a peculiar fashion of his own, places the 
marks of a lacuna, regarding the remainder 
of the elegy as an afterthought. There is 
perhaps more probability in Kuinoel’s view, 
that it is a scrap of an amorous ditty sung 
in a serenade, like i. 16. But neither of 
these suppositions is necessary. The poet, 
having proposed his visit, immediately 
pictures to himself the exclusion he has 
too much reason to expect. This sudden 
transition of thought and scene is common 
in Propertius, and is the key to the right 
understanding of many very abrupt pas- 
sages.—ludere, ludibrio fieri. 

24. Icarii boves. Kuinoel wrongly 
joins Icarii sidera ; but Hertzberg is un- 
necessarily severe upon him, for both forms, 
Icarus and Icarius, were in use, and the 
poet seems to have adopted both indiffer- 
ently (see v. 29). Besides, Icarius may 
here be an adjective from Icarus. Apollod. 
iii. 14, 7, Δήμητρα μὲν Κελεὸς εἰς τὴν 
Ἐλευσῖνα ὑπεδέξατο, Διόνυσον δὲ Ἰκάριος, 
καὶ λαμβάνει παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ κλῆμα ἀμπέλου. 
Καὶ τὰ περὶ τὴν οἰνοποιΐαν μανθάνων, καὶ 
τὰς τοῦ θεοῦ δωρήσασθαι θέλων χάριτας 
ἀνθρώποις, ἀφικνεῖται πρός τινας ποιμένας, 
ot γευσάμενοι τοῦ ποτοῦ, καὶ χωρὶς ὕδατος 
δι ἡδονὴν ἀφειδῶς ἑλκύσαντες, πεφαρ- 
μάχθαι νομίζοντες, ἀπέκτειναν αὐτόν. He 

was made a star in Bootes by Bacchus. 
Tibullus, iv. 1, 9, ‘cunctis Baccho jucun- 
dior hospes Icarus, ut puro testantur sidera 
celo.’ It appears to be another name for 
Arcturus or Bootes, Charles’ wain (i. ὁ. 
‘churl’s waggon’), and the meaning is, 
‘you keep me here offering a vain petition 
while the slow-moving stars of the pole 
are making their descent towards the morn- 

25.] Frangere, fatigare. 

27.]- Merum, vinum meracum, ἄκρατον, 
was only used by drunkards.. There is a 
sort of confusion in expressing two distinct 
ideas: ‘Perish he who introduced neat 
wine, and even he who used it in the less 
objectionable mixture with water.’ It is 
not quite clear whether corrwmpere is simply 
for miscere (cf. Georg. ii. 466), or in the 
literal sense of spoiling good water: the 
epithet rather suggests the latter. 

31.] Eurytion. He was killed in the 
fight of the Centaurs at the marriage of 
Pirithous: see li. 6. 17.—IJsmario mero. 
Hom. Od. ix. 198. 

35.] Nihil es mutata Barth, against the 
best copies. The ed. Rheg. has es, the 
other copies est. 

36.] Jam bibe. πίνοις ἄν ἤδη, ‘ Well, 
go on drinking, Wine has no ill effect on 
you: you look the handsomer for it when,’ 

37.] The Naples MS. gives serte, the 
others serta. And the former reading is 
quoted by Charisius, a grammarian who 



Et mea deducta carmina voce legis. 
Largius effuso madeat tibi mensa Falerno, 

Spumet et aurato mollius in calice! 


Nulla tamen lecto recipit se sola libenter ; 
Est quiddam, quod vos querere cogat Amor. 
Semper in absentis felicior estus amantes: 
Elevat assiduos copia longa viros. 


Cur quisquam faciem dominze jam credit amori ? 
Sic erepta mihi pzne puella mea est. 

lived circa A.D. 400. ‘ Propertius feminine 
extulit: Cum tua praependent demisse in 
pocula serte.’ The same MS. also has 
prependent, while the others give per- 
pendent or propendent. ‘This is a testimony 
of some value to the integrity of the oldest 
MS. extant of Propertius. See note on 11]. 
6, 29. 

38.] Deducta voce. As these verses are 
evidently intended to express a half-in- 
toxicated condition, the meaning of the 
words must be determined by the circum- 
stances of the case. Hertzberg explains, 
‘voce molliter in muliebrem modum fracta 
et cum plasmate cantui simili flexa,’ quot- 
ing vocem deducere and vox deducta trom 
fragments of Lucilius and other writers, 
where the sense seems to be, ‘submissa,’ 
‘gentle, ‘winning.’ Others understand, 
‘a drawling tone of voice,’ deriving the 
metaphor from spinning. This certainly 
seems to suit the context. See iii. 11, 21. 
There is something very graphic, as Kui- 
noel remarks, and almost picturesque, in 
the description of Cynthia sitting at a 
banquet and reading to others the verses 
of him whom she has slighted, and looking 
the more lovely from the drooping garlands 
and the flush of the wine. 

39.] ‘Let the wine flow more freely, 
that you may drown the thoughts of me 
which will arise amidst your forced gaiety.’ 
This is said with something of spiteful 
vexation.—‘ Yet the time will come when 
you will regret a lover’s absence. Pos- 
session cloys, absence enhances desire.’ 
Sola refers to v. 2. Barth explains aJ- 
sentes of some rival, as opposed to assiduos, 
implying the attentions of the poet. But 
the sense seems rather to be, ‘You will 
miss me when you find your loss.’—felicior 
@stus, ‘warmer passion,’ or ‘more fayour- 

able disposition towards,’ &c.—elevat, parvi 

41.] ecto, for ad lectum, is remarkable. 
Perhaps reficit se. 

XXVI. This elegy, which in the MSS. 
is continuous with the preceding, is ad- 
dressed to Lynceus, a friend and fellow- 
poet, who seems to have so far abused the 
confidence of Propertius as to have at- 
tempted to ingratiate himself with Cynthia 
at a banquet (v. 22). Of Lynceus as a 
poet nothing is recorded. He appears 
(from vy. 39-41) to have composed a tragedy 
on the model of the Seven against Thebes. 
The first part of the present poem (1—26) 
is devoted to an expostulation and reproof; 
the middle portion (27—46) conveys ad- 
vice, that since he (Lynceus) has at length 
succumbed to love, he should change the 
style of his writings and the course of his 
studies for others more congenial to his 
circumstances; and the conclusion contains 
a fine eulogy on Virgil, and an exhortation 
to tread in the steps of other poets who 
have sung the praises of their mistresses. | 
Hertzberg (Quest. p. 95) remarks on the 
general composition, ‘Si quis singulas 
iterum hujus elegize partes excutere et ad 
suum quamque locum referre tentaverit, 
tantam dispositionis varietatem agnoscet, 
quantam in nullo alio carmine.’ It may 
be added, few elegies exhibit greater critical 
difficulties than the present. 

1.1 Credit. The Naples MS. has eredat, 
and so Lachmann and Kuinoel. It is by 
no means clear that they are wrong. The 
usual construction of guisguam interroga- 
tively is with the indicative, as iii. 14, 3, 
‘Ingenuus quisquam alterius dat munera 
servo?’ Martial, Zp. i. 56, 5, ‘Quisquam 
picta colit Spartani frigora saxi® and the 

LIBER III. 26 (34). 

Expertus dico, nemo est in amore fidelis: 
Formosam raro non sibi quisque petit. 

Polluit 1116 deus cognatos, solvit amicos, 5 

Et bene concordes tristia ad arma vocat. 
Hospes in hospitium Menelai venit adulter: 

Colchis et ignotum nonne secuta virum est ? 
Lynceu, tune meam potuisti, perfide, curam 

Tangere? nonne tuze tum cecidere manus ? 


Quid, si non constans illa et tam certa fuisset ? 
Posses in tanto vivere flagitio ? 

Tu mihi vel ferro pectus, vel perde veneno: 
A domina tantum te modo tolle mea. 

Te socium vite, te corporis esse licebit, 15 

Te dominum admitto rebus, amice, meis: 
Lecto te solum, lecto te deprecor uno; 
Rivalem possum non ego ferre Jovem. 

reason is, that when we say ‘quisquam 
hoc facit?? we mean, ‘nemo hoc facit.’ 
But the addition of cw makes some differ- 
ence in this case: nor is the passage which 
Hertzberg quotes from Hor. Saé. ii. 2, 103, 
‘Cur eget indignus quisquam te divite?’ 
really parallel to the present. For in that 
verse a fact is stated, and the reason of it 
is asked. We may, however, understand 
cur quisquam credit? in this sense: ‘On 
what principle of reason do men continue 
to entrust, as we daily see them doing, 
beauty to the tender mercies of Love” 
Amor is here represented as a treacherous 
custos, who is sure to betray his charge. 
The MS. Gron. has amari. Jacob edits 
amico from Pucci. This, though adopted 
also by Weise, Miiller, and Keil, reads 
rather like a correction; though, on the 
other hand, {16 deus (in 5) may have caused 
amico to be corrupted into Amori.—sie, 1.6. 
sic temere credendo. The poet seems to 
have allowed Cynthia to be escorted to 
a banquet by his sober old friend, as he 
thought him; but wine and beauty fairly 
overcame the veteran. 

8.1 In amore, i.e. sibi commisso. 

δ. Polluit cognatos, ‘sets at defiance 
natural laws of relationship.’ isch. Suppl. 
221, ἐχθρῶν ὁμαίμων καὶ μιαινόντων γένος. 
Inf. v. 9, 8, ‘furto polluit ille Jovem.’ 
Hor. Od. iii. 6,18, ‘inquinavere et genus 
et domos.’ 

7.] ‘Paris, to whom as a stranger 

Menelaus entrusted the honour of his wife, 
proved himself a false guest.’ Asch. Agam. 
388, οἷος καὶ Πάρις, ἐλθὼν ἐς δόμον τὸν 
᾿Ατρειδᾶν, ἤσχυνε ξενίαν τράπεζαν κλοπαῖσι 
yuvaikds.—ignotum virum, τ, ὁ. hospitem, 
peregrinum. ‘A gallant gay came as 
a guest to be entertained by Menelaus; 
and did not Medea in hke manner go off 
with a stranger? For hospes Miiller reads 
Tros et. 

9.] Perfide, curam tangere? Others, as 
Barth and Keil, read tangere—perfide, but 
against the best copies.—meam curam, ‘the 
object of my care,’ ἐμὸν méeAnua.—cecidere 
manus, asin Virg. Ain. vi. 33, ‘bis patrie 
cecidere manus,’ sc. defecere, victz sunt. 

12.] Posses, ‘could you have consented 
to live (or gone on living) under the con- 
sciousness of so great a crime,’ viz. of 
having succeeded in the seduction. 

13.] Perde &e. ‘Vel fodi pectus ferro, 
vel perde (vitam) veneno.’ 

14.] Modo following tantum seems a 
tautology; ‘all I ask is, that you do but 
take yourself off from my mistress.’ 
Miiller proposes fe tibi tolle. 

15.] ‘Corporis socius est is, qui con- 
tinuus comes lateri adheret.’—Avwinoel. 
dominum admitto, in reference to the pro- 
verb κοινὰ τὰ τῶν φίλων. 

17.1 Solum—uno. You are the only 
man | would refuse, and the only thing 
I would refuse you is my Cynthia. 



Tpse meas solus, quod nil est, emulor umbras, 

Stultus, quod stulto seepe timore tremo. 


Una tamen causa est, qua crimina tanta remitto, 
Errabant multo quod tua verba mero. 

Sed numquam vite fallet me ruga severe: 
Omnes jam norunt, quam sit amare bonum. 

Lynceus ipse meus seros insanit amores. 


Solum te nostros letor adire deos. 

Quid tua Socraticis tibi nune sapientia libris 
Proderit, aut rerum dicere posse vias ? 

Aut quid +Erechthei tibi prosunt carmina lecta ? 

Nil juvat in magno vester amore senex. 


Tu satius -memorem Musis imitere Philetam, 
Et non inflati somnia Callimachi. 

19.] ‘I am jealous even of my own un- 
substantial shadow; much more so of a 
friend who, though no longer young, is 
still flesh and blood.’ This use of @mulor 
with an accusative is worth attention.— 
solus, 1.6. when none else is near to be 
jealous of, 

24.] Jam norunt, a satire, perhaps, on 
the results of philosophy, when philosophers 
themselves set the example of going astray. 

25.] Seros. This word shows that Lyn- 
ceus was advanced in life.—xostros deos, 
Venus and Cupid. ‘My only consolation 
and hope of revenge is, that you are be- 
come a votary of my deities,’ ὦ. 6. a lover 
at last, like myself. 

27—8.] This distich explains 51—44. 
Lynceus was not only a poet, but a student 
of both moral and natural philosophy. 

29.| Erechthet. This is the emendation 
of Hertzberg, who does not seem to have 
been aware that Heinsius had anticipated 
him. The Naples MS. gives Erechtz, the 
MS. Gron. Hrethei, with vatis for lecta ; 
the ed. Rheg. crete, and later copies cretat 
or Eretheit. Pucci reads erite’, but con- 
jectures Tirted (Tyrtei), Lachmann, with 
Scaliger, edits Luereti, Jacob and Kuinoel 
Cretei, supposing the word to mean Epi- 
menides of Crete. Both these are very 
improbable. rechtheus is taken to mean 
Atheniensis, that is, Aischylus. ‘The ob- 
jection to this is, that dschyleo cothurno 
oceurs inf. 41, Miiller reads eye Chii, on 
his own conjecture, ‘the epics of the Chian 
bard,’ Homer. Vester seneax in the next 
verse is not inappropriately applied to the 
same poet; and Hertzberg well refers to 

Arist. Ran. 1053 as a witness to his avowed 
indifference to the emotions of love. Vester 
however should rather apply to the philo- 
sophers generally. 

31.] There is much reason to fear that 
this verse is corrupt. The copies give 
either memorem Musis or Musis memorem. 
Hertzberg adopts Scaliger’s correction, 
Musis meliorem, but proposes a better him- 
self, ‘Tu socius Musis Mimnermi imitere 
Philetam.’ Whether sativs can be used 
adverbially for potius, does not seem certain: 
the dictionaries however attribute the usage 
to Cicero. Hertzberg and Miiller evade 
the difficulty by explaining it satius est te 
imitari, i.e. satius est ut imitere. Cf. iii. 
3,19. Perhaps the suggestion of Pucci is 
worth some attention, that »memorem is used 
passively for evram Musarum. Something 
similar is dociles usus, v. 2, 63. Philetas 
may have spoken of himself as Μώσαις 
μεμναμένον, or used some similar expres- 
sion constructed with the dative. Miiller 
gives dusus for Musis, on the ingenious 
correction of Eldik. Keil, 7 ZLatiis Me- 
ropem Musis &c., which has but slight pro- 

32.] Non inflati. The epithet is perhaps 
intended as a defence of his favourite poet 
against the common and not altogether un- 
just charge of being inclined to bombast. 
Compare 11. 1, 40, ‘ Intonet angusto pectore 
Callimachus,’ which expresses precisely the 
same idea. The lost epic, Atria, is called 
somnia, ‘quia Callimachus finxerat, som- 
niasse aliquando se intervenisse Musis, 
quas postea literis mandavit.’—Barth. 

LIBER III. 26 (34). 


Nam cursus licet Atoli referas Acheloi, 
Fluxerit ut magno fractus amore liquor, 

Atque etiam ut Phrygio fallax Mzandria campo 

Errat et ipsa suas decipit unda vias, 
Qualis et Adrasti fuerit vocalis Arion 

Tristis ad Archemori funera victor equus; 
Amphiaraéze non prosunt fata quadrige, 

Aut Capanei magno grata ruina Jovi. 


Desine et Aischyleo componere verba cothurno, 
Desine, et ad molles membra resolve choros. 
Incipe jam angusto versus includere torno, 

33.] Cursus. The Naples MS. with 
some inferior copies give rursus, but the 
reading is not deserving of much consider- 
ation. Barth has non rursus licet, Kuinoel 
non cursus &c., non being from Scaliger. 
But none of them understood the poet’s 
meaning. ‘You may, if you please,’ (he 
says) ‘imitate Callimachus, and take up 
the same mythical narratives which he 
treated of in his Atria (viz. 33—8), but 
your present tragedy of the Seven against 
Thebes will not tend to alleviate your dis- 
tress’ (v. 39). 

34.] Fluzerit. So all the MSS. He 
alludes to the defeat of the river by 
Hercules (μνηστὴρ yap ἣν μοι ποταμὸς, 
"AxeAgov λέγω, Trach. 9), and to the con- 
sequent reduction of speed in the van- 
quished current. Some, as Barth and 
Weise, read luxerit. 

35.] Uterrat. On the construction see 
i.2,9. The river Meander is mentioned, 
as Hertzberg plausibly suggests, in con- 
nexion with Hercules’ enslavement to Om- 
phale, Ovid, Her. ix. 55.—decipit suas vias, 
an elegant expression applied to a winding 
stream which continually thwarts its own 
progress by returning back upon itself. 

37.] The order of the words is, ‘ Et 
qualis tristis victor ad Archemori funera 
fuerit Arion, vocalis ille equus Adrasti.’ 
As a victor is usually /etus, ovans, so here 
Arion was f¢ristis, because the games at 
which he conquered were instituted in 
memory of Archemorus, son of Lycurgus, 
king of Nemea. Lachmann and Weise, 
with Barth, read ¢ristia. This horse is 
said to have carried Adrastus safe out of 
the battle-field (Apollodor. iii. 6, 8. See 
also 7b. § 4), and to have been gifted with 
human voice and more than human fore- 
sight. He is called ‘prasagus Arion’ by 
Statius, Zheb. vi. 424, &c. where a long ac- 

count of his conduct in a race is given. 

39.] This verse has suffered from the 
clumsy attempts of metrical transcribers. 
The MSS. prefix xon to Amphiaraee, which 
is variously written. The copyists evi- 
dently supposed its scansion was the same 
as Amphioniz, 1. 9,10. Barth and Kuinoel 
give A. nil prosunt, &c. Jacob A. haud 
prosunt tibi, and Hertzberg A. haud prosunt 
fata, leaving the hiatus to take care of 
itself. In the pentameter the MS. Gron. 
omits magno, which error has given rise to 
some extravagant conjectures, among which 
that of Lachmann must be enumerated. 
He edits the distich thus :— 

‘Non magna Amphiaraé2 prosunt tibi fata 
Quadrige, aut Capanei grata ruina Jovi.’ 
Miiller gives a verse hardly less inhar- 
monious, ‘non prosint tibi quadrige fata 
Amphiaree.’ Keil, ‘non magna Amphi- 
are tibi fata quadrige prosint, aut’ &e. 
In all probability, the verse requires no 
other alteration than to restore non to its 

place after Amphiaraee. 

41.] Aschyleo. The quantity of this 
word is to be remarked. The Naples MS. 
has aechileo, whence Scaliger conjectured 
desine Achilleo, and so it is printed in 
Barth’s edition. — resolve, ‘unbend your 
limbs, ὃ, 6. your stiff attitude, to take part 
in the pliant dance.’ 

43.] -Angusto torno, ‘a limited theme,’ 
z.e. one of love, and not of heroic deeds, 
which present so wide and varied a field. 
‘Quod angustiori elegiace poesis spiritui 
accommodatus est.’— Hertzberg. Similarly, 
but more literally, Barth; ‘elegos scribere, 
ubi singulis distichis sententia includitur.’ 
—tornus is an instrument for bringing ob- 
jects to a true circular outline, by which 
they are said ixcludi. Miiller reads incudere, 
which introduces a different metaphor. 



Inque tuos ignes, dure poeta, veni. 

Tu non Antimacho, non tutior ibis Homero: 

Despicit et magnos recta puella deos. 
Sed non ante gravi taurus succumbit aratro, 
Cornua quam validis heeserit in laqueis; 
Nec tu tam duros per te patieris amores; 

Trux tamen a nobis ante domandus eris. 

Harum nulla solet rationem querere mundi, 
Nee cur fraternis Luna laboret equis, 

Nee si post Stygias aliquid restabimus undas, 
Nec si consulto fulmina missa tonent. 

Aspice me, cui parva domi fortuna relicta est, 

Nullus et antiquo Marte triumphus avi, 
Ut regnem mixtas inter conviva puellas 

44.] Durus poeta is opposed to mollis 
(v. 42) as epic or tragic is contrasted with 
elegiac verse. Compare ii. 1, 2, and 41; 
and note oni. 9, 13, inf. iv. 1, 19—20. 

45.] Antimachus of Colophon was a 
celebrated epic poet, who is said to have 
edited a Homer, and to have written a 
Thebaid and also an elegy on the death of 
one Lyde, his mistress. Ovid, Trist. i, 6, 
1, ‘Nec tantum Clario Lyde dilecta poete.’ 
He was contemporary with Aristophanes. 
Hertzberg rightly gives the sense, which 
some editors have greatly misunderstood : 
‘Tu, quamvis magnus poeta, eadem que 
maximi ante te passi sunt ne spera evita- 
turum esse. Nam Homerum et Antima- 
chum, utrumque amoris vinculis irretitum 
fuisse, Hermesianax auctor est.’ The ar- 
gument is, ‘Think not to conquer your 
love by pursuing epic and heroic themes, 
on the vain notion that epic-poets are 
superior to love.’ 

46.] Recta puella, t.e. puella recte 
figure. Cf. iii. 9,25, ‘Recta puella est ita 
comparata, ut recte et vere eo nomine 
digna sit,—wne fille comme tl faut.’ —Herts. 
‘deos, nedum poetas heroicos et philosophos, 
qualis tu es.’—Kwinoel : who wrongly ex- 
plains recta by superba.—despicit is κατα- 
φρονεῖ, facile vincit. 

47.] ‘But, as the sturdy bull is not 
brought to the yoke without being first 
caught and thrown by the lasso, so you, 
inexperienced and restive in love, must 
take a preparatory lesson from me,’ (55). 
Kuinoel has arte, which is not improbable, 
in y. 50. 

49.] Per te, sponte tua, sine alterius 

disciplina.—trux tamen, t.e. quamyis modo 
captus ferocias, tamen jugum per me tibi 
imponendum erit. 

51—4.] The meaning is, ‘you must 
not expect to captivate your mistress by 
your philosophy.’ But it is not quite clear 
to what iarum refers. If, as most com- 
mentators think, the mistresses of the above- 
mentioned poets are meant, solet for solebat 
is awkwardly used. Miller transposes 
51—4 to follow 46, apparently acquiescing 
in this view. Probably he means harwm, 
inter quas ego regno, VY. 57, and he points to 
his own success as an elegiac poet, and 
how fe is toasted by the fair, though with- 
out wealth, or philosophic wit, by way of 
exhorting Lynceus to follow his example. 
Compare with the present passage iv. 5, 
25—46, and especially Tibullus, ii. 4, 17— 

53.] This verse also is corrupt in the 
MSS., which vary between restaverit undas 
and restabit erumnas. In the Naples MS, 
the verse stops short with restabit. Hertz- 
berg has admitted Jacob’s conjecture, 
aliquis sedet arbiter undas, comparing iy. 
19, 27, ‘ Minos sedet arbiter Orci.’ Miiller, 
following Haupt, reads aliquid restabimus, 
z.é. si aliquid de nobis post mortem resta- 
bit” Prof. Munro ingeniously conjectures 
‘aliquis re est arbiter,’ 7. 6. ὄντως, ‘if there 
really is a judge of the nether world.’ 
Lachmann and Barth give aliquid restabit 
ad undas, in which case post must be taken 
for posthac. 

54.] Consulto. Opposed to fortuito. 

55.] See note on y. 1, 127, and iii, 16, 

LIBER III. 26 (34). 


Hoc ego, quo tibi nune elevor, ingenio. 
Me juvet hesternis positum languere corollis, 

uem tetigit jactu certus ad ossa Deus: 
git J 


Actia Vergilium custodis litora Pheebi, 
Cesaris et fortes dicere posse rates: 

Qui nunc Anezx Trojani suscitat arma, 
Jactaque Lavinis meenia litoribus. 

Cedite Romani scriptores, cedite Graii: 


Nescio quid majus nascitur Iliade. 
Tu canis umbrosi subter pineta Galesi 
Thyrsin, et attritis Daphnin arundinibus, 
Utque decem possint corrumpere mala puellas, 

Missus et impressis hedus ab uberibus. 


Felix, qui viles pomis mercaris amores! 
Huic licet ingratee Tityrus ipse canat. 
Felix, intactum Corydon qui tentat Alexin 

58.] go is emphatic, ‘how 7 hold rule’ 
&c. Barth and Weise read hoc, ego quo &e. 

59—64.] ‘Be it mine to spend whole 
nights at the banquet, and to lie at my 
ease crowned with the flowers of yester- 
day’s feast; let others, if they prefer it, 
write epic poems in praise of Cesar.’ 

61.] Virgilio MS. Naples and ed. Rheg., 
and so Jacob, who understands fas est. 

63.] Troajanaque Jacob with the MS. 
Gron. The rest have Zrojani. From the 
words nune suscitat it is clear that Virgil 
was known to be engaged on the composi- 
tion of the Aneid, which is generally be- 
lieved to have been commenced 8.0. 27. 
The date of this elegy is B.c. 26. 

65—6.] These often-quoted lines refer 
to the expectation which was generally 
entertained of the surpassing merits of the 
forthcoming ΖΕ ποῖα. It is very probable 
that some parts of it had already been 
heard at public recitations. 

67.] With this verse commences a 
difficult yet very interesting and beautiful 
part of the poem. ‘There is some truth in 
Lachmann’s complaint that the sense is in- 
coherent. Zw is, of course, addressed to 
Virgil, not to Lynceus, and he appears to 
mean, ‘ Not that Virgil confines himself to 
epic poetry, since he has written not only 
distinctively amorous poems in the Bucolics, 
but also others (the Georgics) which occupy 
a kind of middle place between the two, 
and are adapted for all tastes’ (v. 81—2). 

Thus ἕω canis will mean ‘ etiam tu, Virgili, 
non solum Philetas et Callimachus.’ The 
inference therefore is, that Lynceus might 
attempt more than one style with the like 
success.—Galesus was a river near Ta- 
rentum, called by Horace ‘dulce pellitis 
ovibus flumen,’ Od. ii. 6, 10, where Virgil 
was then residing. See Georgie iv. 126. 
The particular allusions in the following 
lines are to Eelog. γ. and vii., iii. 70, and 
perhaps ii. 84. 

69.] Puellas. The ‘aurea mala decem,’ 
Eel. iii. 70, were in fact sent by Menalcas 
to his favourite boy. Compare Lucret. y. 
965, ‘vel pretium (amoris) glandes atque 
arbuta vel pira lecta.’ Lachmann reads 
puellam. But by using the plural our 
poet means to apply a particular gift to 
the influence of presents generally. In 
v- 71, feliz &c. is addressed to Menalcas, 
and so returns, as it were, to the point. 

70.] Impressis, non pressis, νημέλκτοις. 
Compare ‘mmorso, i.e. non morso, iv. 8, 21. 

72.] Huic. Galatea, the mistress of 
Tityrus, Hel. i. 32. The sense is, ‘happy 
those who by a few apples or a tune on 
the pipe can soften the anger of their 
favourites.’—licet canat is for canere posstt, 
ef. 33; and ipse implies that he does it in 
person, while others, who are exclusi, can 
only send verses &e. Cf.i. 12,15. Lach- 
mann reads huic, licet ingrate, Tityrus ipse 



Agricole domini carpere delicias! 

Quamvis ille sua lassus requiescat avena, 


Laudatur facilis inter Hamadryadas. 
Tu canis Ascreei veteris preecepta poete, 
Quo seges in campo, quo viret uva jugo. 
Tale facis carmen, docta testudine quale 

Cynthius impositis temperat articulis. 


Non tamen hee ulli venient ingrata legenti, 
Sive in amore rudis, sive peritus erit. 

Nec minor his animis, aut si minor, ore canorus 
Anseris indocto carmine cessit olor. 

Hee quoque perfecto ludebat Iasone Varro, 


Varro Leucadiz maxima flamma sue. 
Hee quoque lascivi cantarunt scripta Catulli, 
Lesbia quis ipsa notior est Helena. 
Hee etiam docti confessa est pagina Calvi, 

74.] Delicias domini is borrowed from 
Ecl. ii. 2.—carpere Alexin, as carpere fruc- 
tum &e. 

75.] lle, Another sudden transition. 
‘Though Virgil should throw aside the 
bucolic reed, he gains equal reputation by 
singing of forest trees,’ 1.6. by the Georgics. 
He pleases’ the compliant wood-nymphs, 
and therefore knows how to win woman’s 
favour. The following distich is added to 
make the allusion to the Georgics more 
definite and intelligible.—tw, ¢.e. Ὁ Virgili. 

81.] See on v. 67. 

83.] By a witty application of the name 
of a bad poet, Anser, to the lines of Virgil, 
Eel. ix. 35, ‘Nam neque adhuc Vario 
videor, nec dicere Cinna Digna, sed argutos 
inter strepere anser olores,’ Propertius pays 
his friend an elegant compliment. A goose 
as opposed to a swan (the bird of song: 
see on Alsch. Agam. 1419), is as a bad 
poet compared with a good one: hence 
olor, Virgil, is said not to be silenced by 
the unskilful verse of Anser. The passage 
is obscure, and Miller, who marks it with 
an obelus, says ‘hee nondum cuiquam ex- 
pedire contigit.”. The sense is thus given 
by Hertzberg after Weichert, though the 
latter reads animus, nec δὲ minor. ‘Nec 
minor est his, ¢.e. Eclogis et Georgicis, 
Virgilii spiritus, aut si minor est, non 
tamen hic olor ore canorus cessit indocto 
carmini Anseris, 7. ὁ. non tamen ab Ansere, 
indocto carminis auctore, superatus est.’ 
Hertzberg adds, ‘Ai animi animi erunt, 

qui his carminibus apparent.’ Barth and 
Kuinoel read se minor. The best copies 
give sim minor. The Naples MS. omits 
minor ore eanorus. Lachmann has trans- 
posed this distich to follow v. 66. The 
reservation implied in aut si minor is well 
explained in the brief words of Hertzberg: 
“ut concessa majore carminis heroici laude, 
tamen his etiam Virgilii lusibus aliquam 
laureolam relinqui dicatur.—The poet An- 
ser is mentioned by Ovid, Trist. ii. 435, 
‘Cinna quoque his comes est, Cinnaque 
procacior Anser, Et leve Cornifici, parque 
Catonis opus,’ where procacior shows, as 
do the other passages where the unfortunate 
name occurs, that his contemporaries de- 
lighted to banter the luckless owner of it. 
—On carmine see iv. 6, 24. 

85.] Hee quoque, i.e. the subject of 
love.— Varro, called Atacinus from having 
been born near the river Atax in Gallia 
Narbonensis, 8.c. 82, translated the Argo- 
nautics of Apollonius. Ovid appears to 
allude to him, Zvist. ii. 439, ‘Is quoque, 
Phasiacas Argo qui duxit in undas, Non 
potuit Veneris furta tacere sue.’ Hor. 
Sat. i. 10, 46, ‘experto frustra Varrone 
Atacino.” Hence perfecto Iasone means, 
‘carmine de Iasone absoluto.’ Perhaps 
indeed the poem was entitled Jason. 

89.] Confessa est, ‘the same confession 
of devoted attachment is found in the 
writings of Calvus, when he sang the fate 
of his poor dear Quintilia.’ He was a 
friend of Catullus: see on iii. 17, 4. 


Cum caneret misere funera Quintiliz., 

26 (84). 141 


Et modo formosa quam multa Lycoride Gallus 
Mortuus inferna vulnera lavit aqua! 

Cynthia quin etiam versu laudata Properti, 
Hos inter si me ponere Fama volet. 

91.] Modo. Cornelius Gallus the poet 
(a different person from the Gallus of i. 
21, &c.) killed himself in the year 728. 
‘He not only wrote,’ says the poet, ‘but 
he even died for love.’ He had been ap- 
pointed by Augustus to the prefecture of 
Egypt, but fell under suspicion of mal- 
administration and treason. ‘This is the 
Gallus who has furnished the subject of 
Becker’s celebrated narrative of that name. 
Ovid, Amor. iii. 9, 64, ‘Sanguinis atque 
anime prodige, Galle, tue.’ Elsewhere 
these poets are mentioned together, as Art. 
Am, ii. 333—5; Amor. i. 15, 21—30,— 

formosa Lycoride may be called a Proper- 
tian ablative absolute, ‘cum ei esset for- 
mosa Lycoris.’ Lachmann is certainly 
wrong in construing mortuus Lycoride. 
There is some probability in Wakker’s 
conjecture, gui multa Lycoride passus, 
since the poet may well have suppressed 
the name in consideration of his melan- 
choly end. In vudnera (i.e. amoris) there 
is no allusion to that event. 

93.] Cynthia. Kither nota erit must 
be supplied from y. 88, or daudata erit was 
intended. Either ellipse is sufficiently 




ALLIMACHI Manes et Coi sacra Philete, 
In vestrum, queso, me sinite ire nemus. 
Primus ego ingredior puro de fonte sacerdos 
Itala per Graios orgia ferre choros. 
Dicite, quo pariter carmen tenuastis in antro? 5 
Quove pede ingressi? quamve bibistis aquam ? 

This book comprises elegies written 
A.u.c. 731—2. The historical proofs will 
be noticed as they occur. The subject of 
the present elegy is one which the poet re- 
peatedly treats of, and shortly below, El. 
8, viz. his reasons for adhering to elegiac 
composition, and declining to attempt 
heroic strains: from the former alone he 
looks for an immortality of fame. 

1.7 Sacra. He represents himself as a 
priest, and consistently with the metaphor 
addresses the sacred rites and sacred grove 
of Philetas of Cos, asking to be allowed 
admittance thereto. Compare συ. 6, 1, 
‘Sacra facit vates; sint ora fayentia sa- 
cris.’ Hor. Od. ii. 1, 3, ‘carmina non 
prius audita Musarum sacerdos Virginibus 
puerisque canto.’ There really is nothing 
in the expression to require the pages of 
notes which the commentators have de- 
voted to its explanation. Instead of say- 
ing, “Ὁ Philetas, admit me to your sacred 
rites,’ he changes the ordinary expression 
to, ‘Ye sacred rites of Philetas, admit me 
to your grove,’ ἢ. 6. to the grove in which 
you are celebrated. Some have attempted 
to explain sacra by Manes—a mere tau- 
tology. By invoking the ‘Spirit of Calli- 
machus’ he shows that the rites meant are 
those offered to the dead. 

3.] Ingredior. He uses this word in 
reference to nemus. The infinitive in the 
next verse may be compared with tat 
videre, i. 1, 12, ‘I am the first who haye 

entered that grove for the purpose of intro- 
ducing Roman poetry, from a source not 
yet made turbid by the crowd of ordi- 
nary poets, to take its place among Greek 
compositions.’ In orgia and choros the 
metaphor is continued from saera, y. 1. 
Fer is not unfrequently used for inter, as 
i. 21,7; iv. 14,5; v.4, 20. Hertzberg 
thinks [tala per must be joined; but the 
ambiguity of this is too great to be attri- 
buted to Propertius, even though he does 
occasionally misplace his words in a very 
awkward manner, as remarked on iii. 17, 
35. Similarly inf. El. 4, 18, ‘subter captos 
arma sedere duces,’ for subter arma. Primus 
is evidently used with a consciousness that 
he can rightly claim that honour. The 
fact is that Catullus and Tibullus, who 
preceded Propertius, cannot compete with 
him in this respect. Catullus wrote but 
few elegiacs, and those of Tibullus are not 
derived from any acquaintance with the 
pedantic Alexandrine learning of the Au- 
gustan age. 

5.] Carmen tenuastis, ¢. e. carmen molle 
ac tenue fecistis. ‘To spin a jine verse,’ 
or rather, ‘to spin it fine,’ as opposed to 
the rough and bold sounds of the heroic 
foot, seems more naturally the poet’s idea 
than levigare, polire, which Hertzberg at- 
tributes to him from tenui pumice in v. 8. 

6.] Quo pede ingressi. The usual ex- 
planation of this passage, dextro an levo, 
which is defended by Becker, Gallus, p. 97, 


; 7 . δώ 
| ᾿ LA rye LE Ae 


LIBER IV. 1. 143 

Ah valeat, Phcebum quicumque moratur in armis! 
Exactus tenui pumice versus eat, 
Quo me Fama levat terra sublimis, et a me 

Nata coronatis Musa triumphat equis, 


Et mecum in curru parvi vectantur Amores, 
Scriptorumque meas turba secuta rotas. 
Quid frustra missis in me certatis habenis ? 

Non datur ad Musas currere lata via. 

Multi, Roma, tuas laudes annalibus addent, 

Qui finem imperi Bactra futura canent : 
Sed, quod pace legas, opus hoe de monte Sororum 
Detulit intacta pagina nostra via. 
Mollia, Pegasides, date vestro serta poet: 

(English ed. 1849) is rejected by Hertzberg 
as ‘absurdum, ac ne Latinum quidem.’ 
Barth also prefers to understand, ‘ quam 
viam, quam rationem inieritis” Juvenal’s 
quid tam dextro pede concipis &e. (x. 5) is 
well known to allude to the popular super- 
stition of ‘ putting the best leg foremost,’ 
or entering a place with the right foot 
first. The objection, that this would have 
utro pede, is hypercritical in a poet like 
Propertius. It is not, however, a very 
appropriate question to put to successful 
and celebrated poets, ‘did you enter the 
grotto of the Muses with the right or the 
left foot first?’ for the former would be 
understood as a matter of course. The 
words may indeed mean, ‘quo pedibus in- 
gressi estis>’ The general idea is evidently 
this: ‘tell me where you sate, and from 

what inspiring fount you drank, that I 

may closely follow your example.’ 

7.1 Phebum moratur in armis, ‘employs 
his genius on heroic verse.’ The epithet 
tenui in the next verse applies virtually to 
versus, and gives the sense of mollis: see 
onii.1,41. The application of pumice to 
the external finishing of the parchment is 
borrowed to express the careful composition 
of the verses. Hence also eat, in allusion 
to publication. 

9.7 Quo me levat. ‘Let that verse be 
elegiac by which fame is to raise me to the 
triumphal caf.’ — The indicatives which 
follow eat are rather irregular. He seems 
to have meant, ‘ille versus, qui me leva- 
turus est, et per quem Musa triumphat, 
eat,’ &e. 

- 10.] Musa a me nata, ‘a style of poetry 
originating from me.’ Lachmann reads 
nota, an unfortunate change. 

12.] Rotas. He continues the simile 
of a triumphal procession, in which he 
represents himself as the victor in the 
chariot, the Loves as his children borne 
with him (a custom which Hertzberg 
proves from Livy, xly. 40), and the inferior — 
poets following him. Sueton. Jib. § 6, ἡ 
‘Dehine pubescens (Tiberius) Actiaco tri- 
umpho currum Augusti comitatus est sinis- 
teriore funali equo, quum Marcellus, Oc- 
taviee filius, dexteriore veheretur.’ 

13.] Certatis, i.e. O scriptorum turba. 
He suddenly changes the metaphor to the 
race-course. Lata via implies the attempt 
to pass his chariot. ‘The road to poetic 
fame is narrow; you cannot get before me 
without a collision.’ 

15.] ‘There will be no lack of poets to 
sing the military glories of Rome: I there- 
fore prefer to follow a new track, and to 
write for the amusement of my countrymen 
in times of peace.’ It is clear that tuas 
laudes, 7.e. bellicas virtutes, is opposed to 
pace, and multi to intacta via. " But this 
work, to be read in a time of peace, my 
Muse hath brought down from Helicon by 
a route as yet untrodden.’—Bactra futura, 
the expedition against the Parthians under- 
taken A.u.c. 734, B.c. 20, was contemplated 
even at this time: see inf. El, 4. 

19.] The usual antithesis between mollia 
and dura, elegiac and epic, has already 
been pointed out, iii. 26, 44. So hirsuta 
corona, of the archaic language of Eunius, 
v. 1, 85. The more common idiom is 
Sacere ad, as Ovid, Her. xv. 8, ‘Non facit 
ad lacrimas barbitos ulla meas.’ But the 
dative closely represents the English use, 
‘will not do for my head.’ Compare y. 1, 


Non faciet capiti dura corona meo. 



At mihi quod vivo detraxerit invida turba, 
Post obitum duplici fenore reddit Honos. 
Omnia post obitum fingit majora vetustas: 
Majus ab exequiis nomen in ora venit. 
Nam quis equo pulsas abiegno nosceret arces, 25 
Fluminaque Heemonio cominus isse ὙΠῸ, 
Idzeum Simoenta Jovis cunabula parvi, 
Hectora per campos ter maculasse rotas ? 
Deiphobumque Helenumque et Pulydamantas in armis ? 

Qualemcumque Parin vix sua nosset humus. 


Exiguo sermone fores nunc Ilion, et tu 
Troja, bis Citei numine capta dei. 

Nee non ille tui casus memorator Homerus 
Posteritate suum crescere sensit opus ; 

. Meque inter seros laudabit Roma nepotes: 

21.] An ellipse must be mentally sup- 
plied. ‘(True it is, that detractors are 
never wanting when a poet attempts a new 
and unbeaten track ;) yet’ &e. 

23.] The prospective use of vetustas is 
remarkable. It illustrates the well-known 
ἀρχαῖον γάνος, olim antiquum futurum, 
/Esch. Ag. 579. The sense is, ‘when 
poems become old, they are always more 
valued than when new.’ 

25.] ‘For, (if poetry did not survive to 
late posterity), who at the present day 
would have heard of Troy taken by the 
wooden horse, or the fight between the 
river Xanthus and Achilles ?’—pulsas arces, 

, because some writers considered the δου- 

patios ἵππος to have been used for batter- 
ing the walls, as indeed the Greek epithet 
not unnaturally implies; or rather, per- 
haps, it was contrived as a pent-house for 
concealing and covering the ram. See 
Pausan. i. 23. 

27.] Jovis cunabula. There is a con 
fusion between the mount Ida of Crete, 
fabled as the birth-place of Jove, and the 
Ida of Troas. Lachmann in a long note, 
not very creditable to his critical judgment, 
condemns the whole verse. The legends 
of the Cretans and the Phrygians probably 
had the same eastern origin, and therefore 
were naturally mixed up together, as 
Hertzberg shows that in fact they fre- 
quently were. It is singular that the 
words cunabula parvi are omitted in the 
Naples MS. Probably the scribe could 


not decipher them in his copy, and had in- 
tended to supply the omission afterwards. 
See on iii. 26, 83. 

28.] Per. Lachmann, Barth, and Kui- 
noel, read tev, the conjecture of Fruter. 
But it is easy to supply tractum; ‘aut 
Hectora, ter tractum per campos, rotas 
currus maculasse.’ 

29.] The MSS. give Polydamantes (more 
or less correctly written) ix armis. Lach- 
mann and Jacob read Polydamanta, et in 
armis ἕο. Kuinoel and Barth P. sine 
armis. ‘There is no reason for altering the 
vulgate. The plural seems used to express 
the Trojan heroes generally, Jn armis is 
a common use for arma indutos. See v. 2, 

28, ‘Corbis in imposito pondere messor’ 

eram,’—The form Pulydamas is to be pre- 
ferred, as representing the Greek Πουλυ- 
dduas. Persius, Sat. 1, 4, ‘Ne mihi Puly- 
damas et Troiades Labeonem preetulerint.’ 

30.] Vix, ae. nisi carmine celebratus 
esset. ; 

32.] Bits capta. ‘Primum ab Hercule 
ipso, sub Laomedonte, qui ei equos pro- 
missos denegarat, deinde sub Priamo, ope 
sagittarum Herculis, que Philoctete ob- 
tigerant.’— Kwinoel. 

34.] I have removed the full stop 
usually placed at the end of this verse. 
The sense appears to be, ‘both Homer 
gained greater renown after the lapse of 
time, and I shall in like manner be held in 
repute by future generations.’ 


Illum post cineres auguror ipse diem. 
Ne mea contempto lapis indicet ossa sepulcro 
Provisum est, Lycio vota probante deo. 
Carminis interea nostri redeamus in orbem, 

Gaudeat ut solito tacta puella sono. 


Orphea detinuisse feras et concita dicunt 
Flumina Threicia sustinuisse lyra ; 

Saxa Cithzeronis Thebas agitata per artem 
Sponte sua in muri membra coisse ferunt; 

Quin etiam, Polypheme, fera Galatea sub Aitna 5 
Ad tua rorantes carmina flexit equos. 

Miremur, nobis et Baccho et Apolline dextro, 

Turba puellarum si mea 
Quod non Teenariis domus 

36.] Ilium diem, z.e. illam vitam. The 
MS. Gron. has esse, which might stand by 
a lax use for futurum esse. 

38.] Provisum est, sc. a me, votis Apol- 
lini susceptis et ab eo probatis. He al- 
ludes, as Barth thinks, to his poems being 
admitted into the Palatine library. 

39.] Orbem, ‘routine. ‘Ita redit, ut 
cum ab initio puellis amantibus potius 
placere quam magno heroum facta cele- 
brando famam querere se professus esset, 
postquam inde a vy. 21, alio digressa est 
oratio, puellam suam sono solito delecta, 
turum se promittat.’ Hertzberg, Quest. 
p. 85.—The Naples MS. gives ‘nsolito, 
whence Lachmann, with Burmann, reads 
in solito sono. But on gaudeat in puero, 
ii. 4, 28, which they adduce in defence of 
this reading, see the note. See also v. 8, 

II. He speaks of the influence of poetry 
over the female mind, and attributes his 
own success not to any wealth or splendour, 
but solely to his verses. This elegant 
little elegy is connected with the preceding 
by Lachmann, and even Jacob inclines to 
_ follow him, on the authority of Muretus. 
So also Keil and Miiller. The break in 
most of the MSS. is at νυ. 39, of the pre- 

1,7 Detinwisse, ‘to 

have arrested,’ 

verba colit 7 
est mihi fulta columnis, 
‘amused,’ ‘kept fixed to the spot.’ Kui- 

noel has Orpheu, te lenisse feras &e. 
Lachmann, Orphea delinisse; Miiller, de- 
lenisse; others, Orpheu, te tenuisse. But 
the good copies agree in the reading in the 
text.—sustinuisse is, ‘tenuisse ne deorsum 
fluerent,’ ‘to have kept back.’ Ovid, 
Fast. v.660, ‘cursum sustinuistis, aque.’ 

3.] Per artem, t.e. non vi tracta, sed 
Amphionis lyra delenita. Compare ‘ Am- 
phionize meenia flere lyre,’ i. 9, 10.—agi- 
tata, coacta, ad Thebas conyecta; or φοι- 
τῶντα, perhaps, implying the frequent 
repetition of the act. 

5.] See Theocr. Jd. vi. where however 
no mention is made of ocean steeds. Pro- 
bably therefore the poet has other Greek 
authorities in view, who made even the 
sea to have yielded up its denizens to hear 
the magic strains. These imaginary sea- 
monsters, half fish and half horse, are 
commonly represented in the train of ocean 
deities. Cf. Georg. iv. 388. 

7.1 On the poetical connexion of Bac- 
chus with Apollo, see on συ. 6, 76, and ili. 
22, 38. 

9.] Quod non &e. ‘As for the fact 
that,’ &c. Perhaps (as δὲ non would be 
simpler in this sense,) we should read non 
quod, i.e. non me colunt quia &e. It is 
easy however to supply an ellipse, such as 
hoe quidem nihil est. 



Nec camera auratas inter eburna trabes ; 



Nec mea Pheacas eequant pomaria silvas, 
Non operosa rigat Martius antra liquor: 

At Musee comites, et carmina cara legeriti, 
Et defessa choris Calliopea meis. 

Fortunata, meo si qua es celebrata libello! 


Carmina erunt forme tot monumenta tue. 
Nam neque Pyramidum sumptus ad sidera ducti, 
Nec Jovis Elei celum imitata domus, 
Nec Mausolei dives fortuna sepulcri 

Mortis ab extrema conditione vacant. 


Aut illis flamma aut imber subducet honores, 
Annorum aut ictu pondera victa ruent; 

At non ingenio quesitum nomen ab xvo 
Excidet: ingenio stat sine morte decus. 

10.] Camera eburna. The sunken panels 
of white stucco forming rectangular com- 
partments between the gilded beams, other- 
wise called /acunaria. Kuinoel refers to 
Pliny, NV. H. xxxiii. 3, to prove that these 
were actually overlaid with ivory. See 
also Hor. Od. ii. 18, 1,‘ Non ebur neque 
aureum Mea renidet in domo lacunar,’ 
where however ebur does not necessarily 
apply to the ceiling. The Tenarian 
marble, according to Becker (Gallus, p. 16), 
was verde antico, or green porphyry. 

11.] Nee mea pomaria &e. ‘And that 
I have no orchards to vie with the Phe- 
acian plantations.’ Hertzberg well re- 
marks, that mea does not imply that the 
poet really possessed any orchards at all.— 
The MSS. and early edd. have Pheacias. 
If Pheax silva be the nominative, the final 
syllable should be short. It appears there- 
fore to be from Pheacus. 

12.] Operosa antra. ‘ Artficial grottos.’ 
* The water from the aqueduct built by Q. 
Martius Rex, who was pretor 8.0. 144, 
» some arches of which are still standing, 
was held in especial esteem for its clear- 
ness. It was supplied to private houses 
and gardens by leaden pipes, as we are 
perhaps justified in inferring from a curious 
passage in Oyid, Met. iy. 121. ‘To this 

Strabo seems to allude, lib. y. cap. iii. 
τοσοῦτον δ᾽ ἐστὶ τὸ εἰσαγώγιμον ὕδωρ διὰ 
τῶν ὑδραγωγείων, ὥστε ποταμοὺς διὰ τῆς 
πόλεως καὶ τῶν ὑπονόμων ῥεῖν: ἅπασαν δὲ 
οἰκίαν σχεδὸν δεξαμενὰς καὶ σίφωνας καὶ 
κρουνοὺς ἔχειν ἀφθόνους. Cf. Hor. Epist, 
1.10, 20; Martial, Hp. vi. 42, 18, and ix. 
18, 6; Tac. Ann. xiv. 22. 

13.] Cara. Jacob gives grata from the 
MS. Groning. 

15.] Est Hertzberg and Lachmann with 
the Naples and Groning. MSS. The others 
give es from Pucci. Cynthia is obviously 
meant under the indefinite sz gua. 

18.] Celum imitata, i.e. bespangled with 

19.] The tomb of Mausolus, king of 
Caria, erected by his surviving queen, 
Artemisia, at Halicarnassus, B.c. 353, was 
celebrated as one of the seven wonders of 
the world. Though partly recovered by 
modern research, under the care of Mr. 
Newton, its overthrow, by an earthquake 
or by human yiolence, verifies the poet’s 
prediction. . 

23.] Ab evo. The preposition is added 
because excidet is equivalent to extinguetur, 
and @vum is regarded as the agent rather 
than the instrument. In the same way 
the Greeks say πάσχειν τι ὑπό Twos. 


IV. 8 (2). 147 


Visus eram molli recubans Heliconis in umbra, 
Bellerophontei qua fluit humor equi, 

Reges, Alba, tuos et regum facta tuorum, 
Tantum operis, nervis hiscere posse meis; 

Parvaque iam magnis admoram fontibus ora, 5 
Unde pater sitiens Ennius ante bibit, 

Et cecinit Curios fratres, et Horatia pila, 
Regiaque Aimilia vecta tropxa rate, 

Victricesque moras Fabii, pugnamque sinistram 

Cannensem et versos ad pia vota deos, 


Hannibalemque Lares Romana sede fugantes, 

III. The poet pleads the injunctions of 
Apollo and the Muses for continuing to 
write elegies, and for not essaying heroic 
verse. Frequently as this theme is re- 
peated, there is ever novelty and ingenuity 
in the treatment of it, which prevents 
sameness and monotony. 

1.1 Visus eram, ἐδόκουν ἐμοὶ, ‘I had 
fancied myself able.’ As the infinitive 
posse, γ. 4, depends on this verb, the strict 
notion of videbar mihi in somniis seems 
scarcely applicable. We do not dream of 
a mere possibility, but of some action, 
though the action itself may be impossible. 
It may, indeed, be questioned if the title 
ordinarily prefixed to this elegy, ‘ Propertii 
somnium,’ is correct. There is no indica- 
tion throughout the poem that he intends 
to describe a dream. It is rather an alle- 
gory than a vision: while expatiating in 
the regions of poetry he had ventured to 
think himself capable of higher efforts, but 
received arebuke from Apollo. The editors 
seem to attribute too much weight to 
Hesiod’s narrative, that he became a poet 
while feeding his flocks on Helicon. 

4.] Tantum operis, ‘great as was the 

5,] For the common reading tam I have 
ventured to read jam, on account of cum 
inf. 18, ‘Already I had essayed heroic 
subjects, when Phoebus rebuked me, and 
bade me turn to another kind of verse.’ 
He had already tried historical poems, 
those in the fifth book being among the 
earliest in date. See on y. 1, introductory 

8.] Aimilia rate. By a singular ana- 
chronism, pointed out by Hertzberg, the 
commentators haye referred these words to 

the return of Lucius milius Paullus, 
after the defeat of Perseus, king of Mace- 
donia, in 486, (B.c. 167), whereas Ennius 
died B.c. 169, or nearly two years before 
that event. The allusion is therefore to 
the defeat of Demetrius, governor of the 
island of Pharos, in the Adriatic, by Lucius 
JKmilius Paullus the consul, p.c.219. It 
may be remarked that we have here an 
authentic enumeration of some of the sub- 
jects on which Ennius wrote in his Roman 
Annals. But Keil and Miller read ceecni for 
cecinit,—The short form Curii for Curiatii, 
the three champions of Alba, is said to 
occur only in this passage. For a theory 
of the meaning of the names see Varroni- 
anus, p. 76. ‘The fight between the 
Horatii and Curiatii probably refers to a 
contest between the κούρητες, ‘men of the 
Curia, and wielders of the spear, or wear- 
ers of the helmet, and the χερνῆτες, or 
‘handicraftsmen,’ ¢.¢. the lower order, in 
which contest, as usual, the latter succeeded 
in maintaining their just rights.’ We may 
notice too Horatia used for Horatiana. So 
Partha for Parthica, inf. 4, 6. 

9.] Moras Fabit, τ, ὁ. the policy of Q. 
Fabius Maximus, who obtained the ag- 
nomen of Cunctator in his contest with 

10.] Versos deos. He alludes to the: 
public supplications, by which it was be- 
lieved that the gods diverted Hannibal 
from attacking Rome after the battle of 

11.] Lares. Hertzberg shows: from 
Varro that a Lar was called Tutanus from 
the supposed influence of his fraternity in 
keeping Hannibal away from the city.— 
anseris voce; the cackling of the geese in 

-- ee a 



Anseris et tutum voce fuisse Jovem ; 

Cum me Castalia speculans 

ex arbore Phoebus 

Sic ait aurata nixus ad antra lyra: 

Quid tibi cum tali, demens, 

est flumine? quis te 15 

Carminis heroi tangere jussit opus ? 

Non hine ulla tibi speranda est fama, Properti: 
Mollia sunt parvis prata terenda rotis, 

Ut tuus in scamno jactetur seepe libellus, 

Quem legat expectans sola puella virum. 


Cur tua prescriptos evecta est pagina gyros ? 
Non est ingenii cymba gravanda tui. 
Alter remus aquas, alter tibi radat arenas ; 

Tutus eris: medio maxima turba mari est. 

Dixerat, et plectro sedem mihi monstrat eburno, 


Qua nova muscoso semita facta solo est. 
Hic erat affixis viridis spelunca lapillis, 
Pendebantque cavis tympana pumicibus. 

the Capitol, by which M. Manlius, consul 
B.c. 892, was aroused when it was at- 
tempted by the Gauls under Brennus.— 
Jovem, i.e. Jovis Capitolini templum. 

13.] Castalia, The fountain, and per- 
haps grove, so called, were on Parnassus, 
not on Helicon. But Hertzberg rightly 
observes that the names of these sacred 
localities are indifferently used, as the 
narrative is only allegorical.—ea arbore, ex 
silva.—ad antra, prope ad, juxta. Apollo 
presented himself as watchmg my move- 
ments, sheltered by trees and leaning on 
his lute at the entrance of a sacred grot 
(γύαλον) concealed by bay-trees. And he 
pointed out a new retreat which the Muses 
were just adorning and furnishing for 
themselves and their votaries, inf. 33. 

17.] Non hinc. Non ex eo loco quo 
nunc versaris. Hine is from the edition of 
Volscus. The MSS. give hie. 

18—20.] ‘You must enter a smoother 
course, with less aspiring effort, and write 
ditties for the desultory reading of a forlorn 

21.] From the slight error (presuming 
it to be such) of the MSS. prescripto sevecta 
for prescriptos evecta, which would, as a 
matter of course, be the cause of changing 
gyros into gyro, Lachmann, Jacob, Hertz- 
berg, Keil, and Miiller have ventured to 
enrich the Latin language with the other- 

wise unknown and improbable compound 
seveho. Lachmann’s objection is futile, 

‘quis ita locutus est, eveht gyros, pro ex : 
The idiom is, in — 
fact, very common, as egredi flumen, evadere — 

gyris, vel extra gyros?’ 

sylvas &e. So fines exire, iv. 5, 37.— 

gt gir ΩΣ Eat 

gyrus, like orbdis, iii. 1, 39, is the usual — 4 

routine of composition. At the same time, 
allusion is made to the turnings of the 

23. Alter remus &e. Hug the shore 
in your course, and do not venture far out 
to sea, where the waters are raging. 

27.] Affxis lapillis. Hertzberg well 
observes that the poet had in view the 
artificial grottos (operosa antra, supr. 2, 12) 
common in the gardens of the wealthy 
Romans. It may be suggested, that the 
Romans called voleanic rocks in general 
by the terms pwmex and silex. In the 
cindery precipices of the Canary islands, 
I have seen hundreds of natural caves of 
this description; whereas pumice-stone, 
properly so called, only occurs in isolated 
pieces or stratified beds. It is clear that 
we must understand Horace’s ‘Que nune 
oppositis debilitat pumicibus mare Tyrrhe- 
num,’ Od. i. 11, 5, according to the above 
general explanation.—tympana, the Bac- 
chie instrument, τύπανον, the tambourine, 
was hanging on the walls of the cave, or 
from the vaulted roof. 

LIBER IV. 8 (2). 


Ergo Musarum et Sileni patris imago 

Fictilis, et calami, Pan Tageee, tui; 


Et Veneris dominz volucres, mea turba, columbe 
Tingunt Gorgoneo punica rostra lacu; 
Diverseeque novem sortite rura puelle 
Exercent teneras in sua dona manus. 

Hee hederas legit in thyrsos, hee carmina nervis 


Aptat, at illa manu texit utraque rosam. 

E quarum numero me contigit una dearum,— 
Ut reor a facie, Calliopea fuit: 

Contentus niveis semper vectabere cycnis, 

Nec te fortis equi ducet ad arma sonus. 


Nil tibi sit rauco preconia classica cornu 
Flare, nec Aonium cingere Marte nemus, 

Aut quibus in campis Mariano prelia signo 
Stent et Teutonicas Roma refringat opes: 

29.] He describes the grotto as sacred 
to Pan, Silenus, the Muses, and Venus; 
the instruments of one, the terra-cotta 
image of another, and the doves of 
the last, respectively indicating the joint 
possessors.—ergo is used in a rare sense: 
‘conjeceram Musas tibi futuras: en vero 
ipsas’ Hertzberg; ‘and so in fact,’ ἡ. e. as 
might have been anticipated from the 
general appearance. Or perhaps for deinde, 
like agitur (Varronianus, p. 149). Lach- 
mann reads ergo hie Musarwm, and explains 
it of effigies or statues of the Muses made 
of terra-cotta. Miiller adopts the rather 
ingenious, but surely unnecessary, correc- 
tions of Heins and Unger, Orgia mustarum 
(mystarum, μυστῶν). 

31.] Mea turba, t.e. mex delicie, mihi 
amate.—Gorgoneo lacu, Hippocrene; Pe- 
gasus having sprung from the Gorgon 
Medusa, whence he is called Meduseus 
equus by Ovid, Fast. v. 7. Allusion is 
probably made to a well-known classical 
design of doves drinking out of a basin. — 
tingunt, τέγγουσι, as elsewhere.—punica 
rostra, red or rose-coloured, Ovid, Am. ii. 
6, 22. Huripides attributes to these birds 
φοινικοσκελεῖς χηλαὶ, Ton, v. 1207. 

33.] Diverse, χωρὶς, each apart from 
the others.—rwra here represent the diffe- 
rent departments of poetry and fine art 
which the Muses cultivated; λειμῶνα 
Μουσῶν ἱερὸν, Arist. Ran. 1300.—in sua 
dona, to prepare the different gifts for 

different classes of poets, e.g. the thyrsus 
for writers of dithyrambs, the crown of 
roses for elegiac authors. 

38.] A facie, as if the name were from 
καλὴ and ὄψις. 

39.1 ‘Recte cyenis vectum ideo fingi 
interpretes perspexerunt, quod ea avi 
Venus quoque in curribus utatur,’—Hertz. 

41.] Nil tibi sit. ‘Let it not be your 
part.’ So the Greek occasionally use οὐδὲν 
and μηδὲν for οὐ and μὴ, Esch. Ag. 1462. 
But in the following distich it bears a 
slightly different sense, ‘Let it be nothing 
to you,’ ‘let it not concern you.’—preconia 
classica, ¢, 6. nayalium bellorum laudes.— 
classica is here used precisely as in ‘clas- 
sica bella,’ 11.1. 28. Barth has adopted 
pretoria from Beroaldus. For flare the 
MSS. give flere, which was first corrected 
by Dousa. Lachmann well refers to 
Martial, xiii. 3, ‘Quantaque Pieria prelia 
flare tuba;’ but he is scarcely justified in 
saying of this distich, ‘singula fere verba 
hic dubitationi obnoxia sunt.’ — cingere 
Marte nemus, ἃ. 6. ‘arma et bellum ipsum 
in poesin inferre, hujusque mollitiem stre- 
pitu dissono perdere.’— Hertzberg. ‘To 
beset with armed force the Grove of the 
Muses’ is a rather inflated way of saying 
‘to disturb its peacefulness by singing of 

43—4.] Marius’ defeat of the Cimbri 
and Teutones is alluded to, Β.0. 102—1. 


Barbarus aut Suevo perfusus sanguine Rhenus 


Saucia meerenti corpora vectet aqua. 
Quippe coronatos alienum ad limen amantes 
Nocturnzeque canes ebria signa fuge, 
Ut per te clausas sciat excantare puellas, 
Qui volet austeros arte ferire viros. 50 
Talia Calliope, lymphisque a fonte petitis 
Ora Phileteea nostra rigavit aqua. 


Arma Deus Cesar dites meditatur ad Indos, 
Et freta gemmiferi findere classe maris. 

Magna, viri, merces: parat 
Tigris et Euphrates sub 

45.1 Suevo. The good copies give sevo 
or scevo. The error was corrected in some 
of the early editions. The event described 
is the victory over Ariovistus, the German 
chieftain, by Julius Cvsar, 8.0. 58. See 
Bell. Gall.iv. 1. With vectet it seems that 
quo must be supplied, by a very harsh 
ellipse, from guibus, v. 49. 

48.] Ebria signa fuge. Hertzberg 
understands ‘spolia ab ebrio amatore noc- 
turnis rixis de puellis recepta;’ Kuinoel 
and others explain it of the rout of the 
drunken serenaders by more sober rivals or 
by indignant husbands. Possibly this may 
have reference to the clever poem ‘ Disce 
quid Esquilias’ &e. in y. 8, then perhaps 
completed among other juvenile perfor- 
mances. Signa may be referred to the 
torches and flowers left behind them in 
their flight. 

49.] Ezxcantare must be taken in its 
most literal sense, cantando excire, ‘to sing 
them out of their locked apartments.’— 
ferire seems to have been the word con- 
ventionally applied to the deceiving a 
husband. ‘Terence, Phorm. i. 1, 13. See 
νυ. 5, 44. 

52.] Philetea aqua. The sense is, she 
herself handed me a draught from the same 
spring whence Philetas had derived his in- 

IV. In this spirited elegy the poet pre- 
dicts success to the expedition contemplated 
by Augustus against the Parthians A.v.c. 
732, but not carried into effect till 734. 

1.] Ad Indos, i.e. usque ad. Kuinoel 
wrongly explains it adversus.—deus Cesar. 

ultima terra triumphos ; 
tua jura fluent. 

See v. 11, 60. Flattery could go no 
further. Horace pays him the same ex- 
travagant, and even to a pagan, almost 
blasphemous compliment, Zp. ii. 1, 16. 
Od. iii. 8, 11, as does Ovid frequently. 
Such a προληπτικὴ ἀποθέωσις shows how 
deeply Rome was sunk in servility. The 
blame perhaps lay rather with Julius Cesar, 
who permitted and encouraged such ex- 
travagant honours. Sueton. Jul. Cesar, 
§ 76, ‘Ampliora etiam humano fastigio de- 
cerni sibi passus est,—templa, aras, simu- 
lacra juxta deos, pulvinar, flaminem, Lu- 
percos, appellationem mensis e suo nomine.’ 
Did he not borrow this from the Egyptian 
Ptolemies> ‘This appears in fact to be the 
origin of the Roman deification proper, as 
distinct from ‘hero-worship,’ which was 
more nearly connected with devil-worship. 

2.1 Gemmiferi maris. The Indian 
ocean. See on i. 14, 12. Tuibullus, ii. 2, 
15, ‘ Nec tibi gemmarum quicquid felicibus 
Indis Nascitur, Eoi qua maris unda rubet.’ 

3.] Viri. He addresses and encourages 
those who were to take part in the ex- 
pedition. Lachmann was the first to per- 
ceive that this was the vocative case. 
Others altered it to vie, supposing it the 

4.] Sub tua jura fluent. Sub tuum 
imperium redigentur, O Auguste. The 
notion is, as expressed by the accusative, 
that the two rivers of the east shall unite 
their waters with the Tiber. See on iv. 
9, 52. Nothing can be worse than the 
correction of Broukhuis, though adopted 
by Lachmann and Miiller, sub swa jura, t.e. 
‘sub debitam ditionem.’ 


LIBER IV. 4 (3 

Sera, sed Ausoniis veniet provincia virgis; 5 


Adsuescent Latio Partha tropxa Jovi. 
Ite, agite, experte bello date lintea proree 

Et solitum armigeri ducite munus equi. 
Crassos clademque piate ; 
Ite et Romane consulite historiz. 

Omina fausta cano: 


Mars pater et sacre fatalia lumina Vestee, 
Ante meos obitus sit, precor, illa dies, 

Qua videam, 

spoliis onerato Cesaris axe, 

Ad vulgi plausus sepe resistere equos; 

Inque sinu care nixus spectare puellie 

Incipiam, et titulis oppida capta legam, 

δ.) The MSS. have Sera, sed Ausoniis 
&ce., and so Lachmann, Jacob, and Hertz- 
berg. Sera, sed veniet, as the Greeks would 
say ὀψὲ μὲν, ἀλλ᾽ ὅμως. Compare iv. 6, 
32, ‘ Poena erit ante meos sera, sed ampla, 
pedes.’ Lachmann rightly explains it, 
‘ultima terra sera fiet provincia, sed fiet 
tamen.’ Barth and Kuinoel admit the not 
improbable emendation of Heinsius, Serves 
et, i.e. Seres quoque. This is confirmed by 
the reading of a later copy, venient. The 
Seres (see on vy. 3, 8) are mentioned in con- 
junction with the Indians, Hor. Od. i. 12, 
63. The nation so called by Virgil, Georg. 
li. 121, ‘Velleraque ut foliis depectant 
tenuia Seres,’ are probably, as implied by 
the preceding verse, Aithiopians, and not 
Chinese. The name seems derived from 
ohp, ἃ silk-worm; but not only was cotton 
(as a raw material) confounded with silk, 
as may be inferred from the lines of Virgil 
just referred to, and from Pliny, WV. ἢ. vi. 
17, 20, ‘Seres lanicio sylvarum nobiles, 
perfusam aqua depectentes frondium cani- 
tiem, unde geminus feminis nostris labor, 
reordiendi fila rursumque texendi,’ where 
the first words seem to refer to cotton, the 
last to unwinding the cocoons of silk,— 
but, from some perverse notion that the 
east side of Africa extended to China 
(Humboldt, Cosmos, ii. p. 192), the name 
Seres was applied to two totally distinct 
nations. Hence the evident perplexity of 
Pausanias, lib. vi. cap. 26, 4, οὗτοι μὲν δὴ 
τοῦ Αἰθιόπων γένους αὐτοί τε εἰσὶν οἱ 
Σῆρες, καὶ ὅσοι τὰς προσεχεῖς αὐτῇ νέ- 
μονται νήσους, ~“ABacay καὶ Σακαίαν: oi 
δὲ αὐτοὺς οὐκ Αἰθίοπας, Σκύθας δὲ ἀνα- 
μεμιγμένους ᾿Ινδοῖς φασὶν εἶναι. Aischylus 
also describes the Indians as bordering on 
(aorvye:tovoupévas) the Ethiopians, Suppl. 


though many commentators regard both it 

7.1 Prore appears to be the nth 

and egui in the next verse as vocatives 
The usual phrase is dare vela vento rather 
than xavi. The poet addresses in a general 
way all who were to take part in the ex- 
pedition. xperte bello, ‘tried in war,’ 

alludes to the nayal victory at Actium, in | 

which, in like manner, the poet speaks of 
‘signa, jam patriz vincere docta sux,’ v. 
6, 24.—Manus equi is referred ‘with pro- 
bability by Hertzberg to the horses pro- 
vided at the public expense for the 
Equites: ‘omnes Propertius hic alloquitur, 
quibuscunque equum publicum in bellum 
ducere licebat.’ Some explain it of the 
horses attached to the triumphal car, as if 
the victory were already as good as gained ; 

others of a richly caparisoned steed, sup- 
posed ( ) to have been 
brought for the use of the Imperator when 
about to undertake an expedition. Barth 
takes munus for spolia. 

9.1 Crassos clademque. The defeat of 
the Crassi, father and son, B.c. 53. 

11.] ‘Vesta, goddess of the sacred fire, 
which contains the destinies of Rome.’ 

13.] Lachmann, Jacob, Hertzberg, 
Keil, and Miiller, follow the reading of 
the MSS. oneratos—axes. The omission of 
et in the next verse is so harsh, and the 
correction of Muretus so probable and easy, 
that with Barth and Kuinoel I have ven- 
tured to adopt it. The poet certainly 
would here have written et vulgi ad plausus, 
though he elsewhere omits the copulative. 

15.] In sinu puelle. He had before 
(ii. 7, 18), declared his aversion to taking 
any active part in arms.—titwis &e. See 
Tacitus, Ann. ii. 18,22. Inf. v.11, 38. 

) Clu | 


᾿ ἃ Ὁ phate 


Tela fugacis equi, et braccati militis arcus, 
Et subter captos arma sedere duces. 
Ipsa tuam prolem serva, Venus: hoc sit in evum, 

Cernis ab Ainea quod superesse caput. 


Preeda sit hee illis, quorum meruere labores: 
Me sat erit Sacra plaudere posse Via. 


Pacis Amor deus est; pacem veneramur amantes. 
Stant mihi cum domina prceelia dura mea: 

Nec tamen inviso pectus mihi carpitur auro, 
Nec bibit e gemma divite nostra sitis; 

Nec mihi mille jugis Campania pinguis aratur, 5 
Nec miser era paro clade, Corinthe, tua. 

O prima infelix fingenti terra Prometheo! 

17.] Braccati militis. See on v. 10, 43. 
Here however not the Celts but the Par- 
thians are meant, who wore the wide 
Persian trousers wittily called θύλακοι, 
‘bags,’ by Aristoph. Vesp. 1087.—The in- 
finitive sédere depends, like the accusatives 
tela and arcus, on spectare in v.15, a con- 
struction not otherwise remarkable than 
for the interposition of the finite verb 
legam v.16. <A similar case occurs below, 
El. 6, 11—18. See the notes on iii. 1, 4, 
and v. 11, 38. 

18.] See on iv. 1, 3. By sedere sub 
arma effigies are meant, placed beneath 
lofty trophies, as we see in some modern 

19.] Hoe caput, Augustus, sit in evum, 
vivat ; a popular exclamation. 

22.] The reading of the ed. Rheg. is 
plausible, m# for me; and so Barth and 

V. This elegant elegy alludes to the 
same circumstances as the last, the in- 
tended expedition into the East. He takes 
occasion to show the folly of braving the 
dangers of war for riches, and declares (1) 
that Ais battles are fought under the stand- 
ard of Venus, and (2) that when too old 
for that service he will devote himself to 
the study of nature. 

1—3.] The argument (which neither 
Lachmann nor Jacob seems to have under- 
stood aright) is this: ‘Much as all lovers 
desire peace, I am compelled to wage war, 

yet not from avarice, but from differences 
with Cynthia,’ ¢.e. my motives belli gerendi 
are very different from those of others 
about to fight against the Parthians. Stant 
mihi prelia, h.e. durant, non facile diri- 
muntur. Much difficulty has been raised 
on this word. Some explain it gudeseunt ; 
Hertzberg, quoting iv. 3, 44, gives the far- 

fetched explanation, ‘ stare pugna dicitur, | 
quum ab utraque parte equo Marte pug- | 

natum est.’ 

next line nee tantum. 

3.] Carpitur, vexatur, sollicitatur. 

4.] Nee bibit, i.e. I have no gold and 
gems to excite in me the desire of possess- 
ing more—gemma is either for poculwm 
gemmatum (Georg. ii. 506, ‘ut gemma 
bibat:’ Juven. x. 26, ‘cum pocula sumes 
gemmata:’ compare Sat. v. 388—45), or it 
may signify a goblet worked out of a single 
piece of opal, jasper, or chaleedony.—For 
bibit Lachmann gives dcbat, and in the 
next verse aretur. 

6.] The Naples MS. has ere, the ed. 
Rheg. with some later copies we. For 
clade Barth and Kuinoel substitute classe 
from Pucci and the Aldine. On the fond- 
ness of the Romans for Corinthian bronze, 
see Becker, Gallus, p. 18 —clade tua means 
‘obtained by your destruction,’ which was 
barbarously effected by the consul Mum- 
mius B.c. 146. 

7.] Prima terra. The princeps lutus of 

Lachmann, who makes sad. 
havoc of the whole passage 1—5, follows 
Heinsius in reading sat mihi, and in the | 

----.--- ν...... 






LIBER IV. 5 (4). 153 

Ille parum cauti pectoris 

egit opus: 

Corpora disponens mentem non vidit in arte. 
Recta animi primum debuit esse via. 10 

Nune maris in tantum vento jactamur, et hostem 
Querimus, atque armis nectimus arma nova. 

Haud ullas portabis opes Acherontis ad undas: 
Nudus ad infernas, stulte vehere rates. 

Victor cum victis pariter miscebitur umbris; 15 
Consule cum Mario, capte Jugurtha, sedes; 

Lydus Dulichio non distat Croesus ab Ivo; 

Optima mors, parca quie 

Hor. Od. i. 16, 13. Human credulity per- 
haps never went further than in believing 
that certain lumps of stone, lying in a 
water-course near Panope in Phocis, were 
composed of the clay left over and above 
from the plastic process of Prometheus. 
Pausanias (x. 4, 3) gravely says, ταῦτα ἔτι 
λείπεσθαι τοῦ πηλοῦ λέγουσιν, ἐξ οὗ Kal 
ἅπαν ὑπὸ τοῦ Προμηθέως τὸ γένος πλασ- 
θῆναι τῶν ἀνθρώπων. He adds, ‘They 
smell remarkably like the human skin.’ 
The identity of the legend with the creation 
of Adam is manifest. The Eastern Christ- 
ians still believe that the first man was 
made out of red earth at Damascus. 
(Lepsius, Discoveries in Egypt, p. 400). 

8.1] Parum cauti pectoris. In allusion 
to the etymology of the name from zpo- 
pn@ia. Hertzberg misunderstands the 
sense, explaining it ‘ pectori, dum finxisset, 
parum cavisse.’ The poet simply means, that 

| Prometheus executed the work without the 

care and forethought implied by his name. 

10.] Animi ἕο. ‘Ante omnia oportuit 
bone mentis rationem habere.’— Barth. 
‘If there was one quality more than 
another which the god of forethought 
ought to have given to man, it was sound 
sense and reason.’ 

11.] Jactari in mare is properly to be} 
carried into the open sea.—hostem querimus | 
&c. ‘not content with repelling attacks at | 
home, we must look for an enemy abroad : 
not satisfied with the wars on hand, eal 
must add new wars.’ 

13.] ‘And yet riches, when acquired, 
will profit you nothing in the grave.’ 

14.] The MSS. agree in ad infernas— 
rates, which is retained by Lachmann, 
Keil, and Miller. The plural is defended 
by Lachmann from the mention of two 
ferry-boats for the dead in v. 7, 57. Τὸ 
the correction of Perrey, αὖ inferna rate, it 

“15 objected that the preposition is wrongly 

venit apta die. 

used. ‘Animam anteguam ad rates per- 
venerit, vectam esse, quo jure dixeris ??— 
Hertzberg : who reads with Schrader nudus 
at inferna ; but this is a very incorrect use 
of at, and is not sufficiently defended by 
i. 6, 22, where the MSS, vary between at 
and et. The meaning perhaps is, that 
whereas we now look for fleets and voyages 
for making our fortunes, hereafter we shall 
be stripped of everything, and see only the 
ships on the infernal river. Thus vehi ad 
rates is simply ‘to be ferried over to the 

15.] The Groning. MS. gives wndis, 
whence Barth and Kuinoel read Jndis, 
and even Lachmann, who adopts it, calls 
this ‘certissima emendatio.’ The same 
MS. has miscebimer, which the above 
editors also adopt with Lachmann. 

18.] ‘Hertzberg, Jacob, Lachmann, and 
the later editors read acta for apta from 
the Naples MS. Lachmann compares iy. 
7, 30, ‘Ista per humanas mors venit acta 
manus,’ where however the addition of 
per manus makes all the difference. That 
any editor should be satisfied with Sca- 
liger’s explanation of parca dies by 4 me- 
πρωμένη ἡμέρα is truly surprising.—parca 
dies is ‘a day, or time, of poverty;’ and 
the poet says, that not only is wealth use- 
less when you die, but death comes easiest 
when it comes apta, appropriate and wished 
for, to relieve you from your poverty. 
Hertzberg’s explanation is far from pro- 
bable: ‘mortem, ut tardissime venerit, 
utque maxime hominum vite et diutissime 
pepercerit, ita optimam esse.’ Lachmann 
reads Paree die, which seems scarcely good 
Latin for fatali die, though Jacob gives his 
approval, and both Keil and Miiller follow 
him. Lachmann indeed compares ‘ Par- 
carum dies,’ Virg. 42n. xii. 150; still this 
is not strictly parallel, since much of the 
difficulty lies in the use of the singular. 




Me juvat in prima coluisse Helicona juventa, 

Musarumque choris implicuisse manus. 

Me juvat et multo mentem vincire Lyzo, 

p mule in vs, Et caput im verna semper habere rosa. 

Ρ. 1-νι ἔχ aie: : 
(στ Atque ubi jam Venerem gravis interceperit zetas, 
Sparserit et nigras alba senecta comas, 

Tum mihi Nature libeat perdiscere mores, 

Quis deus hance mundi temperet arte domum ; 
Qua venit exoriens, qua deficit, unde coactis 

Cornibus in plenum menstrua luna redit; 
Unde salo superant venti; quid flamine captet 

Eurus, et in nubes unde perennis aqua; 

Sit ventura dies, mundi que subruat arces; 
Purpureus pluvias cur bibit arcus aquas ; 
Aut cur Perrhebi tremuere cacumina Pindi, 

Solis et atratis luxerit orbis equis; 

Cur serus versare boves et plaustra Bootes ; 

Pleiadum spisso cur coit igne chorus; 

Curve suos fines altum non exeat sequor, 
Plenus et in partes quattuor annus eat ; 
Sub terris sint jura deum et tormenta gigantum ; 

Tisiphones atro si furit angue caput ; 


Aut Alemzoniz furiz aut jejunia Phinei ; 
Num rota, num scopuli, num sitis inter aquas; 

19.] Me juwat. ‘My pleasure is, (not 
war, but) love in youth and science in old 
age.’ A similar aspiration after the ‘ causas 
rerum’ occurs in the magnificent passage, 
Georgic, τὶ. 475, seq. 

24.) The Groning. and Naples MSS. 
give wtegras; a reading worthy of some 

25.) Tum, emphatic; then and not till 

27.] Qua, supply ratione; or perhaps 
like the Greek use of ἣ for ἡ ὁδῷ, ‘how τέ 
comes,’ viz. by what course or direction. 

“p9.] Quid qaaptet, what,it aims ati; what 
t desired to Yo. Barth| coma | Virg. 

YN vs a bers 5 
2, quid cogitet humidus auster. 

org. i. 

31] Lachmann and others read si ven- 
tura, and in συ. 39, si jura deum, in both 
cases against the authority of the MSS. 
It is not probable that δὲ would have been 
altered by the copyists. See the note on 
y. i. 88. 

33.] Perrhebi Pindi. Misch. Suppl. 

252, δρίζομαι δὲ τήν Te Περραίβων χθόνα, 
Πίνδου τε τἀπέκεινα, Παιόνων πέλας, where 
see the note. It is not known whether 
any particular earthquake is here alluded 
to. Barth thinks it is the same as that in 
iv. 13, 53. But perhaps mountains gener- ἢ 
ally are meant, by a common usage of | 
poets.—luxerit, from lugeo, but inf. ix. 20 
from Juceo. Notice here the alternation of 
subjunctive with indicative, as in Persius, } 
Sat. iii. 66 seqq. y 

36.] Spisso igne. The apparent prox- 
imity to each other of the stars in that 
constellation presents to the naked eye a 
confused appearance. Barth and Kuinoel 
give Heinsius’ emendation imdre. 

39.] Gigantum is said to be wanting in 
the Naples MS. Miller reads nocentum, 
after Haupt. 

41.] Alemeonie Furie. ‘An Alemeon 
ob Eriphylen matrem interfectam a Furiis j 
agitetur.’—Kuinoel, Y 


LIBER IV. 6 (5). 

Num tribus infernum custodit faucibus antrum 
Cerberus, an Tityo jugera pauca novem; 

An ficta in miseras descendit fabula gentes, 

Et timor haud ultra quam rogus esse potest. 
Exitus hic vite superet mihi: vos, quibus arma 
Grata magis, Crassi signa referte domum. 


Dic mihi de nostra, quae sentis, vera puella: 
Sic tibi sint domine, Lygdame, dempta juga. 

Num me letitia tumefactum fallis inani, 
Hee referens, quee me credere velle putas ? 

Omnis enim debet sine vano nuntius esse, 5 
Majoremque timens servus habere fidem. 

Nune mihi, si qua tenes, ab origine dicere prima 
Incipe; suspensis auribus ista bibam. ] 

Siccine eam incomptis vidisti flere capillis ? 
Sm - 
Thus ex oculis multa cadebat aqua ? 


Nee speculum strato vidisti, Lygdame, lecto ? 

44.] Pauca, ‘Et num Tityo jugera 
novem sint pauca.’— Barth; who compares 
Tibull. i. 3, 75, ‘porrectusque noyem 
Tityos per jugera terre.’ 

45.] Ficta fabula. The Epicurean phi- 
losophy. Compare with this passage, iii. 
26, 53. 

VI. This assumes the form of a dialogue 
between the poet and Cynthia’s slave Lyg- 
damus. The latter is called upon to report 
faithfully his mistress’ disposition towards 
Propertius, who had deserted her on some 
disagreement having arisen between them, 
and to act as mediator in bringing about 
a reconciliation, should both parties prove 
equally desirous of it. This is one of the 
more obscure, and perhaps corrupt of the 
poet’s productions. 

3.] Num. This is clearly the right 
reading, preserved by Pucci. The Naples 
MS. gives zon, the Gron. MS. dum.—tume- 
factum, like πιαίνειν Asch. Agam. 207, 
1647, ‘puffed up with vain hopes.’—num 
failis is said in a threatening voice: ‘are 
you thinking of telling me a false tale? 
You will deceive me at your peril. For, 
as every messenger ought to report the 
truth, so especially should a slave with 

the fear of punishment impending over 
him.’ Hertzberg prefers: ‘omnis servus 
debet verus nuntius esse,’ &c.—timens is 
the reading of all the good copies.—metu 
is the useless correction of Muretus. In 
the preceding verse the ed. Rheg. has sine 
vanis esse relator ; a remarkable reading, 
but probably a gloss.—sne vanis might be 
defended, as the Greeks used δίκαια for 
δίκη, Aisch, 4g. 812. Lachmann, failing 

to see the meaning and connexion of this | 

distich, incloses it within brackets as spu- 
rious He also reads, with a few of the 
inferior copies, sive vanis esse relator. 
order is, ‘omnis nuntius debet esse sine 
vano, 7.é. carere mendacio. Lygdamus 
(v. 8, 37), though Cynthia’s servant, seems 
to have been in the confidence of Pro- 
pertius. The expression jfidem habere is 
unusual in the sense of ‘to prove faithful,’ 
‘to have truthfulness.’ More commonly 
it signifies ‘to have credit,’ 7. 6. to be be- 
lieved, as in iy. 23, 4. 

9.1 Siccine. The MSS. have si or sie, 
or sicut, The Aldine gives the true reading. 

1l.] Nee speculum &e. ‘Was there no 
mirror lying (as usual) on the bed, in- 
dicating that her toilet was a matter of 
anxious care ?” 

υὐὐαλίε Yeu a0 


The 3 

Cade - 



Ornabat niveas nullane gemma manus ? 
Ac mestam teneris vestem pendere lacertis ? 
Scriniaque ad lecti clausa jacere pedes ? 

Tristis erat domus, et tristes sua pensa ministree 


Carpebant, medio nebat et ipsa loco ? 
Humidaque impressa siccabat lumina lana, 

Rettulit et querulo jurgia nostra sono ? 

‘Hee te teste mihi promissa est, Lygdame, merces ? 
Est pcenz servo rumpere teste fidem. 

Tlle potest, nullo miseram me linquere facto, 
AKqualem nulla dicere habere domo. 


Gaudet me vacuo solam tabescere lecto: 
Si placet, insultet, Lygdame, morte mea. 

Non me moribus illa, sed herbis improba vicit: 


Staminea rhombi ducitur ille rota. 
Illum turgentis rane portenta rubetie 
Et lecta exectis anguibus ossa trahunt, 

13.] -Acwestam the Naples MS., at 
mestam MS. Gron., and so Lachmann and 
Miiller. Et mestum  Keil.— vestem, the 
tunica manicata, not buttoned or laced up, 
but hanging loose from the elbow. These 
questions are evidently asked in an excited 
and hurried tone, the point of them all 
being to know if Cynthia seemed discon- 
solate at the poet’s absence. He here re- 
turns to the infinitive depending on widist7, 

‘ See above, El. 4, 17.—serinia, not the capsa 

' or manuscript-case, but the casket or dress- 

/ing-case for the toilet; if the opinion of 
the commentators be correct. 

17.] Lana, viz. with a piece of the wool 
which she was spinning. 

18.] Retulit jurgia nostra, τ, ὁ. ‘related 
to her maids the dispute she had had with 

19.] Iygdamus here proceeds to relate 
what Cynthia had said to him about the 
poet, and her anxiety to learn if he still 
loved her. ‘Were you a witness (she 
asked), when he promised me this reward 
of my constancy? He must certainly feel 
it, if he has broken that promise made in 
your presence. Yet now he has the heart 
to desert me without any fault of mine 
(nullo facto), and the boldness to assert, 
what is but too clearly false, that he has 
no other mistress to hold an equal place in 
his affections.’ ‘There is considerable dif_i- 
culty in these verses. For egualem Barth 

gives ac qualem from Scaliger. The verse 
is perhaps corrupt. Hertzberg suspects 
atque aliam to be the true reading. Barth 
and Kuinoel make vy. 21—8 interrogative. 
Lachmann more correctly prints them with 
marks of interjection, and so Miiller, who 
reads multa for nulla. The sense appears 
to be, ‘potest dicere se nulla domo habere 
zequalem mihi,’ 

23.] Gaudet &e. ‘No! he is pleased 
to think that I pine in solitude. Let him, 
if he likes, rejoice over my death.’ Morte 
mea is an instance of the lax use of the 


ablative so common with Propertius. It } 

is perhaps better to regard it as governed 
by the sense of insultet, i.e. superbiat, gau- 
deat, than as an ablative for a dative, on 
which idiom see y. 8, 10. 

25—30.] She accuses her rival of having 
drawn away the poet, not by superior ac- 
complishments, but by magic arts. See 
v. 7, 72, ‘Si te non totum Doridos herba 

28.] Anguibus. ‘Similiter apud Hora- 
tium, Sat. 1. 8, 43, ‘varies quoque dente 
colubree,’ ἢ, 6. dectis anguium ossibus, non 
omnibus, venefice utuntur.’—Jacob. Barth 
reads wnguibus, with Broukhusius. Lach- 
mann gives ex structis ignibus, a bad read- 
ing made up of his own and Heinsius’ 
conjecture. — trahunt, ἕλκουσι, a word 
technically used to imply the irresistible 
force of magic arts. 

LIBER IV. 7 (6). 157 

Et strigis invente per busta jacentia plume, 
Cinctaque funesto lanea vitta viro. 20 ὁ lor 
Si non vana canunt mea somnia, Lygdame, testor, 
Poena erit ante meos sera, sed ampla, pedes. 
Putris et in vacuo texetur aranea lecto ; 
Noctibus illorum dormiet ipsa Venus.’ 
frop© Que tibi si veris animis est questa puella, 35 
Hac eadem rursus, Lygdame, curre via, 
Et mea cum multis lacrimis mandata reporta ; 
Ivram, non fraudes esse in amore meo; 

5. od (Ὁ : ΟΡ ἄρον A 
Me quoque consimili impositum torquerier igni ep a 
Jurabo et bis sex integer esse dies. 40 
Quod mihi si tanto felix concordia bello 
Extiterit, per me, Lygdame, liber eris. 
i \ 4 a 
VIL. N43. 24 
Ergo sollicitee tu causa, Pecunia, vite ; sn 
29.] Busta jacentia, ‘ruined tombs.’ 35.] Que tibi &e. The reply of Pro- 
Others understand the extinct ashes of pertius. ‘Well! if these were the grounds 
funeral piles. Hor. Epod. v.19, ‘et unctay of the complaints against me, and if they 
turpis ova rane sanguine, Plumamque noc-}] were made not in pettishness but in sin- 
turne strigis,’ &c. The strix was probably] cerity, go back at once and tell her, that 
the screech-owl; but as it was a night’ though I am angry with her, I have not 
bird, and therefore indistinctly seen, the wronged her by my love.’—Veris animis, 
ancients fancied it was a sort of harpy ἢ. 6. vero affectu. Tac. Ann. xiv. 1, ‘For- 
generated by magic art. See Ovid, Fast, mam scilicet displicere, et triumphales ayos, 
vi. 131—142. Inf. v. 5, 17. an fecunditatem et verum animum ? 
30.] All the MSS. give vivo, Heinsius 36.] adem. On the dissyllable see y. 
conjectured toro. These two words are 7, 7. 
thought to have been confused also in ii. 40.] See note on ii. 9, 7, integer, i.e. 
9,16, ‘Scyria nec viduo Deidamia viro.” λέκτρων ἄθικτος. Esse is for fuisse, and 
Hertzberg alone retains the vulgate, under- implies the duration of time. He means 
standing it of the ‘imago funesta,’ orimage to assure Cynthia, that her suspicions of 
of the party to be enthralled by the charm; his infidelity since their rupture are vain. 
see Virg. Eel. viii. 73. Hor. Sat. 1. 8, 30, The change of construction is remarkable: 
‘ Lanea et effigies erat, altera cerea’ (speak- jurabo me torqueri, et integer esse. 
ing of witches at their incantation). Cincta 41.] The Naples MS. has quod nisi et 
is for cireumdata, by arare use. Butverbs tanto, whence Miiller reads Quodsin e tanto, 
of this nature are susceptible of a double which is perhaps right. Lachmann pro- 
construction. Barth has vinclague, Lach- posed quod mihi si ὁ tanto &e. 
mann vinctague, because ‘vitta cingebatur 42.] Extiterit, ‘shall have resulted |! ( 
torus, non toro vitta.’ See on συ. 10, 5. from.’—per me, ἐμοῦ ἕκατι, quantum mea {|i 

32.] Pena erit. ‘Ante meos pedes opera fieri potest. See supra v. 2. 
procumbet, nempe Propertius, veniamque 
sero rogabit; tunc poenas de eo exigam VII. This is one of the most beautiful 
amplissimas, gravissimas.’— Auinoel. poems of Propertius. The pathos is only 

33.] This verse is from Od. xvi. 34, equalled by the elegance of the versifica- 
᾿Οδυσσῆος δέ που εὐνὴ Χήτει evevvalwy tion. It is on the death of a young friend 
κάκ᾽ ἀράχνια κεῖται exovoa. —dormiet named Petus, who was drowned in a 
Venus, ‘iners languescet.’—Iuinoel. voyage to Egypt undertaken for some 




Per te immaturum mortis adimus iter. 
Tu vitiis hominum crudelia pabula przebes ; 
Semina curarum de capite orta tuo. 
Tu Petum ad Pharios tendentem lntea portus 5 
Obruis insano terque quaterque mari. 
Nam dum te sequitur, primo miser excidit evo, 
Et nova longinquis piscibus esca natat ; 
Et mater non justa pie dare debita terre 

Nec pote cognatos inter humare rogos; 


Sed tua nune volucres astant super ossa marine ; 

Nune tibi pro tumulo Carpathium omne mare est. 
Infelix Aquilo, rapte timor Orithyie, 
Que spolia ex illo tanta fuere tibi? 

Aut quidnam fracta gaudes, Neptune, carina ? 


Portabat sanctos alveus ille viros. 
Pete, quid xtatem numeras? quid cara natanti 

Mater in ore tibi est? non habet unda deos. 
Nam tibi nocturnis ad saxa ligata procellis 

mercantile purpose, which gives the poet 
occasion to inveigh against the avarice of 
man. It is strange that Scaliger should 
have been so little able to appreciate a 
poetical narrative as to have attempted a 
new arrangement of the verses throughout 
the entire elegy. Lachmann truly judges 
of the result; ‘omnia transponendo nihil 
effecit, nisi ut minus quam antea cohz- 

1.] Vulgo Vite es. The Naples MS. 
omits es, the addition of which is certainly 
no improvement to the verse. 

8.1 Crudelia, cruda, ὠμὰ, 1.6. by causing 
so much bloodshed. 

41 De capite tuo. Pecunia is here per- 
sonified. Perhaps there is an allusion to 
Athene born from the head of Jupiter. 
See on iy. 13, 2. 

5.] Pharios portus, τ, 6, Alexandria. 

8.7 ‘Cur nova esca, nemo explicuit; 
scilicet longinguis piscibus.’ — Hertzberg. 
The food was strange because the man 
came from a far-distant land,—a merely 
poetical image. 

9.] Pie terre. The epithet partly re- 
fers to the idea expressed in the following 
verse. The earth holds, as it were, in a 
parental embrace, the deceased members of 
one family. But with the earth are as- 
sociated the dead who are buried there. 

Properly speaking, the mother would pay 
‘justa debita piis Manibus.’ 

10.] Pote. Itis evident that this is not 
the neuter, but stands for pott, i.e. potis 
est. Compare mage for magis, amabere for 
amaberis &c., and see ii. 1, 46. 

11.] <Astant &c. Cf. Ovid, Heroid, x. 
123, ‘ossa superstabunt volucres inhumata 

14.] Ex illo, Peto. To carry off the 
maid had some excuse; but what prize 
was a poor boy? The whole of this pas- 
sage has great tenderness and beauty. 

16.] Sanctos viros, t.e. deorum cultores, 
non sacrilegos, perjuros, cet. Compare Od. 
viii. 565. sch. Theb. 598, ἢ yap tuvec- 
Bas πλοῖον εὐσεβὴς ἀνὴρ ναύταισι θερμοῖς 
καὶ πανουργίᾳ τινὶ ὄλωλεν ἀνδρῶν ξὺν θεο- 
πτύστῳ γένει. 

17.1] Etatem numeras, t.e. ὈΡΡταϊα 
heaven with cutting off so young a life.— 
non habet unda deos. ‘The briny wave 
cannot hear your prayers.’ 

19.] Nam. For if the sea could have 
felt pity, it would not have so imperilled 
the ship by wearing the ropes against the 
rocks, The wincula are the retinacula, 
Ovid, Her. 18, 11, δεσμοὶ, Od. xiii. 100. 
Kuinoel joins detrito ad saxa, and under- 
stands it of undergirding the ship ; in which 
he merely follows Barth and his immediate 

VE. nota, 

Jo Hou 


LIBER IV. 7 (6). 

Omnia detrito vincula fune cadunt. 
Sunt Agamemnonias testantia litora curas, 
Que notaf Argynni poena +minantis aque. 

fh f 7 


Hoe juvene amisso classem non solvit Atrides, 
Pro qua mactata est Iphigenia mora. 

Reddite corpus humo, positaque in gurgite vita 
Pxtum sponte tua, vilis arena, tegas. 
fF «λεῖον. Et quotiens Pzeti transibit nauta sepulcrum, 


Dicat: Et audaci tu timor esse potes. 
Ite, rates curvas et leti texite causas! 

Ista per humanas mors venit acta manus. 

predecessors. It is better to take the 
words in their natural order, ad saxa ligata, 
ἴ. 6. ad saxosum litus. They had endeav- 
oured to moor the ship in some sheltered 
bay, but the ropes were chafed by the 
sharp rocks and would not hold. We are 
not concerned with the good or bad sea- 
manship of such an attempt. Perhaps the 
storm arose after the ship had been so 
moored. It was nocturna procella, and 
ships were moored in the evening, Theocr. 
xiii. 33. 

22.] This obscure verse has been vari- 
ously altered and interpreted. The common 
reading is minantis aque, and the MSS. 
offer no variety of importance, except that 
the MS. Gron. gives nota argivis. Hertz- 
berg undertakes to show that his reading, 
Que notat Argynni pena Athamantiadea, 
is the genuine one; it is certainly in- 
genious, and is adopted by both Keil and 
Miller. Scaliger from a late copy read 
natantis agua, the sense then being ‘there 
are certain shores rendered remarkable for 
the punishment of Argynnus drowned (or 
wrecked) in the sea.’ Others read natantis 
aquas.—notat, infamat. The legend was 
that Agamemnon, enamoured of a beautiful 
youth, Argynnus, caused his death by pur- 
suing him to the banks of the Cephisus. 
See Athen. xiii. p.603. Martial, Ep. vii. 
15, 5. It seem to have been a duplicate 
of the well-known story of Hylas. Hertz- 
berg however is probably right in sup- 
posing that our poet followed some account 
which represented him as lost at sea; 
otherwise there is no parallel with the case 
of Petus. He might have supported his 
opinion by observing that Zitora, not ripa, 
is used. The scene of Petus’ shipwreck 
nas the same as that of Argynnus before 

93. 41 Jacob considers this distich the 


interpolation of some scholiast. Without 
being necessary, it is a natural addition to 
amplify the narrative and to express the 
greatness of the loss, and by implication, 
that of Pzetus also. Lachmann reads hie 
for hoe. 

25—6.] It is not clear to whom the 
imperative reddite is addressed. I agree 
with Barth that Aquilo and Neptune are 
meant (13—15), rather than with Hertz- 
berg, who understands wadarum dit. 
the very existence of the latter is denied in 
v.18. Perhaps indeed 25—28 should be 
transposed to follow 70, where they would 
come in very appropriately. This was 
suggested by Scaliger, and he has been 
followed by Miiller. In other respects the 
sense of these two lines is sufficiently evi- 
dent: ‘now that the water has taken his 
life, the body may surely be spared for 
burial in the sand,’—sponte tua, 7. ὁ. in the 
absence of any friendly hand. In address- 
ing the sand, he applies the same epithet 
vilis, though not a complimentary one, 
which he would have done had he asked 
the boon of ‘a little valueless sand’ from 
another. ‘The reader will scarcely approve 
the poetical taste which induced Lachmann 
to read thus: ‘ Reddite corpus humo posi- 

coaal of ὃ αὐτὰ 


For wi 


tumque in gurgite, venti, Petum; sponte ἡ 

tua, vilis arena, tegas.’ Jacob’s brief note 
is excellent; ‘predam habetis; corpus 
reddite.’ But his reading of v. 25, from 

the Naples MS., is far from satisfactory : | 
‘Reddite corpus humo! posita est in gur- ἢ 
He is followed however by ' 

gite vita!’ 
Miiller, who makes the last clause a pa- 

29.] The MSS. have curve, which was 
corrected by Passerat. 

30.] Ista, ‘that death which you pro- 
voke is brought on by human hands;’ 1,6, 
do not blame fate, or the gods. 



Terra parum fuerat: fatis adjecimus undas ; 
Fortunz miseras auximus arte vias. 

Ancora te teneat, quem non tenuere Penates ? 
Quid meritum dicas, cui sua terra parum est ? 

Ventorum est, quodcumque 

Consenuit; fallit portus et ipse fidem. 

paras: haud ulla carina 


Natura insidians pontum substravit avaris ; 
Ut tibi succedat, vix semel esse potest. , 
Saxa triumphales fregere Capharea puppes, 

Naufraga cum vasto Grecia tracta salo est. 
Paullatim socium jacturam flevit Ulixes, ie 
In mare cui soliti non valuere doli. la 

Quod si contentus patrio bove verteret agros, | ἢ 
Verbaque duxisset pondus habere mea, 

Viveret ante suos dulcis oe Penates, , 
Pauper, at in terra, nil ubi flere potest. 


Non tulit hic Ptus stridorem audire procelle, Behr.wn/ 

Et duro teneras ledere fune manus, 

Sed thyio thalamo aut Oricia terebintho 


31.] Most editors read parum fuerat 
fatis ; but the stop comes better at the 
caesura of the verse. Fatis, ἃ, e. to the 
many ways of death already existing. 
This is a clever distich. 

32.] ‘We have added by art to the many 

roads to misery which Chance had already 
οἰ prepared for us.’ 
. Nature, and Fortuna in y. 37, the un- 

Barth and Kuinoel read 

warrantable alteration of Broukhusius. 

37.] I follow Jacob, Keil, and Miller 
in admitting insidians from the Naples MS. 
and ed. Rheg. The others have insidias, 
which is in itself a good reading, taken in 
apposition with pontum. The sense is: 
‘it was for the very purpose of ensnaring 
them that Nature spread out the sea as 
a smooth and enticing path for the ava- 
ricious.. He adds: ‘success awaits you 
scarcely once in your many attempts.’ 
And he illustrates the dangers of the sea 
by memorable instances of shipwreck. 

39.] Triumphales, i.e. they were wrecked 
as it were close to their home and in the 
very arms of victory. See on v. 1, 115. 

42.] The MSS. give soli, which Jacob 
retains. Soliti was the conjecture of Lip- 
sius, and is found in one of the later copies. 
Miiller would prefer so/wm. 'The sense is, 
‘the usually successful arts and contrivances 

of Ulysses failed to secure him against 
losses by sea.’ 

44.] Verba mea. ‘The sentiment which 
I now express in words.’ On the change 
of tenses in verteret and duwisset see i. 17, 
20. Lachmann reads O si contentus &c. 

46.] Jacob’s correction, admitted with 
great praise by Hertzberg, and adopted by 
both Keil and Miiller, is ingenious and 
probable, ‘nil ubi flare potest,’ ὦ, 6. ‘ubi 
venti nihil possunt.’ Still, it is a strange 
expression, ‘on terra firma, where nothing 
can blow, for ‘far from stormy waves.’ 
On the other hand, the vulgate gives a 
simple and satisfactory sense, ‘ poor indeed, 
but with no cause for sorrow.’ <A prose 
writer could have said, ‘ubi nihil esset 
quod flere posset.’ Probably also he would 
have used sed instead of at. 

47.] Non tulit hic. ‘ While he remained 
on land, he had not to endure,’ &e. ‘Si 
Petus in terra manere sustinuisset, non 
hic pericula et labores ei ferenda erant, sed 
omnibus vite cultioris deliciis lente frui 
licebat.’— Hertzberg. Lachmann reads non 
tulit hee Petus, stridorem &e. 

49.] Thyio. This word is an adjective 
from @va, or θυία, which is generally sup- 
posed to have been a kind of cedar, but it 
is more probably a species of arbor vite, 

MSS pws 
hk nig, Ε(οιοῖ of 

LIBER IV. 7 (6). 

Effultum pluma versicolore caput. 
Huie fluctus vivo radicitus abstulit ungues, 
Et miser invisam traxit hiatus aquam ; 
Hune parvo ferri vidit nox improba lgno ; 


Petus ut occideret tot coiere mala. 

Flens tamen extremis dedit hac mandata querellis, 


Cum moribunda niger clauderet ora liquor : 
Di maris Aigeei quos sunt penes eequora, Venti, 

Et quecumque meum degravat unda caput, 
Quo rapitis miseros prime lanuginis annos ? 
Attulimus longas in fretra vestra manus. 

et oe 

Ah miser aleyonum scopulis afiligar acutis ; 
In me ceruleo fuscina sumpta deo est, 
At saltem Italiz regionibus advehat eestus: 

the Thwa articulata of Linneus, a native 
of the mountains in the N.W. of Africa, 
and the timber of which exhales a fragrant 
odour. The terebinth, or turpentine tree, 
(pistacia terebinthus), is of large size and 
stately growth, and is not uncommon in 
Palestine and many of the Greek islands. 
It is not one of the coniferee, but bears a 
fruit like a small cherry. Sir Charles 
Fellows (Travels in Asia Minor) com- 
pares it with our ash. Our word turpentine 
is a corruption of terbinthine. Pucci gives 
thyie in thalamo, and so Jacob. Barth 
and Kuinoel thyie@ thalamo.—Oricia, see 
i. 8, 20. The MSS. give ehzo, which Keil 
retains. Lachmann makes a desperate 
effort to correct a verse about which very 
little doubt can exist, and reads sed Cnidio 

50.] Effultum, sc. erat. The MSS. have 
et fultum, which Lachmann retains. Mr. 
Wratislaw reads et fultus.—pluma versicolor 
seems naturally to refer to cushions made of 
dyed feathers; but Hertzberg regards pluma 
as here used for the sofa or coverlet itself. 
Possibly a sort of pulvinus was composed of 
coloured feathers strung or matted together. 
On the plumarii, or feather-sewers (a craft 
by no means lost in our times) see a curious 
dissertation in Becker’s Gallus, p. 287—90, 
where the present passage is discussed. 

51—4.] The sense is, there were several 
causes which conspired to drown Petus; 
(1) his hands were hurt so that he could 
not swim effectively: (2) he was nearly 
choked by swallowing sea-water; (3) the 
plank he grasped was too small; (4) it 
was dark. For vivo (i.e. adhue spiranti) 

which is the MSS. reading, some plausibly 
edit vivos, to which Hertzberg fancifully 
objects that it adds unnecessarily to the 
shocking picture. Vivo is, however, rather 
otiose, ‘The poet perhaps had in view the 
shipwreck of Ulysses, Od. v. 434, θρασειάων 
ἀπὸ χειρῶν ῥινοὶ ἀπέδρυφθεν. 

52.] Lachmann reads et miserum invita 
traxit hiatus aqua. It is hardly necessary 
to add that miser hiatus is os misert hominis 
hiantis. Cf. v.56. Or thus: ‘miserum 
os hiantis Peeti invisam aquam hausit.’ 

54.] Tot mala, as if more than ordinary 
means were required to extinguish such 
a life. 

57.] Dii maris, e¢ venti, et queecunque 
unda Ke. 

60.] Longas manus. The expression is 
obscure, as it does not appear what is the 
point of the appeal. Hertzberg under- 
stands ‘ puleras, procerulas,’ which gives a 
very weak meaning. I incline to Barth’s 
view, ‘integras antea,’ in allusion to v. 51. 
Kuinoel follows Scaliger in the far-fetched 
idea that ‘puras, innocentes,’ are meant, 
because the ancients thought that perjury 
was often punished by the mutilation of a 
limb. Becker (ap. Hertz.) quotes Ovid, 
Am. iii. 8, 2, ‘Quam longos habuit nondum 
jurata capillos, Tam longos postquam nu- 
mina lesit habet.’ 

61.] Adfigar Lachmann and Miiller, 
with MS. Gron. 

63.] Evehat is the reading of the good 
copies (MS. Naples eveat). This might 
mean, perhaps, ἐξενέγκοι, ‘ throw me ashore 
on Italian land.’ Lachmann and others 
give advehat from Scaliger’s correction. 


11 doa 
+L 9 

tenbad - 

60 fell Fai 



Hoc de me} sat erit si modo matris erit. 

Subtrahit heee fantem torta vertigine fluctus ; 
Ultima que Peto voxque diesque fuit. 


O centum «quoree Nereo genitore puelle, 
Et tu materno tacta dolore Thetis, 
Vos decuit lasso supponere brachia mento ; 

Non poterat vestras ille gravare manus. 


At tu, seve Aquilo, numquam mea vela videbis; 
Ante fores dominze condar oportet iners. 


Dulcis ad hesternas fuerat mihi rixa lucernas, 
Vocis et insanz tot maledicta tue. 

Cur furibunda mero mensam propellis, et in me 
Proicis insana cymbia plena manu ? 

Tu vero nostros audax invade capillos, 


Et mea formosis unguibus ora nota; 
Tu minitare oculos subjecta exurere flamma, 
Fac mea rescisso pectora nuda sinu. 
Nimirum veri dantur mihi signa caloris ; 

[Nam sine amore gravi femina nulla dolet. 

Que mulier rabida jactat convicia lingua, 

64.] Sat mihi erit, si hoc quod de me 
restat, matris erit, ὁ. 6. si corpus in matris 
manus yenict. 

68.] The MSS. have Thetis, 
Hertzberg retains. Most editions read 
Theti with Pucci. These four lines (67— 
70) contain a most beautiful and pathetic 
appeal. Miller, who here inserts 25—8, 
incloses 69—70 as a parenthesis, in order 
that reddite corpus &c. may refer to puelle 
and Thetis. 

VIII. In this clever and spirited elegy 
the poet assures Cynthia that so far from 
being offended with her for her violent 
bearing in a recent quarrel, he considers it 
as the strongest proof of her affection. 
This is said with a view to retaining her 
favour against the claims of a rival who is 
briefly addressed with considerable bitter- 
ness at the conclusion. 

1.] Hesternas. Other readings are ex- 
ternas and extremas. Barth and Kuinoel 
give the latter: ‘sub auroram jam de- 


ficiente lucerna,’ in the words of Ovid.— 
dulcis rixa is sufficiently explained by v. 5. 

3.] For cwr Pucci gives cum. Barth 
and Kuinoel dum, after Broukhuis. <As 
the quarrel had happened the night before, 
he speaks of it as if still present: ‘I ask 
why do you act,with such violence towards 
me? Yet do more if you will: it isa 
proof of your love.’ The repetition of i- 
sana, Υ. 2 and 4, implies hasty composition. 

7.1 Oculos exurere, ‘to burn out my , 
eyes, by thrusting a torch in my face. 
These personal assaults, which in our times | 
are nearly confined to the lowest and most 
abandoned, appear to have been ordinary 
events among very respectable Roman 
lovers. Cynthia’s character is in no re- 
spect amiable: see particularly y. 8, 51, 

11.] The MSS. give gravida. The 
editors agree in admitting the emendation 
of Scaliger. It is probable that these 
verses (11—16) describe the actual conduct 
of Cynthia on several occasions. The apo- 


LIBER IV. 8 (7). 163 

Et Veneris magne volvitur ante pedes, 
Custodum gregibus circa se stipat euntem, 
Seu sequitur medias, Meenas ut icta, vias, 
Seu timidam crebro dementia somnia terrent, 15 
Seu miseram in tabula picta puella movet ;— 
His ego tormentis animi sum verus aruspex, 
Has didici certo seepe in amore notas. 
Non est certa fides, quam non injuria versat. 
Hostibus eveniat lenta puella meis! 20 
Immorso equales videant mea vulnera collo; 

Me doceat livor mecum habuisse meam. 
Aut in amore dolere volo, aut audire dolentem ; 
Sive meas lacrimas, sive videre tuas, 

Tecta superciliis si quando verba remittis, 


Aut tua cum digitis scripta silenda notas. 

dosis occurs in y. 17. The sense is: 
‘When a woman abuses her lover, passion- 
ately supplicates Venus, appears in public 
with so many attendants that he cannot 
have access to her, or runs like a frantic 
Bacchante down the middle of the street, 
or who is restless from dreams or starts at 
the sight of a female portrait,—I can only 
interpret this excitement as betokening 
strong affection on her part.’ 

13.] The MSS. Gron. and Naples have 
circa se stipat. Pucci gives circum. Barth 
and Kuinoel sew guum se stipat. Jacob 
(from Perrey) circum que stipat, which he 
strangely explains of the woman surround- 
ing the man with attendants, lest her 
rivals should speak to him. Hertzberg 
edits circa seu stipat, and so Keil and 
Miiller; and lastly, Lachmann has edvewm 
se stipat, inserting et before gregibus. 
Hertzberg appears to acquiesce in Jacob’s 
view. I have preferred the reading of the 
best copies, understanding ‘ (et que) circa 
stipat se euntem’ &c. A similar omission 
of e¢ see inf. 9, 34. 

18.] Certo in amore, ‘in the case of a 
constant affection.’ Barth and Kuinoel 
give certas from inferior copies. 

19.] ‘That attachment is not to be re- 
lied on, which is not moved to resentment 
by awrong.’ These words cannot signify 
‘si puella amatorem nulla injuria atfticit,’ 
as Kuinoel supposes. — versat is agitat, 
vexat, and the imjuria is either a real or a 
supposed wrong, 1.6. the wrong of pre- 
ferring another to her.—/enta, ‘ indifferent,’ 

21.] Jmmorso. Hertzberg’s explana- 
tion is probably correct: ‘aquales non 
morsi collo ipsi videant me vulneratum.’ 
We have equalis for ‘a rival’ sup. 6, 22. 
The apparent emphasis on me in the follow- 
ing verse certainly favours the antithesis. 
Barth has iz morso: others derive ἐηι- 
morsus from dnmordeo.—livor, a weal, 
bruise, or blue mark. 

23—4.] ‘I do not like apathy in true 
love; I would either feel pain myself, or 
know that my mistress is pained. On one 
side, at least, let us have reality.’ 

25—6.] Lachmann considers these two 
verses as spurious: a summary course he 
is too apt to pursue when he is not satisfied 
with the poet’s meaning. He cites two 
very similar lines from Ovid, Her. xvii. 
81, ‘ah quoties digitis, quoties ego tecta 

Cy Po 


notavi Signa supercilio pzne loquente hel s 

dari!’ Hertzberg devotes two pages of 
notes to their explanation, but fails to 
elicit any natural sense. The meaning 
is this: ‘Love is nothing worth when 
it brings pain to neither side. A little 
jealousy is inseparable from true affec- 
tion. I like to hear complaints from 
my mistress; or if she cannot complain 
openly in the presence of a rival, to see 
silent tears and secret tokens of her dis- 
approbation and dislike to his presence.’ 
Writing on the table imaginary letters, or 
with a finger dipped in wine, was a fre- 
quent practice under similar circumstances, 
It is probable that Cynthia had really 
acted thus, to the gratification of the poet 
when he was dreading the success of a 



Odi ego, quum numquam pungunt suspiria somnos. 
Semper in irata pallidus esse velim. 
Dulcior ignis erat Paridi, cum Graia per arma 

Tyndaridi poterat gaudia ferre sue. 

Dum vincunt Danai, dum restat barbarus Hector, 
Ille Helenze in gremio maxima bella gerit. 

Aut tecum, aut pro te mihi cum rivalibus arma 
Semper erunt: in te pax mihi nulla placet. 
Gaude, quod nulla est ezque formosa; doleres, 

Si qua foret; nunc sis jure superba licet. 
At tibi, qui nostro nexisti retia lecto, 

Sit socer eternum, nec sine matre domus. 
Cui nune si qua data est furandz copia noctis, 

Offensa illa mihi, non tibi amica dedit. 

35 pe 


Mzecenas, eques Etrusco de sanguine regum, 

rival. Notare scripta is rather a remark- 
able inversion for scribere notas. Miller 
thinks some lines have dropped out before 
25, expressive of hope that the poet may 
be restored to favour; and he marks a 
lacuna accordingly. 

27.] Quum. So Jacob and Hertzberg 
from Pucci. The MS. Gron. has que, the 
Naples MS. guem. Lachmann, Barth, and 
Kuinoel edit gwos, which is not likely to 
be the true reading. Compare vy. 15, and 
i. ὃ, 27. Odi is used absolutely; ἀπέπ- 

29.] The sense is, ‘difficulties and ob- 
stacles only enhance the enjoyment.’ For 
Graia the MSS. give grata, which was 
corrected by Palmer. 

31.] Restat, τ, 6. resistit. 

32.] Maxima, longe majora quam illi. 

35.] This verse, as Hertzberg well ob- 
serves, contains a more serious expostula- 
tion than his somewhat playful assertion 
in the former part of the elegy, that he is 
gratified by her violence: ‘Consider your- 
self fortunate that there is no other as 
handsome as yourself; otherwise it may 
be that your pride would tempt me to 
leave you.’ 

87.] The MSS. of Propertius agree in 
tendist?, but the editors adopt newisti from 
Priscian and Diomede the grammarians, 
the latter of whom has ‘Mecenas; newisti 

retia lecta,’ while the former quotes our 
poet. ‘There appears to be no authority 
for the unreduplicated form of perfect, 

38.] Socer. A father-in-law is natu- 
rally severe against the faithless husband 
of his daughter. Is it therefore to be in- 
ferred that the poet’s rival was a married 

39.] Cui, i.e..nam tibi. ‘If she has 
granted you favours, ’tis merely to spite 
me, not through regard for you.’ An 
amiable sentiment, certainly. Fwrari noc- 
tem implies stealing an opportunity, and 
in some degree exonerates Cynthia by lay- 
ing the blame on the rival. 

40.] Offensa. The Naples MS. has 
offensam, which reading arose from not 
understanding the right accusative (copiam 
noctis) to dedit. 

IX. The poet pays a judicious and 
elegant compliment to Mecenas, who had 
urged him to write heroic verse, by pro- 
posing to himself to follow the example of 
that great man. For while the highest 
honours of the state were within his reach, 
he contented himself with the title of 
Eques. The argument much resembles 
ii. 1, and it cannot be doubted that the 
poet received frequent and urgent requests 
from his patron to try another style of 





LIBER IV. 9 (8). 


Intra fortunam qui cupis esse tuam, 

Quid me scribendi tam vastum mittis in equor? 
Non sunt apta mez grandia vela rati. 

Turpe est, quod negueas, capiti committere pondus, 5 
Et pressum inflexo mox dare terga genu. 

Omnia non pariter rerum sunt omnibus apta, 

Fama nec ex equo ducitur ulla jugo. 
Gloria Lysippo est animosa effingere signa ; 
Exactis Calamis se mihi jactat equis. 10 
In Veneris tabula summam 5101 ponit Apelles ; 
Parrhasius parva vindicat arte locum. 

composition. Whether this desire arose 
from his own indifference to amatory ele- 
giac compositions, or from a wish to see 
all the poetic talent of the age devoted to 
the praises of Cesar, it is not important to 

2.1 Intra fortunam, ‘limites fortune 
tuz non egredi, contentum esse sorte tua.’ 
—Barth. Compare Tacitus, Amn. 111. 30. 

5.] Quod nequeas. Though the mind 
naturally supplies ferre, it is perhaps more 
correct to regard the verb nequeo as used 
transitively, like posse aliquid. Certainly 
Barth is wrong in understanding jure com- 

6.] Jacob reads pesswm with Pucci. 
Hertzberg approves of this, but retains the 
vulgate. Their reason is, that dare terga 
being, as it were, an established expression 
for aufugere, was not likely to have been 
used in this instance for declinare or sub- 
mittere tergum. But the objection arises 
from being the ‘slave of words’ rather 
than looking at the sense of the passage as 
a whole. The addition of presswm and in- 
fiexo genu absolutely fixes the sense of dare 
terga, ἐνδιδόναι, ‘to give in;’ indeed, the 
notion of flight could hardly occur to a 
reader engaged in contemplating the bearer 
of a heavy burden. On the other hand, 
pessum dare terga for ‘totis simul viribus 
fractis concidere’ seems an unheard-of ex- 

7.] Omnia rerum, sc. genera. 

8.] There is a perplexing variety of 
readings in this verse. The MS. Gron. 
gives ‘ Flamma nec eoo ducitur ulla jugo:’ 
the Naples MS. has flamma, but otherwise 
as in the text. The ed. Rheg. ‘Flamma 
nec ex wquo ducitur illa rogo.’ One of 
the inferior MSS. gives palma and clauditur. 
Fama is from Pucci. If the reading given 
above be genuine, it seems hest to follow 

\ (. } : Γ 
Re ὼ Labia ἥν ὃ Cao Aue ἤν: ( Cla Pos 
wh. Was nroril aN Xblacieny fe varcaluns ἘΞ ‘ 

Coo = Phdelree, | 

Kuinoel in explaining eguo jugo by pari 
jugo, to which the preceding pariter in 
some degree seems to point, but much 
more so the tenour of the whole passage. 
‘To be renowned,’ says the poet, ‘you 
must stand alone. You must have no 
rival, no yoke-fellow attached to the same 
ear.’ Lachmann, with the approval of 
Jacob, understands ‘a gentle hill,’ ‘mons 
ascensu facilis,’ comparing v.10, 4, ‘Non 
juvat ex facili lecta corona jugo.’ To say 
nothing of the harshness of the oxymoron, 
‘a level hill,’ or of the unusual sense 
which Hertzberg assigns to it, ‘the same 
hill with any other,’ (diversa sunt juga 
unde diverse fame ducuntur,’) the meta- 
phor of the yoke seems so appropriate in 
itself and so naturally suggested by the 
epithet, that it certainly would have first 
presented itself to the mind of a reader. 
Barth’s explanation is no better than the 
others: ‘Idem nomen eademque laus non 
manat ex eodem fonte, ex eadem arte.’ 

9.7 Animosa, ‘spirited,’ ‘expressive.’ 
He was a famous worker in bronze, and 
was fond of representing Hercules and his 
supposed descendant Alexander.—Calamis 
was chiefly renowned for the finish he 
gave to equestrian statuary; but it is 
evident from Pausanias, who frequently 
describes his works, that he did not confine 
himself to this department of the art. On 
the use of mht, see 1. 5, 8. 

11.] Swmmam sibi ponit, regards as his 
chef d’ euvre, as we say; lit. places his 
highest effort, or effect, in his picture of 
Venus. ‘Summam artis sue in Veneris 
tabula positam ipse Apelles judicat.’— 

12.] Parva arte, i.e. in small groups, 
or, as we say, cabinet pictures. Pliny, 
N. H. xxxv. 10, distinctly says ‘ pinxit et 
minoribus tabellis libidines, eo genere petu- 





Argumenta magis sunt Mentoris addita forme ; 
At Myos exiguum flectit acanthus iter. 
Phidiacus signo se Juppiter ornat eburno ; 15 
Praxitelen propria vindicat urbe apis. 
Est quibus Eleze concurrit palma quadrige ; 
Est quibus in celeres gloria nata pedes. 
Hic satus ad pacem; hic castrensibus utilis armis: 
Naturee sequitur semina quisque sue. 20 
At tua, Meecenas, vitee praecepta recepi, 
Cogor et exemplis te superare tuis. 

lantis joci se reficiens.’ He also states in 
the same passage that this artist was the 
first who attended to minute details,—‘ ar- 
gutias vultus, elegantiam capilli, venus- 
tatem oris,’ which may perhaps be included 
in the meaning of parva ars. That Hertz- 
berg should approve Lachmann’s conjec- 
ture, jocum for locum, on the strength of 
the above passage, is surprising. Without 
having recourse to Jacob’s explanation, 
‘qui locum sibi vindicat, reliquos omnes 
inde depellit,’ we may naturally and easily 
supply inter swmmos pictores, or those 
artists just enumerated. 

13.] Argumenta, Not single figures, 
but subjects involving groups. ‘ Historic 
fabuleque sculpte, emblemata insculpta.’ 
Barth. Hertzberg well quotes the follow- 
ing from Quintilian, v. 10, 10, ‘Vulgoque 
paullo numerosius opus dicitur argumen- 
tosum.’—forme, his model, or design. 

14.] Dyos. The MSS. corruptly give 
myros, miros, or muros. On this artist see 
Pausan. i. 28, 2. Like Mentor, his practice 
was toreutic (celatum opus). ‘His acan- 
thus,’ says the poet, ‘curves in short and 
delicately crisp foliage,’ viz. round the 
handles of vases and goblets. 

15.] Ornat se is a harsh, but not unin- 
telligible expression for ornatw. This is, 
in fact, a Propertian idiom, as domus se 
sustulit, v. 1,9; ara se vindicat, ib. 9, 56. 
The notion is, that the god condescends to 
exhibit to man his most graceful form in 
the Olympian statue made by Phidias. 
Hertzberg is too refined in his explanation. 
He thinks Phidiacus Jupiter is the ideal 
god, as conceived in the artist’s mind, and 
afterwards embodied in wood or stone. 
Lachmann gives up the verse as hopeless, 
and according to his custom incloses it 
with brackets as spurious. 

16.] This verse is difficult. For propria 
Broukhusius conjectured Paria, and _ so 
Barth, Kuinoel, and Lachmann. -— apis 

propria urbe (oriundus) seems to mean the 
native Pentelic marble of Athens, (of which 
place Praxiteles was a citizen), as opposed 
to the imported marbles of Paros. This 
marble is said to ‘claim him for its own,’ 
as if his hand alone could do justice to it. 
Hertzberg proposes venditat, and patria 
for propria, z7.e. ‘unice commendat, jactat 
hune;’ but the verb is not a poetical one. 

17.] Est quibus, ἔστιν ois, a bold and 
perhaps unique Grecism.—concurrit, simul 
currit, comitatur; te. ‘there are some 
whom the victory of the chariot always 
attends,’ or perhaps, ‘to whom it is 
congenial.’ Hertzberg, too intent on 
finding new and curious meanings, protests 
against the above, and says, ‘ palma aurigze 
acrius nitenti advolare a meta et obyiam 
concurrere egregie fingitur.’ 

18.] Kuinoel, who is never happy with- 
out his hypallage, explains this verse by 
‘quibus celeres pedes in gloriam nati.’ 
Hertzberg is more scholarlike in his view : 
‘Hoe ait; gloriam quidem omnibus illis, 
qui eam qualicunque modo assequuntur, 
natam esse; indolem tantum differre, qua 
comparetur. Itaque aut ingenio aut ma- 
nibus aut adeo pedibus eam tribui et his 
partibus (sive in has partes), prout quisque. 
excellat, natam videri.’ The literal sense 
is, ‘There are others to whom glory was 
born for their swiftness of foot;’ Gr. ἐπ᾽ 
ὠκέσι τοῖς ποσὶ, in other words, ‘whom 
glory was destined to await in the foot- 

21.] Tua vite precepta, ‘ad que tu 
vitam tuam dirigis.—Hertzberg. cogor is 
explained by the same editor as implying 
the will was greater than the ability on the 
part of Mecenas to remain in privacy. 
The sense seems rather to be, ‘I am forced, 
by natural inferiority, to go beyond you in 
the example you set,’ viz. since you have 
the genius to succeed in your undertakings, 
which I have not. Ξ 

bah ote 

hr Na 

LIBER IV. 9 (8). 167 

Cum tibi Romano dominas in honore secures 
Et liceat medio ponere jura foro, 

Vel tibi Medorum pugnaces ire per hostes, 


Atque onerare tuam fixa per arma domum, 

Et tibi ad effectum vires det Ceesar, et omni 
Tempore tam faciles insinuentur opes ; 

Parcis, et in tenues humilem te colligis umbras ; 
Velorum plenos subtrahis ipse sinus. 30 

Crede mihi, magnos equabunt ista Camullos 
Judicia, et venies tu quoque in ora virum, 

Ceesaris et famze vestigia juncta tenebis : 
Meecenatis erunt vera tropza fides. 

Non ego velifera tumidum mare findo carina: 35 
Tuta sub exiguo flumine nostra mora est. 

Non flebo in cineres arcem sedisse paternos 

23.] Cum, i.e. cum enim &c., the apo- 
dosis being at vy. 29. It is more probable 
that swmere is to be supplied to the word 
secures than ponere literally interpreted, 
‘statuere, ut faciunt lictores cum in foro 
cum securibus apparent.’—Barth. ponere 
jura like our phrase ‘to lay down the law,’ 
would thus be used in a somewhat different 
sense, of those who have supreme authority 
to legislate for others. Compare y. 4, 11; 
iv. 11,46. It is a nice question, in cases 
like the present, whether the verb actually 
bears two meanings or a second verb is left 
to be mentally suggested by the first. Cf. 
1ν- 7, 29. 

25.] Medorum hostes, i.e. hostes qui ex 
Medis constant. Or the ‘enemies of the 
Medes’ may mean the Parthian or Bactrian 
peoples. Hertzberg seems to approve 
Lachmann’s tasteless conjecture astus, 7. 6. 
‘astutam Parthorum fugam,’ vy. 54. Miiller 
reads hastas, after Markland. 

28.] Insinuentur, in sinum tuum fun- 

31.] ‘This resolve of yours will be 
placed on a level with the great Camilli, 
and you as well as they shall live in 
posterity.’ The plural is used, because 
there were several of the same name, 
though only one was particularly illus- 

34.] Fides. His fidelity to Cesar. It 
may be inferred from this passage that 
Meecenas was not personally fond of mili- 
tary exploits. 

35,] This verse is wanting in the Naples 
MS., and the rare licence of the short ὁ in 

Jindo has made some critics doubt its genu- 

36.] Nostra mora. ‘Moram de loco 
dicit, non de tempore.’—Lachmann. The 
MS. Gron. has ratis, which is a correction ; ἢ 
but it alone preserves tuta; the others’ 
have tota, which Jacob in an unusually | 
long note defends. But what is there | 
either obscure or objectionable in the poet © 
saying, ‘I lie safe under shelter of a little 
stream’? The metaphor is obviously 
borrowed from one who anchors near the 
mouth of a river into which he may run 
for shelter ina storm. The Greeks called 
this ὕφορμος. Lachmann is altogether 
wrong in the following remark: ‘ Pro- 
pertium recte se sub flwmine morari dicere, 
cum pars nayigii sub aqua sit.’ 

87.1 Non flebo &e. “1 do not intend to 
sing in mournful strains the destruction of 
Thebes and Troy.’ ‘Paterni cineres sunt 
cineres bellis civilibus conflati. Nam pa- 
ternus est patrius, t.e. ad patriam pertinens. 
Hor. Od. i. 20, 5, ‘paterni fluminis ripa.’ 
Inf. y. 2, 2, ‘Accipe Vertumni signa pa- 
terna dei.’’—Hertzberg: who admits the 
conjecture of Passerat, septem for semper. 
So also Keil and Miiller. The latter word 
implies that in several engagements neither 
side gained any advantage. But there is 
much probability in the correction, which 
Jacob also approves: ‘septem ab utraque 
parte cecidisse duces, eaque dici prelia, 
non est quod moneam.’ Barth supposes 
the proverb Καδμεία νίκη to haye been in 
the poct’s mind. 

μου ΚΓ ΝΣ 

᾿ΑΙ]αβίοπ being to Philctas. 



Cadmi, nec semper preelia clade pari; 
Nec referam Sceeas et Pergama Apollinis arces, 

Et Danaum decimo vere redisse rates, 


Meenia cum Graio Neptunia pressit aratro 
Victor Palladize lgneus artis equus. 

Inter Callimachi sat erit placuisse libellos, 
Et cecinisse modis, Dore poeta, tuis. 

Hee urant pueros, hee urant scripta puellas ; 


Meque Deum clament, et mihi sacra ferant. 

Te duce vel Jovis arma canam, celoque minantem 
Coeum et Phlegreeis Oromedonta jugis ; 

Celsaque Romanis decerpta Palatia tauris 

Ordiar, et caso 
Eductosque pares 

moenia firma Remo; 
silvestri ex ubere reges; 

Crescet et ingenium sub tua jussa meum. 
Prosequar et currus utroque ab litore ovantes, 

41.] Pressit aratro, 1.6, effecit, ut ‘im- 
primeret muris hostile aratrum exercitus 
insolens. The wooden horse is called 
‘the work of Pallas’ from Od. viii. 493, 
τὸν ᾿Επειὸς ἐποίησεν σὺν ᾿Αθήνῃ. Brouk- 
huis reads arces here and artes in y. 39, in 
both places followed by Barth and Kuinoel, 
as also in his useless correction wndecimo 
for decimo. 

44.] Keil and Miiller, with Lachmann 
and Jacob, edit Coé poeta from Pucci. The 
MSS. give dure, whence Scriverius in- 

+ geniously conjectured Dore, which Barth, 

Kuinoel, and Hertzberg rightly adopt, the 
Compare Brit- 
anna for Britannica, ii. 1, 76, Lydus for 
Lydius, ν. 9, 48. So Parthus, Indus, for 
Parthicus &e. 

45.] Hee urant. The Gron. and Naples 
MSS. ize curant. The reading of Barth 
and Kuinoel, hae pueri curent (curent pueri, 
Barth) is from Pucci. The verse is rightly 
printed in the edition of 1488. 

47.] Ze duce. Not te jubente, but te 
praeunte, ‘when you live less modestly, 
then I will write more boldly.’ 

48.] Oromedonta. The MSS. agree in 
this form of the word, which occurs also 
in Theoeritus, vii. 45, except that the 
Naples MS. (according to Miiller) gives 
oromodunta, ‘lhe uncertainty of the ety- 
mology renders it suspicious, and Hertz- 
berg is probably right in restoring Fwiy- 
medonta from Od. vii. 68, on the suggestion 
of Huschk, The other form, however, 

Jiuet, iv. 4, 4. 

though a corrupt one, is possibly as old as 

49.] Celsa Palatia, a poetic exaggera- 
tion, as in y. 9, 8, ‘ venit ad eductos peco- 
rosa Palatia montis.’—/irma, firmata. 

51.] Ordiar. The future seems to be 
used, because his historic poems in the 
fifth book were juvenile performances which 
he does not now take into account. 

52.] Crescet sub tua jussa, 1. 6. altius 
ascendet donec sub tua jussa venerit, ut 
Cesaris res gestas canat. The expression 
is a brief one, but not very obscure. It 
may be compared with esse in partes, v. 60, 
καθίστασθαι ἐς τρόπους. So ‘in castra re- 
ponere,’ v. 4,387. Compare sub tua jura 
Hertzberg’s comment is as 
follows: ‘Hoc ait, se non aliter suum 
scribendi institutum mutaturum esse, nisi _ 
cum Meecenas vivendi rationem mutaverit, 
Tum demum illo duce majora se ausurum.’ 
But it is not easy to assent to his view, 
that sub tua jussa means, ‘si sub tuum 
imperium. carmine perventum foret;’ %.e. 

‘if my epic were to be continued from the 
foundation of the city to your times.’ 
What imperium had Mecenas? Or what 
authority is there for this use of jussa ? 

53.] Utrogue ab litore, From the ex- 
treme east to the extreme west inclusive ; 
the whole Roman empire. The same phrase 
occurs in Georgie iii. 38.—Prosequar, ἢ. 6. 
carmine: but there is a sort of play on the 

σας σ΄ 



LIBER IV. 10 (9). 


Parthorum astute tela remissa fuge ; 

Castraque Pelusi Romano subruta ferro, 55 

Antonique graves in sua fata manus. 

Mollis tu cceptee fautor cape lora juvente, 
Dexteraque inmissis da mihi signa rotis. 

Hoc mihi, Mecenas, laudis concedis; et a te est, 
Quod ferar in partes ipse fuisse tuas. 


Mirabar quidnam misissent mane Camene, 
Ante meum stantes sole rubente torum. 
Natalis nostre signum misere puelle, 

. Et manibus faustos ter crepuere sonos. 
¢sTranseat hic sine nube dies, stent aére venti, Ὁ 
ΟΝ Ponat et in sicco molliter unda minas. ae 

ey Adspiciam nullos hodierna luce dolentes, 
Et Niobes lacrimas supprimat ipse lapis. 

δ4.1 Remissa fuge, ‘unstrung for a 
crafty flight, ze. to be used against the 
enemy by suddenly turning round.’ Virg. 
Georg. ii. 31, ‘ fidentemque fuga Parthum 
versisque sagittis.’ 

55.] Castra Pelusi. Lachmann, Barth, 
and Kuinoel read claustra, the conjecture 
of Lipsius. Pelusium was regarded as 
commanding access to Egypt by land, and 
was therefore destroyed by Octavian. 
Castra here means the garrison or fort; 
more commonly castellwm. 

57—60.] The meaning of the conclud- 

ing verses is this: ‘ Though disinclined to 
-write historical poems, still if you my 
patron insist upon it, and will engage to 

regard them favourably if unequal to your 
expectations, I will consent, conscious that 
at least you cannot deny me the credit of 

_ having taken the side of humility, like 

_yourself.’—quod ferar, ‘that I shall be said 
_to have myself joined your side,’ in partes 

tuas accessisse. ‘Hos honores mihi ha- 
bendos tu solus concedis, quod tuum ex- 
emplum secutus res magnas non affectare 
predicabor.’—Lachmann ; who transposes 
the last distich after v. 46. 

58.] Inmissis rotis, ‘when my car is in 
full career.’ A metaphor from the circus, 

Aleyonum positis requiescant ora querellis ; 
Increpet absumptum nec sua mater Ityn. 

where the drivers received signs of en- 
couragement from the spectators, and par- 
tizans of the factions, fautores. 

X. This charming little poem seems to 
have been sent as a birthday compliment 
to Cynthia. It breathes a fondness which 
could only haye found such expression in 
sincerity : nor must we measure its mo- 
rality by any other than a heathen standard. 

4.] Ter crepuere, 1.6. by clapping their 
hands thrice they made a joyous sound, or 
brought tidings of a happy event, the 
birth-day of my dear girl. For misere we 
should have expected tulere. 

6.] In sicco, ἐν χέρσῳ, ποτὶ ἕξερὸν 
ἠπείροιο, Od. ν. 402. When there is a 
storm, the whole shore is wet; in a calm 
the sand is dry to the water’s edge. Pliny, 
Ep. ii. 17, 27, ‘ipso litore—quod non nun- 
quam longa tranquillitas mollit, sepius 
frequens et contrarius fluctus indurat.’ 

8.] Hertzberg reads Niobe with the 
Naples MS., comparing, though hardly 
parallel, Lerne palus, 111. 18, 48, and Hom. 
11. χχῖν. 617, ἔνθα λίθος περ ἐοῦσα θεῶν 
ἐκ κήδεα πέσσει. Jacob gives Niobes from 
MS. Gron. and Pucci. The others Niobe. 

Niche Ἔ Κα nae? (- σε Pie ere OS shone on 
a ag Dipyla δ wh: im RLMMIMNer A furans 
sheer Harr 



Tuque, o cara mihi, felicibus edita pennis, 
Surge, et poscentes justa precare Deos. 

Ac primum pura somnum tibi discute lympha, 
Et nitidas presso pollice finge comas. . 

Dein qua primum oculos cepisti veste Properti, 15 

Indue, nee vacuum flore relinque caput; 
Et pete, qua polles, ut sit tibi forma perennis, 
Inque meum semper stent tua regna caput. 
Inde coronatas ubi ture piaveris aras, 

Luxerit et tota flamma secunda domo, 


Sit mense ratio, noxque inter pocula currat, 
Et crocino nares murreus ungat onyx. 
Tibia nocturnis succumbat rauca choreis, 
Et sint nequitiz libera verba tue ; 

Dulciaque ingratos adimant convivia somnos ; 

Publica vicinze perstrepat aura vie. 
Sit sors et nobis talorum interprete jactu, 
Quem gravibus pennis verberet ille Puer. 
Cum fuerit multis exacta trientibus hora, 

11.] Pennis, 7.e. omine, ‘born with a 
lucky omen.’ So the Greeks use πτερόν. 
See on Asch. Ag. 267. 

12.] Poscentes, scil. invocari. Compare 
ii. 1, 11, and Ovid, Fast. 1, ult. ‘Ad pia 
propensos yota vocate deos.’—justa precare, 
de. talia quae concessuri sint dii. Or per- 
haps justa poscentes, should be joined, ‘the 
gods who are expecting from you the 
worship that is due.’ 

13.] Somnum discute. Some understand 
this of the usual washing in running water 
to avert the ill effects of a dream (Persius, 
ii. 16). But the poet seems to have nothing 
more in view than the common-place, 
though very elegantly expressed, details 
of everyday life; ‘rise, say your prayers, 
wash yourself, and put on that silk tunic 
(see on 1. 2, 2; ii. 1, 5) which I admired 
when I first saw you.’—/inge &e., ‘put 
into shape those glossy locks by the pres- 
sure of your finger.’ 

17—18.] This beautiful distich is want- 
ing in the Naples MS. probably on account 
of caput ending vy. 16. 

19.] Piaveris, ‘when you have per- 
formed the holy rite with incense on the 
'; festooned altar.’ Piare is a favourite word 
‘with the poet.—/Juxerit (luceo), because 
favourable omens were derived from the 
brightness of the flame. 

22.] Crocino, κροκίνῳ, sc. unguento, 
essence of saffron. On the word murreus 
see v. 5, 26.—onyx was properly a kind of 
marble; here used for the gallipot itself. 
So Hor. iv. 12,16, ‘nardi parvus onyx 
eliciet cadum.’—wngat, unguenti odore 

23.] Succumbat. ‘Deficiat tibicen et 
impar sit saltationibus nimis productis.’— 
Barth. ‘Let the hoarse piper give in, 
wearied with the nightly dance, and let 
there be free expression of the warmth of 
your amorous feelings’ (neguitie). 

26.] Publica aura, i.e. non modo privata 
domus intus strepat, sed exterior aura vie 
in qua populus versatur. The sense is, 
‘let the noise of our convivial party be 
heard by the people in the streets; lit. ‘let 
the very air in the public streets near the 
house ring with the festive sounds.’ The 
expression is a singular one, and the more 
so because pudlica in point of sense belongs 
rather to vie. 

28.] Sit sors &e. ‘Let us try our luck 
too by a throw of the dice to tell us (in- 
terprete) which of the company is smitten 
by the heavy wings of the boy-god’ 
(Cupid). By gravibus pennis he means 
that the blow is heavily felt, Κύπρις γὰρ 
οὐ φορητὸς ἢν πολλὴ ῥυῇ, Eur. Hipp. 448, 
and so Plato speaks of φέρειν τὸ τοῦ 


LIBER IV. 11 (10). 

Noctis et instituet sacra ministra Venus, 


Annua solvamus thalamo sollemnia nostro, 
Natalisque tui sic peragamus iter. 


Quid mirare, meam si versat femina vitam, 
Et trahit addictum sub sua jura virum, 
Criminaque ignavi capitis mihi turpia fingis, 

Quod nequeam fracto rumpere vincla jugo ? 

Venturam melius presagit navita noctem: 5 

Vulneribus didicit miles habere metum. 
Ista ego preterita jactavi verba juventa ; 

Tu nunc exemplo disce timere meo. 
Colchis flagrantis adamantina sub juga tauros 

πτερωνύμου ἄχθος, Phedr. p. 252, c. The 
custom alluded to is that described in Hor. 
Od.i. 27, 10. See also Becker’s Gallus, 
p. 129, &e. The ¢riens, according to the 
same authority, contained four cyathi, or 
ladles-full; the sextarius being divided 
into twelve parts, like the as. 

30.] Construe xoctis sacra, ‘when Venus 
our attendant shall bring on the nightly 
mysteries,’ ὦ. 6. of lovers. 

31.] ‘Ipsis igitur natalibus Cynthie 
amores junxerant; eoque ipso die puella, 
uno anno ante tunicam ostrinam induta, 
dum ad Vestz precatum it, Propertii oculos 
ceperat (iii. 21, 26). Vides, cur preces et 
sacra nunc quoque dii poscant.’— Hertzberg. 
This is surely a gratuitous assumption. 
All that the poet says is this: ‘let us 
finish the birthday with mutual endear- 
ments,’ &c. Barth appears to interpret 
the concltiding verse aright; ‘ peragere iter 
natalis est celebrare diem natalem cum 
longus est. Iter natalis dicitur, ut alibi 
iter lucis, mortis, vite.’ Lachmann, who 
reads ter for sic, from the MS. Gron., as- 
signs a widely different and less becoming 

sense to the passage. 

XI. This elegy, addressed probably to 
one of those friends who had endeavoured 
to draw him away from his unworthy 
attachment, commences with a justification 
of his conduct, by showing that the great- 
est heroes have been equally enslaved. 
Having quoted among other instances the 
example of Antony and Cleopatra, he runs 
off in rather a desultory but splendidly 
poetical strain to compliment Ceasar on 

haying rid Rome of one whom he seems to 
have regarded as a sort of female monster. 
See lib. vy. 6, and compare especially Horace, 
Od.i. 37. One might conjecture that our 
poet here attempted to gratify Mecenas by 
giving a specimen of his capability for 
historic subjects. Kuinoel has a fancy 
that two elegies are combined in one, and 
places a mark of separation at v.28. In 
the ed. Rheg. the division is fixed at νυ. 21. 

2.1 Addictum, t.e. as an 

to be sold as a slave trans Tiberim, 
v. 32. 

5.] Noctem. This reading is given as 
a conjecture by Pucci. The good copies 
have mortem, which Miller retains. The 
sense is, ‘As a sailor knows by experience 
the approach of a storm and its accompany- 
ing dangers, better than a landsman, and a 
wounded soldier has more cause to fear the 
conflict, so does a lover more clearly foresee 
the risks and the difficulties of contending 
against Cupid.’ 

7.] Ista &e. ‘What you say to me, 
I used to say in my youth’ (viz. that it 
was easy to get rid of love’s yoke); but let 
my example now teach you to fear lest you 
should yourself some day find it to be far 

9.] The poet proceeds to say, that 
Medea, Omphale, and others, (for he men- 
tions the women rather than the men, as 
more aptly introductory to the chief point 
of the poem, the case of Cleopatra), ex- 
ercised a powerful influence on the most 
renowned heroes, Jason, Hercules, Ninus; 
nay, that gods and heroes (27) were equally 

insolvent ἢ 
debtor is formally made over to a creditor, | 

οὐ ἢ 


Egit, et armigera proelia sevit humo, 



Custodisque feros clausit serpentis hiatus, 
τοῦ ut Asonias aurea lana domos. 

Ausa ferox ab equo quondam oppugnare. sagittis 
Meotis Danaum Penthesilea rates ; 

Aurea cui postquam nudavit cassida frontem, 


Vicit victorem candida forma virum. 
Omphale in tantum forme processit honorem, 
Lydia Gygzeo tincta puella lacu, 
Ut, qui pacato statuisset in orbe columnas, 

Tam dura traheret molla pensa manu. 


Persarum statuit Babylona Semiramis urbem, 
Ut solidum cocto tolleret aggere opus, 
Et duo in adversum missi per mecenia currus, 

susceptible. But the argument is not 
clearly stated; for in the case of Medea 
and Semiramis he describes what they did, 
leaving the reader to trace out the con- 
nexion of their acts with the love of those 
heroes.—adamantina juga, a mere poetical 
expression for strong and unbending. ‘The 
material Hertzberg with others regards as 
iron or steel. I have suggested on y. 11, 
4, that the word originally meant basalt. 

10.] Prelia sevit, ‘sparsit dentes dra- 
conis, unde nati armati inter se dimicarunt.’ 

13.] The legend was, that Penthesilea, 
queen of the Amazons, haying come to 
assist the Trojans, was slain by Achilles, 
who on removing her war-cap or helmet 
was enraptured by her beauty. This was 
a not uncommon subject with the painters 
of the early Greek vases. According to 
Homer, 71. iii. 189, the Amazons seem to 
have fought against the Trojans at a time 
anterior to the Trojan war.—For guondam 
Lachmann and others give contra, which 
is only found in one of the inferior MSS. 
—virum, {.6. the man felt and acknowledged 
the beauty of the woman. 

15.] Cassida. A rare form of the 
nominative, for which Hertzberg’s note 
will supply the student with sufficient 
authority. Dr. Donaldson (Varronianus, 
p. 155) quotes cassi/a as the ancient Etrus- 
can word. ‘The use of nudavit, i.e. abrepta 
fecit ut nudaretur, belongs to an idiom 
pointed out on iy. 22, 22. 

17.] Omphale et in Lachmann, Barth, 
Kuinoel from a single copy of inferior 

note. The hiatus, though remarkable, ap- 
pears genuine. Common as an open yowel 
is when the ictus falls on it, there are but 
few instances of it under the present cir- 
cumstances.—in tantum forme honorem 
processit, és τοσοῦτον ἀφίκετο κάλλους, 
tam formosa fuit. 

18.] Gyg@o lacu. See Herod. i. 93. 
Γυγαίη λίμνη was the name eyen in 
Homer’s time, 1. ii. 865. It was called 
after Gyges king of Lydia, in which country 
it was situated. On tineta see on i. 6, 32. 
Barth rightly explains ‘ lota.’ 

19.] Statuisset should rather be statu- 
erat ; but the relative clause is affected by 
ut traheret. 

21.] The poet, in mentioning Semiramis, 
leaves that part of her history which he 
must have had in mind without even an 
allusion. She is said to have been the 
wife of one of the king’s generals, but to 
have inspired the king (Ninus) with such 
a passion that he obtained her, as David 
did Bathsheba, by putting her husband to 
death. It was by her counsels, it is said, 
that the Assyrians were enabled to take 
Bactra after a long siege. The building of 
Babylon &c. is here spoken of as an in- 
stance of the influence obtained by women 
in carrying out the greatest works, such as 
their husbands would never have effected 

23.] Lachmann and Hertzberg rightly 
admit mdsst from the Naples and Gron. 
MSS. Jacob gives mis’t from Pucci, and 
so Kuinoel. Barth tnmissi, on what au- 
thority does not appear. 

LIBER IV. 11 (10). 173 

Ne possent tacto stringere ab axe latus. 

Duxit et Euphratem medium, qua condidit arces, 


Jussit et imperio surgere Bactra caput. 

Nam quid ego heroas, quid raptem in crimine divos 7 
Juppiter infamat seque suamque domum. 

Quid? modo qu nostris opprobria vexerat armis, 

Et famulos inter femina trita suos 7 


Conjugis obsceni pretium Romana poposcit 
Meenia, et addictos in sua regna patres. 

Noxia Alexandrea, dolis aptissima tellus, 
Et totiens nostro, Memphi, cruenta malo, 

Tres ubi Pompeio detraxit 

24.] Ne possent. For ita ut non possent ; 
an incorrect usage where the consequence 
and not the purpose is expressed. The 
meaning is, two chariots could be driven 
past each other on the top of the wall 
without collision. See Herod. i. 179.—adb 
may be considered as redundant, as in iy. 
2, 23. : 

25.] Medium. See Herod. i. 180. 

26.] Lachmann reads subdere, the con- 
jecture of the elder Burmann. Miller 
adopts, Hertzberg and Jacob approve with- 
out admitting it. It does not indeed ac- 
cord with history to represent Bactra as 
the head of the Assyrian empire at that or 
any other time. But Hertzberg remarks 
on the uncertainty and the difficulty of 
reconciling conflicting Eastern legends; 
and he concludes that our poet probably 
᾿ς followed authors now lost. It is more 
| natural and reasonable to refer the state- 
| ment to the want of accurate information 
' on Eastern history and geography. We 
_may acquiesce in Barth’s brief comment, 
_‘yoluit urbem primariam esse totius im- 

perii;’ swrgere not being put for edificari, 
but implying subsequent aggrandisement. 
27.] Raptem in crimine, ‘assail the 
gods under the same charge.’ So MSS. 
Gron., Naples; erimina Pucci. Barth 
and Hertzberg alone defend the former, 
It is, however, fully as good, while it has 
more authority, and was more likely to 
have been changed to crimina by the tran- 
scribers than the converse. On vraptem 
Hertzberg remarks: ‘Judiciale verbum 
proprie est raptare. Hine in accusandi et 
convitiandi notionem transiit.’ In the 
acrostich argument to the Amphitryo of 
Plautus we have ‘invicem raptant pro 
meechis.’—infamat, viz. by his amours. 
29.] The best copies have vexerit. 

arena triumphos ! 


30.] Zrita, a coarse insinuation, that 
Cleopatra was too familiar with her own 
slaves and eunuchs. Hor. Od. i. 37, 9, 
‘contaminato cum grege turpium morbo 

31.] Lachmann reads conjugi et, Miiller, 
Barth, and Kuinoel conjugii, both against 
the MSS., which agree in conjugis. The 
sense is, ‘As the price to be paid by her 
debased and degenerate husband Antony 
she demanded Rome itself.’ In other 
words, she made Antony promise to sub- 
ject Rome to her dominions. ‘Pretium 
conjugis, quod conjux dat.’—Jacob. Com- 
pare v. 4, ὅθ, ‘dos tibi non humilis pro- 
dita Roma venit.’ Barth rightly observes, 
‘alludit ad matrimonium per coemptionem,’ 
ἢ. 6. per es et libram. See Becker, Gallus, 
p. 167. Antony was ‘emancipatus femine,’ 
sold to a woman, Hor. Hpod. 9,12. The 
reader will observe that the popular notion 
of Cleopatra’s beauty, elegance, and fasci- 
nations, is not borne out by the account of 
Propertius, who regards her simply as a 
lewd and abandoned woman, lost to all 
sense of shame, or even decency. 

34.] Toties, i.e. the murder of Pompey 
on the shore by the treachery of Ptolemy, 
the siege of Julius Cesar in the Alex- 
andrine war, and the factions in favour of 

35,] Detraxit tres triumphos. The shore 
itself, where he fell, is said to have stripped 
him of his former glories. There is, per- 
haps, an allusion to gladiators: see on iy. 
14, 17. 
ries over Iarbas, the Pirates, and Mithri-. 
dates.— arena, the African shore, where | 
Pompey was killed by his freedman Po- ᾿ 
snug at his own request, Mart. Zp. v. © 

The three triumphs are the victo-. a 




Tollet nulla dies hane tibi, Roma, notam. 
Issent Phlegrzeo melius tibi funera campo, 

Vel tua si socero colla daturus eras. 
Scilicet incesti meretrix regina Canopi, 

Una Philippeo sanguine adusta nota, 


Ausa Jovi nostro latrantem opponere Anubim, 
Et Tiberim Nili cogere ferre minas, 

Romanamque tubam crepitanti pellere sistro, 
Baridos et contis rostra Liburna sequi, 

Foedaque Tarpeio conopia tendere saxo, 

36.] Notam. He speaks of the death 
of Pompey as a national disgrace, either 
because he was compelled to fly from his 
country, or because sufficient vengeance 
was not exacted for his murder. It is 
clear that his sympathies were strongly on 
the side of that great and unfortunate 
general. Lachmann transfers this verse 
to the place of v.40, which he inserts in 
this place, lest the poet should seem to 
reflect on Augustus. He is sufficiently re- 
futed by Hertzberg. Lachmann’s suppo- 
tion is, that the termination of both verses 
with xota led to the accidental change. 
There might have been some plea in this, 
had the two pentameters been separated 
by a less interval. A still more extravagant 
transposition has been made by the same 
critic placing vv. 67—8 after v. 46. 

37.] Phlegreo campo, i.e. he had better 
have died in the battle of Pharsalia, Com- 
pare Juvenal, x. 283, ‘Provida Pompeio 
dederat Campania febres Optandas; sed 
mult urbes et publica vota Vicerunt’ &c. 
There was a Philegrean (i.e. volcanic) dis- 
trict in Thessaly as well as that better 
known by the name in Campania, the 
scene of the conflict with the giants. See 
Strabo, Excerpt. lib. vii. 12. 

38.] Socero. Julius Cesar, whose 
daughter Julia Pompey had married. 
‘You had better,’ says the poet, ‘have 
entrusted your life and safety to Casar 
after. your defeat by him on the field of 

39.] Incest’, viz. because more than one 

_ of the Ptolemies married their own sisters. 

40.] All the good copies have sanguine 
adusta. Pucci gives sanguini, which Jacob 
admits. The meaning of the poet is rather 
obscure, ‘branded on us by the race of 
Philip,’ z.e. by the Ptolemies. Cf. συ. 11, 
74, ‘ heee cura et cineri spirat inusta meo,’ 
The following is Hertzberg’s view: ‘ Nota 
adusta ad omnem periodum pertinet inde 
ay. 39—46, Turpia regine ausa et mine, 


Romani nominis contemptio, hee wna nota 
est, quam sanguis Philippeus adussit. Cui 
autem, nisi Rome?’ He rightly observes, 
after Lachmann, that the simpler sense of 
the verse, ‘the sole (or peculiar, wea) dis- 
grace indelibly marked upon the Ptolemies,’ 
who boasted their descent from the kings 
of Macedonia, is not borne out by history, 
since that royal house was far from im- 
maculate in many of its members. With- 
out however regarding nota in apposition 
with what follows, we may understand it 
thus: ‘that sole blot on our fair name 
which the race of Philip has ever been 
able to leave.’ It is clear that the poet 
is offended at the impudence of Cleopatra 
fighting with his countrymen, and that he 
regards this fact alone as an ignominy 
hardly atoned for by her signal defeat. 
His detestation of the Egyptians generally 
is evinced by the spite with which he 
ridicules Isis, iii. 25, 4. 

41.] Ausa, supply est. 

44,.] Sequi, διώκειν, ‘to endeavour to 
overtake the sharp-prowed Liburnian 
galleys by a barge propelled with a pole.’ 
This is bitter irony in disparagement of 
the Egyptian fleet. 

45.] Itis rather singular that the mus- 
quito-curtains, now so commonly used in 

Italy, should have excited the wrath of © 
the Romans so greatly in the Augustan | 

age; see Hor. Eyod.ix.16. The circum- 
stance of its being a foreign innovation 
was perhaps enough to rouse their anger; 
for such feelings are common among nar- 
row-minded people to this day. It is 
hardly necessary to add that we derive our 
word canopy from it, which a recent writer 
on etymology has deduced from cannabis, 
‘hemp.’ It is probable that the ‘cono- 
pium’ which gaye such offence was a 
peculiar sort of tent, and not a mere 
curtain; still less, as some have thought, 
used as an Egyptian standard. 



LIBER IV. 11 (10). 

Jura dare et statuas inter et arma Mari! 
Quid nune Tarquini fractas juvat esse secures, 
Nomine quem simili vita superba notat, 

Si mulier patienda fuit ? 

Cape, Roma, triumphum, 
Et longum Augusto salva precare diem. 


Fugisti tamen in timidi vaga flumina Nili; 
Accepere tuze Romula vincla manus. 

Brachia spectavi sacris admorsa colubris, 
Et trahere occultum membra soporis iter. 

‘Non hoc, Roma, fui tanto tibi cive verenda, δὲ 


Dixit, ‘et assiduo lingua sepulta mero,’ 
Septem urbs alta jugis, toto que presidet orbi, 
Femineas timuit territa Marte minas! 

Nune ubi Scipiade classes, 

46.] Ausa—jura dare. ‘She aspired to 
legislate at Rome.’ Hertzberg well ob- 
serves, on the authority of Dio, that τὸ ἐν 
Καπιτωλίῳ δικάσαι was a real wish re- 
peatedly expressed by the Egyptian Queen. 
—On jura dare see y. 11, 18.—arma Mari, 

j z.e. the arms and trophies taken by Marius 
-' and placed in the capitol.—sfatvas must 
“not be connected with the same genitive, 
as Hertzberg well observes that before 
Julius Czsar’s statue was erected, none but 
kings, with the single exception of Brutus, 
were allowed that honour. 

48.] Quem—notat, Whose life of pride 
made him notorious by the just title of 

51.] Timidi Nii. As if the river feared 

to receive her, lest it should experience 
Ceesar’s wrath. See υ. 6, 63. 
52.] Romula vinela, like Horatia pila, 

sup. iv. 3. 7. 
53.] On the metrical licence see on Υ. 
4, 48. It may be questioned if brachia 
was not pronounced as a dissyllable. The 
death of Cleopatra, commonly attributed 
ἢ to an asp, is of doubtful authority. Strabo, 
‘lib. xvii. cap. i. gives another, but scarcely 
more probable account: λαβὼν (Καῖσαρ) 
ἐξ ἐφόδου τὴν πόλιν, ἠνάγκασε τὸν μὲν 
᾿Αντώνιον ἑαυτὸν διαχειρίσασθαι, τὴν δὲ 
Κλεοπάτραν ζῶσαν ἐλθεῖν εἰς τὴν ἐξουσίαν. 
Μικρὸν δ᾽ ὕστερον κἀκείνη ἑαυτὴν ἐν τῇ 
φρουρᾷ διεχειρίσατο λάθρα δήγματι ἂσ- 
mldos, ἢ φαρμάκῳ ἐπιχρίστῳ: λέγεται γὰρ 
ἀμφότερα. The commentators suppose, on 
the testimony of Plutarch, Anton. cap. 86, 
that an effigy of Cleopatra was carried in 
the triumph. The disappointment of the 


ubi signa Camilli, 

victor at not being able to exhibit the living 
reality is expressed vy. 6, 63—6. 

54.] Occultum soporis iter. ‘Pro ipso 
sopore tacite adrepente dictum. ’-- Hertzberg. 
trahere, perhaps for contrahere, ‘I saw the 
sleep of death contract her limbs;’ or, as 
others understand it, ‘I saw her limbs 
take in the subtle poison that caused the 
sleep of death.’ The exact construction of 
trahere is not clear. 

55—6.] Jacob explains this distich, 
with the approval of Hertzberg :—‘ Hoc 
tanto cive non ego, O Roma, timenda fui, 
nec Antonius vinositate delirans.’ This is 
quite satisfactory. The dying words of 
the unfortunate and much-abused queen 
are here made to pay Augustus a com- 
pliment: ‘You need not, Romans! have 
brought me to this. There was no danger 
from me while Cesar was your protector.’ 
—sepulta, cf. ‘mentem lymphatam Mareo- 
tico,’ Hor. Carm.i. 37,14. On cive Barth 
rightly remarks, ‘ quia e‘vilis yideri yolebat 
Augustus. Cf. Ovid, Zrist. iv. 4, 13’— 
With this ablative absolute compare parva 
urbe, γ. 1, 33.—fui is from Pucci; the 
MSS. give fuit. The reading of Barth, 
Lachmann, and Kuinoel, non hee, Roma, 
Suit, and nee ducis assiduo &e. is said to 
be found in some copies; but nee appears 
to be from Heinsius’ conjecture. 

57-8.] These lines are ironical. ‘ What! 
Rome fear a woman’s threats!’ &c, Per- 
haps we should read timeat. The latter 
verse is wanting in the Naples MS.—toto, 
see 1. 20, 35. 

67 seqq.] The absence of any verb, and 
the difficulty of supplying one even in the 


Aut modo Pompeia, Bospore, capta manu ? 
Hannibalis spolia et victi monumenta Syphacis 
Et Pyrrhi ad nostros gloria fracta pedes ? 


Curtius expletis statuit monumenta lacunis ; 
At Decius misso preelia rupit equo ; 

Coclitis abscissos testatur semita pontes ; 

68 “ul 
59 BL.203 
60 by Africa 

Est cui cognomen corvus habere dedit. 
Hee di condiderunt, hee di quoque meenia servant: 
Vix timeat, salvo Cesare, Roma Jovem. 
Leucadius versas acies memorabit Apollo. 

Tantum operis belli sustulit una dies. 


At tu, sive petes portus, seu, navita, linques, 
Ceesaris in toto sis memor Ionio. 

mind, may be thought to show the poetic 
ardour and glow of patriotism with which 
the whole of this fine passage was written 
off. The very recurrence of monwmenta in 
v. 61, indicates a furor scribendi. There is 
however no reason to suppose the word 
corrupt in the former verse, with Lach- 
mann, who objects that ‘monumenta ob 
Syphacem devictum nulla Scipioni posita 
fuerunt. For monumentum is anything 
which reminds us (monet) of an event. 
Mr. Wratislaw thinks this couplet is in 
apposition with ‘septem urbs alta jugis,’ 
and places only a comma at minas. The 
general sense will thus be, ‘Here, in our 
Capitol, are the tokens of many victories 
won over mightier enemies than an Egypt- 
ian queen. Rome can boast of her Curtii, 
and her Decii, devoted heads, her Cocles 
and her Corvinus,—and she has now a 
Cesar,’ &c. Miiller marks a lacuna after 
v.60. It is better perhaps to transfer 
67—8 to follow 58, and so place an in- 
terrogation at 60. ‘The sense thus becomes 
quite simple, ‘How Rome must have de- 
scended from her former greatness!’ And 
hee dii condiderunt &c. means that even 
yet we need not despair, for we still have 
Ceesar for our preserver. Barth preserves 
the order of this distich, which has been 
variously transposed by others, and thus 
explains the sense. ‘Fuit ingens olim 
Africani et Camilli et Pompeii gloria, terra 
marique parta: sed nunc in ore hominum 
esse desiit, et quodammodo evanuit, post- 
quam Augustus preelio Actiaco Antonium 

et Cleopatram vicit. Hance victoriam cele- 
brant omnes, et in posterum memorabunt, 
aliarum peene obliti.’ 

68.] Bosphore is the reading of the 
Naples and Gron. MSS. The construc- 
tion appears to be, ‘aut ubi sunt signa 
capta Pompeio apud te, Ὁ Bospore? It 
is not impossible that Bospore was intended 
as an ablative or locative, like Tidure, 
inf, 16, 2. Lachmann unnecessarily reads 
capte. Others adopt the false reading 
Bospora from the ed. Rheg. and some of 
the later copies. But Lachmann rightly 
observes that a Greek word formed from 
πόρος could not have a neuter plural like 
Ismara, Menala, Gargara, which imply an 
obsolete form in w«m.—modo, viz. in the 
recent Mithridatic War. 

65.] Coelitis semita. A pathway so 
called seems to have remained in honour 
of that hero’s exploits at the Sublician 
bridge even to the Augustan age.—For est 
the MSS. give δέ. 

67.] Condiderunt. The MSS. give con- 
diderant, which Jacob attempts to defend, 
and Keil also retains. 

70.1 Zantum operis Ke. ‘So much of 
military achievement has a single day 
taken from the victors.’ That is, one day 
has eclipsed all their warlike deeds. 

72.] The poet bids every sailor to feel 
grateful to Augustus for his glorious victory j 
at Actium. The Leucadian Apollo here [δἰ 
mentioned, like Apollo Actius, had a temple 
on the promontory of that name, not far 
from the scene of the nayal engagement. 


νυ. δου... ἜΝ 


Ϊ tine, ut lacrimes, Africa tota fuit ὃ 

LIBER IV. 12 (11). 


Postume, plorantem potuisti linquere Gallam, 

Miles et Augusti fortia signa sequi ? 
Tantine ulla fuit spoliati gloria Parthi, 
Ne faceres Galla multa rogante tua ? 

Si fas est, omnes pariter pereatis avari, 5 

Et quisquis fido preetulit arma toro ! 
Tu tamen injecta tectus, vesane, lacerna 
Potabis galea fessus Araxis aquam. 
Illa quidem interea fama tabescet inani, 

Hec tua ne virtus fiat amara tibi; 


Neve tua Med letentur cede sagitte, 
Ferreus aurato neu cataphractus equo: 

Neve aliquid de te flendum referatur in urna. 
Sic redeunt, 1115. qui cecidere locis. 

Ter quater in casta felix, o Postume, Galla; 

XII. This truly beautiful elegy is ad- 
dressed to a friend under the real or feigned 
name of Postumus, who was then engaged 
in the expedition of Adlius Gallus in Arabia, 
and had left his wife, who would seem to 
be related to the Gallus of i. 5, and there- 
fore a connexion of the poet’s, to lament 
his long absence from home. Some have 
thought that the same parties are addressed 
in the fine epistle v. 3, under the names of 
Arethusa and Lycotas; but Hertzberg 
doubts this (Quest. p. 22), and apparently 

| with good reason: see introductory note to 

the latter. Mlius Gallus was prefect of 
Egypt, and was the first who penetrated 
with a Roman army into Arabia, a.v.c. 
730, but he was compelled to retreat with 
the loss of many of his men. One of the 
same name is mentioned in Tac. Ann. v. 8, 
A.u.c. 784, but can hardly be the same 

8.1 Tantine. Compare iv. 20, 4, ‘Tan- 
aoristic use of spoliati, (when an action is 
contemplated as prospectively accomplish- 
ed), is noticed by Hertzberg, who com- 
pares ‘ascensis Bactris,’ v. 3, 63. 

4.] Ne faceres, rogante &e. 1.6. ut 
Galle tuze preces sperneres, hortantis ne 
eam relinqueres. ν 

8.1 Avari. He indirectly upbraids him 
with leaving his wife from mere motives 


of gain. 

6.] Fido toro. His dislike of military 
service is frequently expressed, as ii. 7, 14; 
v. 3, 19, &e. On the lacerna see v. 3, 18. 

8.] Araxis. This seems a kind of 
typical Eastern river with Propertius (like 
the Eridanus of earlier times). He pro- 
bably, as Mr. Wratislaw suggests, and as 
appears from v. 3, 33—7, knew but little 
of the geography of Asia. Thus he calls 
Babylon the capitol of the Persians, sup. 
10, 21. More than one river seems called 
the ‘ Araxes’ by Herodotus, 

10.] Amara tibi. See oni. 3,16. So 
πικρὴ Αἴγυπτος, Od. xvii, 448. Supply 
metuens ne Ke. 

12.] -Adurato equo is the ablative after 
letetur. Ferreus is opposed to auratus. 
The Parthian, with his barbed horse in 
chain mail, would exult in the gilded trap- 
pings of his more Juxurious but less hardy 
opponent. Virg. An. xi. 770, ‘spuman- 
temque agitabat equum, quem pellis ahenis 
In plumam squamis auro conserta tegebat.’ 
Hor. Od, iii. 6, 11, de Parthis: ‘et adje- 
cisse predam Torquibus exiguis renidet.’— 
erato and armato are unnecessary con- 
jectures. On the word cataphractus see 
Tacit. Ann, iii. 43; Hist. i. 70, Livy, 
xxxvil. 40. Jacob thinks that the poet 
had in view the characters of Glaucus and 
Diomede, 74. vi. 235. 




Moribus his alia conjuge dignus eras. 

Quid faciet nullo munita puella timore, 
Cum sit luxuriz Roma magistra suze ? 

oe a 
Sed securus eas. Gallam non munera vincent, 

Duritizque tus non erit illa memor. 


Nam quocumque die salvum te fata remittent, 
Pendebit collo Galla pudica tuo. 
Postumus alter erit miranda conjuge Ulixes. 
Non ill longee tot nocuere more ; 
Castra decem annorum, et Ciconum manus, Ismara capta, 

Exustaque tux mox, Polypheme, genzej4{“~ " 
Et Circe fraudes, lotosque, herbaque tenaces, 

Scyllaque, et alternas scissa Charybdis aquas, 
Lampeties Ithacis veribus mugisse juvencos,— 

Paverat hos Phcebo filia Lampetie, 

Et thalamum Atzee flentis fugisse puelle, 
Totque hiemis noctes, totque natasse dies, 
Nigrantisque domos animarum intrasse silentum, 

16.] Moribus his, ‘with such a cold 
and unloving disposition you did not de- 
serve such a wife as Galla.’ 

17.] Quid faciet. ‘What can you ex- 
pect will become of a wife, when the fear 
of her husband is removed, and when 
Rome is her residence, the very hot-bed 
of vice, and the teacher to others of its 
own profligacy.’ However (he adds, to 
allay the alarm his remark was calculated 
to arouse) you need not fear for Galla.’ 
Lachmann, Keil, and Miiller prefer the 
reading of some corrected copies, sue, for 
the vulg. tue. 

22.] Pudica, not an otiose epithet, but 
salva pudicitia inter tot probra. 

25.] Ciconum mons, Ismara, Calpe is the 
reading of all the authentic copies; and 
so both Jacob and Hertzberg have edited 
the passage, on the plea that Propertius 
may have followed accounts now lost of 
the wanderings of Ulysses. Yet, as the 
following incidents are wholly from the 
Odyssey, and as the fight with the Cicones 
and the capture of their city Ismarus are 
actually recorded, Od. ix. 38, it seems un- 
reasonable to doubt the correction of Fon- 
teine, which Lachmann and Kuinoel have 
admitted, and so also Miiller. Calpe (Gib- 
raltar) seems utterly out of place in speak- 
ing of the Thracians and of the Cyclops, 
both the subjects of the ninth book of the 

Odyssey. There was, it seems, an obscure 
tradition that Ulysses visited Spain, and 
founded a city Ὀδύσσεια, Ulyssippo, or 
Lisbon, (Strabo, iii. p. 398); and Astibur- 
gium, or Asberg, in Holland (Tac. Germ. 
3); but it does not seem probable that our 
poet should attach the same weight to it 
as to the Homeric narrative, which he evi- 
dently has in view. Hertzberg endeavours 
to found an argument on the events not 
being in the same order as they are re- 
corded in the Odyssey, whence he infers 
that our poet followed Philetas rather than 
Homer. _ For the same reason he thinks, 
with others, that ea puella, v. 31, is 

Calypso, and not Circe; an opinion by no | 

means certain, since according to Homer, 
Circe dwelt in the island Ala or Mea, 
Calypso in Ogygia. Nor is it a conclusive 
argument that Circe has just been men- 
tioned, vy. 27. Perhaps indeed Propertius 
had no yery accurate knowledge of the 
Odyssey, and made the slight mistake of 
confounding Calypso and Circe, who are 
but duplicate descriptions of an enchant- 
ress half human, half divine. 

27.] Tenaces, keeping them away from 
their homes. 

31.] Natasse. A word peculiarly ap- 

plied to shipwrecked mariners. See iv. 17, 

μ.11 (ue 

LIBER IV. 13 (12). 


Sirenum surdo remige adisse lacus, 

Et veteres arcus leto renovasse procorum, 

Errorisque sui sic statuisse modum. 
Nec frustra, quia casta domi persederat uxor. 
Vincit Penelopes Atha Galla fidem. 


Queeritis, unde avidis nox sit pretiosa puellis, 


Et Venere exhaustz damna querantur Opes. 

Certa quidem tantis causa et manifesta ruinis: 
Luxuriz nimium libera facta via est. 

Inda cavis aurum mittit formica metallis, : 5 

Et venit e rubro concha Erycina salo, 
Et Tyros ostrinos preebet Cadmea colores, 
Cinnamon et multi pastor odoris Arabs. 
Hee etiam clausas expugnant arma pudicas, 

35.] Renovasse, to have brought again 
into use a long disused bow by killing the 
suitors, Od. xxii. The infinitives all de- 
pend on xon ili nocuit, from sup. 24. 

37.] Nee frustra, se. non nocuere, v. 24, 
unless perhaps it is simpler and easier to 
supply hee omnia perpessus est. Hertzberg 
objects to the former; but he is for ever 
dwelling on words, when the general sense 
is far from obscure. The poet means 
nothing more than ‘it was not for nothing 
that he escaped so many dangers: he was 
rewarded by returning to a faithful wife.’ 

38.] The MSS. give Zelia or Lelia, but 
agree in vincit, for which Lachmann and 
others have edited vincet. But the sense 
is, that Galla surpasses in her devotion 
and fidelity even Penelope. 

XIII. Directed against the avarice of 
women, and probably suggested by the 
importunity of Cynthia. A very elegant 
poem, in which the simplicity of primitive 
life is contrasted with the profligacy of 
Rome. See on iii. 24, 28. 

1.1 Pretiosa, pretio sc. muneribus emen- 
da. So Thais pretiosa Menandri, v. 5, 43. 
—Venere is from Pucci and one late copy. 
The Naples MS. has e¢ Venerem exhausto. 
Venerem is also in MS. Gron. and ed. 
Rheg., nor is this reading indefensible, 
damna being regarded as in apposition, ὁ. ὁ. 
damni causam. On the frequent personifi- 
cation of Opes and Πλοῦτος, see Asch. 
Agam. 1305. Supra, iy. 7, 1. 

5.] Inda, for Indica. See on ii. 1, 76. 
The allusion is to the well-known story in 
Herod, iii. 102, so ingeniously explained by 

umboldt, Cosmos, vol. ii. note 205. — 
concha Erycina, ‘the shell of Venus,’ pro- 
bably pearls. Others read Erythrea. It 
is impossible to determine with accuracy 
the particular shell or material here meant. 
Venus, however, as the goddess born from 
the sea, is represented as riding in a giant 
shell, (concha was the mystic symbol of 
the sex), and Hertzberg quotes ‘conchas 
Cytheriacas,’ from Martial 11. 47, 2. Why 
the Indian Ocean was called ‘the Red 
Sea,’ from which the more limited term of 
modern geography is derived, appears to 
be unknown. May it not have meant the 
Eastern sea, which ‘Aurora suis rubra 
colorat equis,’ inf. 16? Cf. Tibull. iy. 2, 

8.1 Fastor Arabs. The Nomade Ara- 
bians. — pastor multi odoris, as Martial 
calls him messor Arabs, Ep. iii. 65, 5. See 
Herod. iii. 107. He enumerates, as Barth 
observes, ‘quatuor genera luxurie; aurum, 
gemmas, purpuram, unguenta.’ Cinnamon 
was probably obtained from Ceylon (Ta- 
brobane) or East Africa; but the produc- 
tions of India, Africa, and Arabia are often 
confounded by the ancients. See Hum- 
boldt, Cosmos, vol. 11. pp. 206-7, (note 243). 

9.] Etiam clausas expugnant. A meta- 
phor from a beleaguered city retiring with- 
in its closed gates. For clausas Miiller 
reads nymphas, ‘brides,’ the Naples MS. 


Quzque gerunt fastus, Icarioti, tuos: 



Matrona incedit census induta nepotum, 
Et spolia opprobrii nostra per ora trahit. 
Nulla est poscendi, nulla est reverentia dandi; 
Aut si qua est, pretio tollitur ipsa mora. 

Felix Eois lex funeris una maritis, 


Quos Aurora suis rubra colorat equis. 

Namque ubi mortifero jacta est fax ultima lecto, 
Uxorum fusis stat pia turba comis, 

Et certamen habent leti, que viva sequatur 

Conjugium; pudor est, non licuisse mori. 


Ardent victrices et flammz pectora prabent, 
Imponuntque suis ora perusta viris. 

Hic genus infidum nuptarum; hic nulla puella 
Nec fida Evadne, nec pia Penelope. 

having the reading mifeas superscribed by 
the same hand. 

10.] Jacob and Hertzberg read Hecque 
from Pucci; an unusual and unpleasing 
combination. The Gron. and Naples MSS. 
give gueque, which Lachmann, Barth, and 
Kuinoel adopt.—gerunt for terunt is adopt- 
ed by the best editors from Guiet. Com- 
pare Tac. Ann. xi. 37, ‘tantum inter ex- 
trema superbie gerebat’ (swperbia egebat 
MS. Med.) Lachmann retains terwnt, the 
sense of which can only be, ‘et eas, que 
terunt, deterunt, imminuunt, fastus tuos, 
O Penelope.’ ‘Fastum alicujus terere est 
—facere ne quis tantopere superbiat.’— 

11.] Census induta nepotum. ‘Wearing 
on her person whole fortunes of spend- 
thrifts.’ Hertzberg endeavours to show 
from a single passage (Ovid, Met. vii. 739), 
that census was properly used for xoctis 
merces.—Spolia opprobrit, t.e. per oppro- 
brium et dedecus suum parta. 

18—14.] ‘Omnes jam mulieres Rome 
poscunt munera, omnes jam promiscue et 
passim sui dant copiam. Aut si contra 
accidit et mora injicitur, ne castiorem ideo 
crede puellam, que delicias agit; avarior 
enim tantum est: aurum ostende, ipsa 
mora tolletur.’—Hertzberg. The context 
seems to show that poscere and dare are 
correlative terms, as he is speaking of 
gifts. The poet means, I think, that the 
giver is as reckless as the party who asks; 
and any hesitation in giving—any avaritia 
—is bought off, t.e. by making it com- 

pulsory to give as a return for something 
received. People buy even gifts; which 
from their very nature ought not to be 

15—22.] This touching and extremely 
beautiful passage is interesting as showing 
the antiquity of the Suttee, that strange 
and fanatical custom of burning alive 
widows in India. lian, Var. Hist. vii. 
18, Παρὰ Ἰνδοῖς αἱ γυναῖκες τὸ αὐτὸ πῦρ 
ἀποθανοῦσι τοῖς ἀνδράσιν ὑπομένουσι. Φι- 
λοτιμοῦνται δὲ περὶ τούτου αἱ γυναῖκες τοῦ 
ἀνδρός: καὶ ἣ κλήρῳ λαχοῦσα συγκαίεται. 
Nor can we doubt that the legend of 
Evadne leaping into the pyre of her 
husband Capaneus, i. 15, 21, Eur. Suppl. 
1046, was derived from an early Indian 
tradition. See Herod. y. 5. 

16.] Colorat. ‘* Eastern and western 
relations determined the whole thermic 
meteorology of the Greeks. The parts of 
the earth towards the sun-rising were re- 
garded as near to the sun, or sun-lands. 
‘The God in his course colours the skin of 
man with a dark sooty lustre, and parches 
and curls his hair.’ (Theodectes).” Hum- 
boldt, Cosmos, vol. 11. p. 160. 

18.] Barth and Kuinoel give positis for 
Jusis, from the MS. Gron. 

21.) Vietrices, i.e. quee amoris certamine 

23.] Nulla—nec. Lachmann compares 
iii. 10, 5, ‘Nulla neque ante tuas orietur 
rixa fenestras’ &e. 

24.] Euhadne Miiller, Euadne Lach- 
mann and others. 

LIBER IV. 18 (12). 

Felix agrestum quondam pacata juventus, 



Divitiz quorum messis et arbor erant. 
Ils munus erat decussa Cydonia ramo, 
Et dare puniceis -plena canistra rubis; 

Nune violas tondere manu, 
Lilia virgineos lucida per calathos ; 

nune mixta referre 

Et portare suis vestitas frondibus uvas, 
Aut variam plume versicoloris avem. - 
His tum blanditiis furtiva per antra puelle 
Oscula silvicolis empta dedere viris. ὁ 

Hinulei pellis totos operibat amantes, 

Altaque nativo creverat herba toro, 
Pinus et incumbens lentas cireumdabat umbras, 
Nec fuerat nudas poena videre deas, 
Corniger atque dei vacuam pastoris in aulam 

Dux aries saturas 1056 reduxit oves; 


Dique dezque omnes, quibus est tutela per agros, 
Preebebant vestris verba secunda focis: 

25.] Pacata, i.e. pacis studiosa. Lach- 
mann. With these beautiful verses com- 
pare Tacit. Ann. iii. 26, ‘ Vetustissimi 
mortalium, nulla adhuc mala libidine, sine 
probro, scelere, eoque sine poena aut coer- 
citionibus agebant ;’ and especially Juyven. 
vi. 1—12. Lucretius, v. 962. 

27.] Barth and Kuinoel give ἐϊ{5 pompa 
Suit from Pucci; an improbable reading. 

30.] Virgineos. Lachmann and Kuinoel 
vimineos, the plausible conjecture of Palmer. 
The latter epithet, however, though appro- 
priate, is so obvious and common-place, 

to have preferred the former, whether in 
the sense of novos, intactos, or for virginum 

] that Propertius may reasonably be thought 

-+| calathos, like ‘ virginee urne,’ ii. 1, 67, 
|| which Hertzberg compares. 


82.1 Jacob reads pluricoloris from the 
ed. Rheg. The others give versicoloris, 
which is probably genuine. In the Naples 
MS. it is viricoloris, in MS. Gron. vari- 

35.] Hinnulei is the conjecture of Sca- 
liger. The MSS. have atgue hinuli, atque 
humilis or humili. The form hinulus, with 
the first syllable short, is unknown. Miiller 
supposes the ez in hinulei was mistaken 
for a dipthong, z.e. the archaic form of 
hinuli, and thus atgue was added by some 
transcriber.—For totos he also reads stratos 
with Baehrens. The sense seems simple 

and appropriate, that a skin was large 
enough to cover up both. This is a satire 
on the stragula and the plume of the 
modern Roman beds. 

37.] Jacob reads δίας from the ed. 
Rheg. Barth, Kuinoel, and Lachmann 
admit Jatas from the Aldine. There is not 
the slightest ground, except the love of 
altering the text, for rejecting Jentas; the 
pliant boughs of the pine formed a bower 
over them. This is just what most of the 
pines do; the stone pine (pinus pinea) 
might indeed be said to lend /atas umbras, 
but not inewmbere, at least in the sense 
of drooping to the ground. — Nee pena 
Suerat, ἐ, e. et impune licebat. 

39.] Dei pastoris. The reading appears 
rather doubtful, though the good copies 
here agree. Barth and Kuinoel give dei 
from the Aldine, the conjecture of Volscus, 
(1482). Lachmann reads ingue dies. Jacob 
and Hertzberg regard deus pastor as Apollo. 
Perhaps it is indefinitely used, since in 
those golden times the gods commonly 
conversed with men, as the next distich 

42.] Vestris focis, i.e. O agrestes. No- 
thing is more frequent in the Propertian 
elegies than this sudden apostrophe, as has 
already been observed. The sense is, the 
gods used. to speak kind and encouraging 
words at the simple sacrifices offered to 

ov “Proloquar: atque utinam patriz sim vanus aruspex! 
A . . . . 
“ Frangitur ipsa suis Roma superba bonis. 




‘Et leporem, quicumque venis, venaberis, hospes, 
‘Et si forte meo tramite queris avem ; 

‘Et me Pana tibi comitem de rupe vocato, 


‘Sive petes calamo preemia, sive .cane.’ 
At nune desertis cessant sacraria lucis: 
Aurum omnes victa jam pietate colunt. 
Auro pulsa fides, auro venalia jura, 
Aurum lex sequitur, mox sine lege pudor. 50 
Torrida sacrilegum testantur mina Brennum, 
Dum petit intonsi Pythia regna dei; 
(At mons laurigero concussus vertice diras 
Gallica Parnasus sparsit in arma nives. 

Te scelus accepto Thracis Polymestoris auro 

Nutrit in hospitio non, Polydore, pio. 
Tu quoque ut auratos gereres, Eriphyla, lacertos, 
Dilapsis nusquam_est Amphiaraus equis. 
“ρ΄. — 

their honour. Barth gives Scaliger’s cor- 
rection versis, viz. as participle of verro. 
The beautiful lines which follow are taken 
from an epigram of Leonidas of Tarentum, 
which is fortunately preserved : 
Εὐάγρει, λαγοθῆρα, καὶ εἰ πετεηνὰ διώκων 
“ϊξευτὴς ἥκεις τοῦθ᾽ ὑπὸ δισσὸν pos, 
Kaye τὸν ὑλήωρον ἀπὸ κρημνοῖο Bdacov 

Πᾶνα: συναγρεύσω καὶ κυσὶ καὶ καλάμοις. 
The calamus in y. 46 is the fowler’s rod; 
the arundo of v. 2, 33. See Martial xiv. 

Non tantum calamis, sed cantu fallitur ales, 

Callida dum tacita crescit arundo manu. 
and also lib. ix, 54. 

50.] Dow, i.e. sequetur aurum. ‘ Homi- 
nes ad recte agendum vel legibus vel 
pudore ingenuo ducuntur. Jam _ leges 
auro sublate. Mox vel pudor sequetur, 
qui quamvis hominibus a natura insitus 
sit, a legibus tamen certum firmamentum 
habet et vinculum,’— Hertzberg. 

61.] Torrida limina. He gives an ex- 
ample of sacrilegious avarice and impiety 
and its punishment. Brennus had en- 
deayoured to plunder the temple at Delphi, 
but was driven away by a sudden earth- 
quake and hailstorm, with thunder and 
lightning, which the poet speaks of as hay- 
ing struck the temple itself. See Cie. de Div. 
i.§ 81; Pausanijas, i. cap. 4, and x, cap. 23, 


who says that Brennus himself and 6000 men 
were killed in the fight with the Phocians, 
and 10,000 by the storm and earthquake, and 
as many more by famine. Professor Geddes 
says (Philological Uses of the Celtie Tongue, 
p-19), ‘‘The leader whom the Gauls poured 
down upon Rome in 390 B.c. bore among 
the Romans the name of Brennus, and 
this is still the Gaelic word for ‘judge’ and 
‘judgment,’ Breithanas, proying that the 
Gauls were under a social organisation, 
where the office of a King was not so 
much to lead in war as to dispense judg- 
ment and administer justice. It is strange 
to find the same name appearing also in 
the leader of the irruption into Greece a 
century later, down upon Delphi, a portion 
of which band afterwards became the occu- 
pants of Galatia, in the heart of Asia 

54.] Gallica in arma, i.e, in Gallos 
hostes. The MS. Gron. gives ora, which 
most editors seem to have preferred. See 
on vy. 4, 34. 

59.] Utinam sim vanus aruspex. ‘1 
hope 1 may be mistaken in my forebod- 
ings.’ The Groning. and Naples MSS. 
give verus, which could only mean ereditus ; 
‘utinam cives mei vera dicentem audiant !’ 
Lachmann compares Livy, xxi. 10, where 
Hanno says, ‘falsus utinam yates sim!’ 

LIBER IV. 14 (13). 


Certa loquor, sed nulla fides: neque enim Ilia quondam 
Verax Pergameis Meenas habenda malis. 

Sola Parim Phrygize. fatum componere, sola / ary am 
Fallacem patriz serpere dixit equum. 

Ille furor patrie fuit utilis, ille parenti; 65 
Experta est veros irrita lingua deos. unheeded 


Multa tux, Sparte, miramur jura palestre, 
Sed mage virginei tot bona gymnasii, 
Quod non infames exercet corpore ludos 

62.] Ilia Meenas. Cassandra. See on 
ZMsch. Ag. 1183. The punishment in- 
flicted on her by Apollo was that she should 
never be believed though she predicted the 
truth. Compare inf. v. 1, 51, ‘ Pergamex 
sero rata carmina yatis.’ The sense is, 
Ut illa Trojanis, sic ego Romanis de rebus 
falsa loqui visus sum.—habenda, i.e. fuit 
or videbatur. 

63.] ‘She alone declared that Paris 
was bringing ruin on his country.’—fatum 
componere is explained ‘perniciem afferre, 
struere ;’ but Hertzberg will have it that 
the poet simply meant sepelire, as i. 22, 3, 
‘patrie sepulera,’ fatum Phrygie being 
used for mortuam Phrygiam. Perhaps the 
building of the fleet is meant, which was 
ἀρχέκακος, pregnant with fate to Troy.— 
equum, the wooden horse. 

65.] Fuit utilis, t.e. revera fuit utilis, 
quanquam spretus nihili factus est; which 
is equivalent to saying, ‘fuisset utilis, si 
auditus esset.’—‘ irrita lingua, Cassandree, 
non credita, verum deum habuit, vaticinata 
est vera et exitu comprobata.’—Barth, 
The poet evidently meant to express this 
sentiment: ‘her words, though despised 
and regarded as vain at the time, proved 
in the end to have been dictated by divine 
inspiration.’ The voice of a prophet is 
rightly said ‘to have true gods’ who in- 
spire it. Hxpertaest is used, because their 
veracity was only known by the result; 
and irrita implies a delusion which could 
only be removed experiendo. Jacob prefers 
to understand it thus: ‘ Dii et dono et fide 
adempta veri fuerunt.’ Hertzberg: ‘ At 
quamyis veros exinde deos suos eventu 
postea probaverit, irrita tamen erat, eodem 
quo ego nure modo.’ 

XIV. Though there can be little doubt 

that a new elegy commences here, the 
transcriber of the Naples MS. seems to 
have found it in his copy continuous with 
the last; and we may observe, as in many 
other instances, a connexion of subject 
which shows that the two poems must be 
regarded as a pair, or the latter as a sequel 
to the former. For he here speaks of the 
simplicity of Spartan manners as conducive 
to chastity, and contrasts the free and un- 
restrained intercourse of the sexes with the 
jealous custody of Roman matrons. Kui- 
noel follows those who imagine the poet to 
have written this after a tour in Greece 
(see below, El. 21); but the education of 
the Spartan women was so notorious that 
he may at least as probably have read of it 
in books as witnessed it. It would appear 
indeed from the account given by Seneca, 
De Benefic. v. cap. 3, that the poet speaks 
rather of what once was than of the con- 
temporaneous customs of the Spartans. 
Euripides, Androm. 595 seqq., inveighs 
with much bitterness against the Spartan 
custom, and says it was the cause of all 

3.] Hertzberg alone defends the reading 
of all the MSS., /audes. The other editors 
acquiesce in Scaliger’s conjecture, /udos.— 
exercere laudes corpore for certando prestare 
is scarcely defensible even in a durus poeta 
like Propertius; added to which non in- 
Jamis laus for honesta, seems scarcely a 
Latin expression’ Jacob hazards a con- 
jecture that the sense may be, ‘laudandos 
esse Lacedeemones, qui luctari nudas suas 
puellas voluissent, quum laudes easdem 
Romani infames haberent.’ The only way 
of defending the vulgate would be to un- 
derstand lJaudes for virtutem or res bene 
gestas; in Greek, ἀσκεῖν ἀρετήν. It is 
not without hesitation that I have rejected 

oa Os 
γα ἃ 



Inter luctantes nuda puella viros ; 

Cum pila velocis fallit per brachia jactus, 

Increpat et versi clavis adunca trochi, 
Pulverulentaque ad extremas stat femina metas, 
Et patitur duro vulnera pancratio. 

Nune ligat ad ceestum gaudentia brachia loris, 

Missile nune disci pondus in orbe rotat. 


Gyrum pulsat equis, niveum latus ense revincit, 
Virgineumque cavo protegit sre caput; 

Qualis Amazonidum nudatis bellica mammis 
Thermodontiacis turba lavatur aquuis ; 

Et modo Taygeti, crines adspersa pruina, 


Sectatur patrios per juga longa canes; 

the vulgate. But both Keil and Miller, 
as well as Lachmann, adopt dudos. Hertz- 
berg’s explanation is this: ‘Apud nos 
quidem laus, quam nuda puella inter viros 
luctando quereret, infamis esset, illic vero 
minime ; atqui hoc illud est, quod mihi ex 
illorum institutis preeplacet..—It is im- 
portant here to remind the student, that 
nudus properly means ‘lightly clad.’ 

5.] Various corrections and interpreta- 
tions of this verse haye been proposed. 
Scaliger’s emendation, veloci jactu, has been 
adopted by Barth and Kuinoel; and cer- 
tainly it removes the difficulty, though it 
has but little probability. Jacob regards 
velocis jactus as the genitive, ‘ea pila, que 
velociter huc illue volare docta nos fallat.’ 
The MS. Groning. however gives veloces, 
which Miller accepts, while Hertzberg 
and Lachmann regard velocis as the ac- 
cusative dependent on fallit.’ The former 
explains thus: ‘ipsa pila dicitur jactus 
suos fallere, dum per brachia expulsa cur- 
sum suum, quem quodammodo promisisse 
videbatur, subito alio flectat,’ comparing 
ii. 26, 36. Perhaps we may compare 
Nausicaa’s unsuccessful throw, Od. vi. 
᾿Αμφιπόλου μὲν ἅμαρτε, βαθείῃ δ᾽ ἔμπεσε 
δίνῃ. See also Od. viii. 874. The reader 
will find a valuable excursus on the pila in 
Becker’s Gallus, p. 898—404. On per for 
inter, see iv. 1, 4. 

6.] The game of the trochus, or hoop, 
is involved in considerable obscurity. The 
reader will refer to the Dictionary of An- 
tiquities, where illustrations are given from 
antique gems. It was ‘a bronze ring, and 
had sometimes bells attached to it.’ The 
instrument by which it was propelled was 

a hooked wire, here called clavis adunca. 
Tron hoops may be seen at the present day 
driven precisely in this manner. 

7.] Ad extremas metas, ‘cursu con- 
fecto.,— Barth. ‘When the female all 
covered with dust (after the foot-race) 
stands at the pillar at the end of the 
course, and courageously bears the pain of 
wounds received in the hard scuffling- 
match.’ Hertzberg regards the particular 
game here mentioned as a kind of rhetorical 
exaggeration, since it appears from Seneca 
De Benef. v.31, that it was not practised 
by the Spartans. 

11.] Gyrum pulsare (πατεῖν, ἐγκροτεῖν), 
is here used for galloping round the turns 
in the stadium. Lachmann refers to Ovid, 
Met. vi. 219, 487, for pulsare campum or 
spatium, and to a note of Burmann’s on 
the Anthol. Lat, iii. 15, 15, p. 468, in illus- 
tration of ‘gyrus’ for syatiwm curriculi. 

13.] Not only does the Spartan virgin 
engage in the above laborious and manly 
exercises, but she bathes in the Eurotas as 
the Amazons in their native Thermodon. 
The awkward punctuation of Lachmann, 
Jacob, and Hertzberg, viz. ‘ Thermodon- 
tiacis turba, lavatur, aquis,’ is so artificial 
that I have preferred to understand lavatur 
(in Eurota), gualis turba Am, lavatur in 

15.] Taygeti, Τηὔγέτου, probably a cor- 
ruption of τηλυγέτου, ‘the far-off moun- 

16.] Patrios. Cf. Soph. Ajax, 8, κυνὸς 
Λακαίνης ὥς τις εὔρινος βάσις. Virg. Georg. 
ili. 405, ‘veloces Sparte catulos acremque 



— — 

— : 
Ὁ νι ὁ ὁὃῸϑοΘοστ͵ 



᾿ “440 


LIBER IV. 14 (13). 

Qualis et Eurote Pollux et Castor arenis, 
Hic victor pugnis, ille futurus equis; 
Inter quos Helene nudis capere arma papillis 

Fertur, nec fratres erubuisse deos. 


Lex igitur Spartana vetat secedere amantes, 
Et licet in triviis ad latus esse sue; 

Nee timor aut ulla est clause tutela puelle, 
Nee gravis austeri poena cavenda viri. 

Nullo premisso de rebus tute loquaris 

Ipse tuis; longe nulla repulsa more. 
Non Tyriz vestes errantia lumina fallunt, 
Est neque odoratze cura molesta come. 

At nostra ingenti vadit circumdata turba 
Nec digitum angusta est imseruisse via. 



Nec que sint facies, nec que sint verba rogandi, 
‘Invenias: cecum versat amator iter. 

Quod si jura fores pugnasque imitata Laconum, 
Carior hoc esses tu mihi, Roma, bono. 

17.] The Naples and Groning. MSS. 
give habenis, Pucci ad undas, which Jacob 
alone prefers. -Avenis is the conjecture of 
Volscus (1488). The word is very often 
spelt havena in MSS. The poet’s meaning 
in 17—20 is rather confused in the ex- 
pression. He intended to say, ‘et capit 
arma inter yiros, qualis Helene inter fratres 
deos,’ 1.6. nec magis pudore afficitur, quam 
si inter fratres certet. Lachmann reads 
interque hos v. 19, but the meaning is 
essentially the same.—arenis is aptly used 
in reference to the pugilistic and equestrian 
contests in which they engaged near the 
Eurotas. See iv. 11, 35. 

21.] Vetat secedere, i.e. in publico ver- 
sari jubet, non seorsim agere, non yulgi 
oculis se subtrahere. 

25.] Nullo premisso. Without sending 
a servant before to announce your intended 
visit.—longe more is the dative: ‘ No re- 
fusal follows your long and patient waiting 
for admission.’ 

27.] The Spartan maid does not, like 
the Roman, wear Tyrian purple to deceive 
the mistaken eye. There is no difficulty in 
this: fine dress seems to promise a fine 
form, but the eye is often disappointed in 
looking at the former without finding the 

28.] Come. This is the conjecture of 
Canter, and has been adopted by all but 

Hertzberg, who reads adorate—domi from 
the Naples MS., and explains it ‘de salu- 
tantium molesta utique amatori turba.’ All 
the copies agree in domi,—a strange read- 
ing, and certainly not like a corruption of 
come. Hertzberg proposes, ‘Est neque 
odora canum cura molesta domi,’ com- 
paring vy. 5, 73, ‘ Et canis in nostros nimis 
experrecta dolores.’ Few will approve 
this. If domi be genuine, it would be 
easier to take it adverbially, οἴκοι, and 
understand adorate puelle. 

30.] Nee digitum &c. A hyperbolical 
expression. The pathway is so crowded 
with attendants, that so far from being 
allowed access, you could not insert even 
a finger among them: véa is the usual 
ablative of Propertius: see on i. 17, 23, 
the sense being, ‘cum tam densa sit ac 
frequens via qua ambulat.’ 

31.] Facies rogandi, ‘What imploring 
look to assume without being detected.’ 
The facies, as Hertzberg shows, is not that 
of the girl, but the lover’s. ‘What to say, 
or with what face to say it, ’tis not easy to 

34.] For Laconum in the preceding v. 
the Naples MS. has the singular reading 
leonum; one proof among many that we 
must not put too much confidence in that 
ancient and generally excellent copy.— 
hoe bono, propter hoe bonum. 




Sic ego non ullos jam norim in amore tumultus, 
Nec veniat sine te nox vigilanda mihi; 

Ut mihi preetextee pudor est velatus amictu, 

| Et data libertas noscere amoris iter, 

Illa rudes animos per noctes conscia primas 5 
Imbuit heu nullis capta Lycinna datis. 

Tertius haud multo minus est cum ducitur annus; 
Vix memini nobis verba coisse decem. 

Cuncta tuus sepelivit amor, nec femina post te 

Ulla dedit collo dulcia vincla meo. 


Testis erit Dirce tam vero crimine seeva, 

XV. The poet intercedes with Cynthia 
in behalf of a female slave called Lycinna, 
who seems to have been harshly treated by 
her on suspicion of some connexion clan- 
destinely continued between them. His 
object is, by explaining the circumstances, 
to reassure Cynthia of his constancy. 

3.] Velatus. Kuinoel edatus, from Guyet. 
This passage presents considerable difficul- 
ties, in whatever way we attempt either to 
explain or to correct the vulgate. The more 
obvious punctuation is that adopted by 
Barth and Kuinoel, viz., a full stop at the 
end of y.4; ‘So may I never be crossed 
in love, as it is true that’ &e. The later 
editors seem to be right in placing only 
a comma at amoris iter, and understanding 
it thus: ‘So may I never more be crossed 
in love (as what I now say is true). When 
my boyish modesty had been veiled by the 
toga virilis, (?.e. hidden and concealed 
under the plea of manhood now attained) 
and I found no longer any restraint im- 
posed on my inclinations, then first I 
became acquainted with Lycinna.’ Lach- 
mann explains, ‘rubor pudens in petalis 
(heee sunt amictus rose) se in sinum dicitur 
expandere vel solvere;’ and he compares 
Statius, S7v. ii. 1, 1386, ‘sola verecundo 
deerat pretexta decori Now the pre- 
texta is said to have been sometimes laid 
aside, and the toga libera taken, soon after 
fourteen, or the age of puberty: though it 
is probable (Hertzberg, Quest. p. 17), that 
sixteen was the usual age; see Becker, 
Gallus, pp.195—7. At this period, there- 
fore, we may assume the connexion to 
have commenced. But how unusual an 
expression is this, ‘when the bashfulness 
of the preetexta was concealed by the 

amictus! Hertzberg has good reason to 
doubt if the latter word, in the sense of 
the toga virilis, can be opposed to the 
former, since amictus is quite a general 
term for any outer garment. (See, how- 
ever, Ovid, Fast. vi. 623, compared with 
570). He therefore proposes to read ‘ Ut 
mihi pretexti pudor est elatus amictus,’ 
the Naples MS. giving pretexti and amicus. 
Elatus is ‘dead and buried,’ as in v.9, 
‘Cuncta tuus sepelivit amor.’ Without 
feeling quite satisfied with this, I incline 
to it as better than any explanation that 
has been proposed, especially as it has the 
best MS. authority in its favour, the word 
elatus excepted. Kuinoel construes pre- 
textee amiciu, and comments thus: ‘ post- 
quam posui cum pretexta pudorem.’ In 
this case ewm could hardly have been omit- 
ted. Barth takes velatus amietu as a mere 
metaphor, ‘when I had learned to cover 
up, and set aside, my modesty ;’ ‘ postquam 
ῬΌΔΟΥ puerilis, quem habui in toga prae- 
texta obrutus a me amictu, adeoque neg- 
lectus et abiectus fuit.’ On which we re- 
mark, that this explanation of μέ by post- 
guam does not suit the full stop at amoris 

6.] Tertius ἕο. ‘The sense is, ‘ tertius 
annus ducitur cum (ex quo) memini’ &e., 
or, ‘ex quo, quantum memini, vix inter 
nos decem verba coierunt.’ Or supply ea 
60 tempore, et Vix memini &e. 

11.1 Testis erit.—erat Lachmann, who 
remarks, after others, that it is not clear of 
what fact Dirce is appealed to as a witness. 
Barth understands, ‘testis erit mulierum 
adversus pellices iram yvehementissimam 
et acerrimam esse, que tam crudelem se 
prestitit in vero crimine, (evimen verum 

LIBER IV. 15 (14). 


Nycteos Antiopen accubuisse Lyco. 
Ah quotiens pulchros ussit regina capillos, 
Molhaque immites fixit in ora manus! 

Ah quotiens famulam pensis oneravit iniquis, 

Et caput in dura ponere jussit humo! 
Seepe illam immundis passa est habitare tenebris, 
Vilem jejunz seepe negavit aquam. 
Juppiter, Antiopze nusquam succurris habenti 
Tot mala? corrumpit dura catena manus. 20 
Si deus es, tibi turpe tuam servire puellam: 
Invocet Antiope quem nisi vincta Jovem ? 
Sola tamen, quaecumque aderant in corpore vires, 
Regales manicas rupit utraque manu. 

Inde Cithzronis timido pede currit in arces. 


Nox erat, et sparso triste cubile gelu. 

Seepe vago Asopi sonitu permota fluentis 
Credebat dominze pone venire pedes; 

Et durum Zethum et lacrimis Amphiona mollem 

Experta est stabulis mater abacta suis. 

opponit suo quod a Cynthia fingebatur 
tantum), videlicet cum ipsi nunciatum 
fuisset, Antiopen Nyctei filiam cum Lyco 
viro suo in lecto cubuisse. We must 
therefore, it would seem, construe tam 
séva, and take accubwisse as depending on 
erimine. Still, tam vero crimine might 
mean ‘quod tam verum erat quam falsum 
est quod mihi obicitur.’ Hertzberg more 
simply explains ‘testis erit mihi contra 
Cynthiam.’ The story of Dirce is this. 
Antiope was daughter of Nycteus, and had 
been married to Lycus, her uncle, king of 
Thebes. From her were born, by Zeus, 
Amphion and Zethus. Lycus having re- 
pudiated Antiope and married Dirce, the 
jealousy of the latter induced her to treat 
Antiope with the greatest indignity. At 
last however she escaped, and succeeded in 
informing her step-sons of her cruel treat- 
ment; who accordingly avenged her by 
killing both Lycus and Dirce. The story 
is given, with some varieties, by Pausanias, 
ii. v. § 2, who follows Homer, Od. xi. 260. 
This account represents her as the daughter 
of the river Asopus, and ravished by Epo- 
peus. Apollodor. iii. 5, 5, ᾿Αντιόπην δὲ 
ἠκίζετο Λύκος καθείρξας, καὶ ἣ τούτου γυνὴ 
Δίρκη: λαθοῦσα δέ ποτε, τῶν δεσμῶν αὐ- 
τομάτως λυθέντων, ἧκεν ἐπὶ τῶν παίδων 


ἔπαυλιν, δεχθῆναι πρὸς αὐτῶν θέλουσα. 
Οἱ δὲ, ἀναγνωρισάμενοι τὴν μητέρα, τὸν 
μὲν Λύκον κτείνουσι, τὴν δὲ Δίρκην δή- 
σαντες ἐκ ταύρου θανοῦσαν ῥίπτουσιν εἰς 
κρήνην τὴν am ἐκείνης καλουμένην Δίρκην. 
The moral of the story is, to warn Cynthia 
of the fate of one who had acted with un- 
merited severity towards a rival. 

14.] Jacob, Keil, and Miiller adopt the 
unpoetical reading of the ed. Rheg. and 
Naples MS., cmmitiens. 

17.] For habitare Miller conjectures 

21.] Jacob gives servare (interroga- 
tively) from the Groning. MS. The others 
edit servire, rightly, in my judgment. 

23.] Sola. ‘Non adjuta a Jove’— 
Barth. ‘Yet all unassisted as she was, by 
exerting all the strength she had left in 
her body, she broke with both hands the 
fetters put on her by the King and his 

30.] Abacta, sc. a Zetho.—suis, sibi 
debitis, quie swa esse, ut mater, putaverat. 
Hertzberg remarks that durum Zethum 
ought to have come after Amphiona mollem, 
as abacta refers directly to the former. 
The metrical difficulty of the verse will 
sufficiently account for the arrangement 



Ac veluti magnos cum ponunt equora motus, 
Eurus ubi adverso desinit ire Noto, 

Litore sic tacito sonitus rarescit arene ; 
Sic cadit inflexo lapsa puella genu. 

Sera tamen pietas; natis est cognitus error ; 
Digne Jovis natos qui tueare senex, 


Tu reddis pueris matrem, puerique trahendam 
Vinxerunt Dircen sub trucis ora bovis. 
Antiope, cognosce Jovem: tibi gloria Dirce 

Ducitur, in multis mortem habitura locis. 


Prata cruentantur Zetho, victorque canebat 
Peeana Amphion rupe, Aracynthe, tua. 

At tu non meritam parcas vexare Lycinnam ; 
Nescit vestra ruens ira referre pedem. 

31—35.] Hertzberg says on this pas- 
sage, ‘Locum a criticis varie vexatum— 
interpunctione persanavimus,’ The reader 
of taste shall form his own opinion on this 
new ‘ interpunctio.’ 

Ac veluti, magnos cum ponunt cequora motus, 

—Eurus in adversos desinit ire Notos,— 

Litore si tacito sonitus rarescit arene, 

Sic—cadit inflexo lapsa puella genu— 

Sera, tamen pietas. 

To the present editor it seems truly sur- 
prising that both Keil and Muller should 
accept the parenthetic construction of the 
last verse. Nor is that adopted by Jacob 
much better. ‘There is, no doubt, an ob- 
scurity, or perhaps impropriety, in the 
simile; but anything is better than such 
violent ‘interpunctiones.’ Kuinoel is per- 
haps hardly justified in calling it ‘ praeclara 
comparatio ;’ but the sinking down of the 
wearied mother after her earnest appeal 
for admission, and the altercation conse- 
quent upon the request, is not inaptly il- 
lustrated by the silence of the worn-out 
elements after a storm. With Lachmann 
and Miiller I read wbi adverso—Noto, the 
Naples MS. giving swb adverso Notho. See 
y. 5, 24. The others edit 7” adversos notos 
with the majority of the good copies. 
Keil has Burus et adverso το. 

33.] The Groning. MS. has s?, the 
Naples MS. sic. Miuiller reads littore si 
tacito, Keil and Lachmann Jitore sub tacito. 
We should not say, ‘the waves subside if 
the sound of the breakers ceases,’ but ‘the 
sound ceases if the waves subside.’ Pucci 
gives guwm, probably an explanation of s?, 
Sic tacito is to be closely connected, #.e. 
desinentibus, cessantibus ventis tandem 

35.] Sera tamen pietas. ‘There is some 
ellipse: ‘(the conduct of the sons was 
indeed cruel) yet affection showed itself at 
last.’ Indeed, tamen is said in respect of 
durum Zethum and abacta stabulis suis. The 
discovery of their relationship was made 
by an old shepherd, who had educated the 
youths, and whom the poet apostrophises 
in ver. 36. 

38.] Sub ora, to the head or horns of 
a bull, so as to be tossed and gored to 
death. A beautiful fresco of this subject 
was found at Pompeii; but Dirce is there 
tied to the bull by a rope round its body. 

39.] Cognosce Jovem. ‘Vim Jovis et 
opem agnosce.’—Kuinoel. 

41.] Pucci gives Zeto, whence Lach- 
mann ingeniously conjectured /eto. But 
the dative in the sense of prata Zethi 
is quite defensible. The locality was 
perhaps so called after the event. He 
(as Jacob remarks) took upon himself 
the sterner part both in rejecting the 
mother and afterwards avenging her 
wrongs, while Amphion sate him down 
and played a pean on his lyre. Aracyn- 
thus was a mountain on the confines of 
Attica; perhaps confused with the ’Apax- 
ναῖον almos of Aischylus, dg. 309. But 
Dr. Smith says (Classical Dictionary in v.) 
‘A mountain on the S.W. coast of Aitolia 
near Pleuron, sometimes placed in Acar- 
nania. Later writers erroneously make it 
a mountain between Bootia and Attica, 
and hence mention it in connection with 
Amphion the Beotian hero, Prop. iv. 13, 
41. Virg. Eel. ii, 24.’ 

44.] Vestra, ‘the anger of you jealous 

LIBER IV. 16 (15). 

Fabula nulla tuas de nobis concitet aures: 


Te solam et lignis funeris ustus amem. 


Nox media, et dominze mihi venit epistola nostra 
Tibure: me missa jussit adesse mora, 

Candida qua geminas ostendunt culmina turres, 
Et cadit in patulos lympha Aniena lacus. 

Quid faciam? obductis committam mene tenebris, 


Ut timeam audaces in mea membra manus ? 
At si distulero hee nostro mandata timore, 
Nocturno fletus szvior hoste mihi. 
Peccaram semel, et totum sum pulsus in annum: 

In me mansuetas non habet ila manus. 

45.] Concitet, moveat, 7.e. noli credere 
falsis de me fabulis. 

XVI. The poet is supposed to solilo- 
quize on a letter he has just received from 
his mistress at Tibur. He weighs the in- 
convenience against the obligation to obey, 
and concludes with a touching picture of 
his funeral, supposing that some accident 
should happen on the journey. 

1—2.] The editors generally place a 

» colon at nostrz, and make adesse Tibure to 
| signify ad Tibur venire. Jacob, who thinks 
| the poet was summoned, not from Rome to 
_ Tibur, but from Tibur to Rome, defends 
the ablative by Ovid, Met. ii. 512, ‘Que- 
\ ritis, zetheriis quare Regina deorum Sedi- 
| bus huc adsim.’ The sense must then be 
 adesse Rome a Tibure. Perhaps indeed 
| | Tibure adesse may mean ‘to be at Tibur.’ 
| Hertzberg observes, that in v. 3—4 a de- 
_ +scription of Tibur itself is clearly intended ; 
therefore the poet is to go ¢o that town. 
‘Jacob, feeling this objection to his view, 
‘says, ‘monumentum aliquod Romanum 
describunt, quod a quodam lacu Aque 
_Anienis haud procul aberat; illic inven- 
‘turum Cynthiam esse.’ But it seems on 
the whole better to adopt the punctuation 
of Hertzberg, by which all obscurity and 
difficulty is at once removed. ‘A letter 
came from Tibur to say I was wanted 
there immediately.’ 

3.] The topography of Tibur is learnedly 
illustrated by Hertzberg. The white cliff, 
of the formation called travertin, the ravine 
of the Anio, which there dashes rapidly 


into a wide basin, and the prominent land- 
marks on each side of the bank described 
as gemine turres, were familiar objects to 
ave Roman, and could only apply to that 

41 Lympha. Hertzberg prefers Nym- 
pha from the Naples MS. and ed. Rheg. 
It is well known that the words are iden- 
tical ; nor does a long note seem necessary, 
to prove that whatever is presided over by 
a deity may be called by the name of that 
deity, as Ceres and Bacchus often signify 
bread and wine. 

6—8.] The danger of a night journey 
in the neighbourhood of Rome, from the 
roads being infested with banditti, is forci- 
bly expressed. See Juven. iii. 305, x. 20.— 
For distwlero hee some prefer hee distulero 
from the Groning. MS. and ed. Rheg. On 
this Lachmann makes a curious remark, 
which the reader will do well to verify for 
himself: ‘Amant poetze hee futura ultima 
vocali liquefacta ponere.’—wostro timore, 
from personal fear, fear for myself. Hertz- 
berg attempts to connect nostro mandata 
timore, for nobis timentibus, as nostro gemitu 
i. 21, 3. This seems as far-fetched as it is 

8.1 Fletus, t.e. the consequences to my- 
self of disobeying her behest: οἰμώζειν, 
as Barth observes. 

9.1 Peccaram semel, ‘I had offended 
only once,’ or had neglected to go when 
summoned on one single occasion, ‘and 
I was cast off for a whole year.’—totum 
in annum, 1.6. the year 729, according to 
Hertzberg’s calculation, Quest. p. 16. 



XNec tamen est quisquam, sacros qui ledat amantes. 
Scironis media sic licet ire via. 

Quisquis amator erit, Scythicis licet ambulet oris; 
Nemo adeo, ut noceat, barbarus esse volet. 
Luna ministrat iter; demonstrant astra salebras ; 

found ΠΣ 

Ipse Amor accensas percutit ante faces. 
Seeva canum rabies morsus avertit hiantis: 

Huic generi quovis tempore tuta via est. 
Sanguine tam parvo quis enim spargatur amantis 

Improbus? exclusis fit comes ipsa Venus. 


Quod si certa meos sequerentur funera casus, 
Talis mors pretio vel sit emenda mihi. 

Adferet hue unguenta mihi, sertisque sepulcrum 
Ornabit custos ad mea busta sedens. 

Di faciant, mea ne terra locet ossa frequent, 

Qua facit assiduo tramite vulgus iter. 

Post mortem tumuli sic infamantur amantum ; 
ἃ ee Ow 
Me tegat arborea devia terra coma, 
Aut humet ignote cumulus vallatus arene ; 

Non juvat in media nomen habere via. 

11—18.] He here alludes to the popular 
notion that a lover bore a charmed life: 
see vy. 1, 147—9. Tibull. i. 2, 27, ‘ Quis- 
quis amore tenetur, eat tutusque sacerque 
Qualibet; insidias non timuisse decet.’— 
sic, i.e. Si quis amat, is from Pucci. The 
MSS. have s¢licet or seclicet. 

16.] ‘Pereutit omnes. Corrigunt pre- 
cutit; non recte; nam precutit facem is, 
qui preecedens pereutit; hic autem Amor 
percutit ante.’—Jacob, Percutere is _pro- 
perly said of those who in carrying links 
strike the lighted end against a wall to 
knock off the accumulated ashes. See i. 
8, 10, Ovid, Am, i. 2, 12, ‘Vidi ego jac- 
tatas mota face crescere flammas, Et vidi 
nullo concutiente mori.’ The accusative 
after ministrat (i.e. preebet, commodat iter), 
is supported by Lachmann from Virgil 
(Georg. iv. 146), Seneca, and Statius; and 
therefore to read eguwis for titer in y. 19, 
with Barth and Kuinoel, from one late 
copy, would be most unreasonable, 

18.] Huie generi, 501]. amatorum. 

19.1 Parvo sanguine, 1. ὁ. insignificant, 
vili, as offering no prize to recompense the 
murderer. Miiller reads tam puro, after 
Fischer, and ecce, suis for eaclusis in the 


pentameter, on the same authority. Both 
seem to me most needless alterations. 

20.] Exclusis. The meaning of this 
word is obscure. Lachmann pronounces 
it ‘ineptissimum,’ and reads δέ cursus. 
Hertzberg understands execlusis commercio 
hominum, which is the most plausible ex- 
planation. The context rather suggests 
exclusis amicorum comitatu, Perhaps how- 
ever the poet had in mind the double 
danger both of the journey thither and the 
return when the lover had been refused 

21.] Meos casus, death by being way- 
laid. Certa funera, ‘si funera sibi parata 
fore certe sciat..—Lachmann. 

22.) Vel sit emenda, digna etiam esset 
quam emerem pretio: 

23.] Hue, sc. ad funera, Lachmann 
and others read hee with Guyet, but against 
the authority of the MSS. 

29.] Keil and Miiller, with Jacob and 
Lachmann, read aut humer ignote cumulis 
&e. The MSS. present various corrup- 
tions; the Naples MS. gives Awmeri and 
cumulis, the MS. Gron. humer (ὃ so Hertz- 
berg) Awmet according to Jacob, and ¢umu- 
lus: the ed. Rheg. Aumet. The epithet 


alls 9 



LIBER IV. 17 (16). 



Nune, o Bacche, tuis humiles advolvimur aris: 
Da mihi pacato vela secunda, pater. 

Tu potes insane Veneris compescere fastus, 
Curarumque tuo fit medicina mero. 

Per te junguntur, per te solvuntur amantes: 


Tu vitium ex animo dilue, Bacche, meo. 

Te quoque enim non esse rudem testatur in astris 
Lyncibus ad celum vecta Ariadna tuis. 

Hoe mihi, quod veteres custodit in ossibus ignes, 

Funera sanabunt, aut tua vina, malum. 


Semper enim vacuos nox sobria torquet amantes, 
Spesque timorque animum versat utroque meum. 

Quod si, Bacche, tuis per fervida tempora donis 
Accersitus erit somnus in ossa mea, 

Ipse seram vites, pangamque ex ordine colles, 


Quos carpant nulle, me vigilante, fere. 
Dummodo purpureo spument mihi dolia musto, 

vallatus applied to tumulus would be super- 
fluous, if not inappropriate; and the person 
buried would hardly be said vallari eumulis 
arene, which is applicable rather to one 
fenced round with a mound than to a dead 
body covered by it. 

XVII. This spirited poem bears internal 
evidence of having been written, like 
Horace’s Eve ! recenti mens trepidat metu, 
under the inspiration of the god himself 
who is addressed. Having been excluded 
by Cynthia, the poet consoles himself with 
wine; and the concluding distich would 
seem to indicate that he was now becoming 
tired of the servitude which in El. xxiv. he 
finally abjures. 

2.] Lachmann and Barth adopt the 
|, reading of the MS. Groning., bacchato. 
τ But the whole point of the poem is to ask 
for ease and comfort from the god of wine. 
The word in the text is also adapted to the 
simile borrowed from a calm sea. 

5.] As on the one hand affection is 
warmed and love promoted, so on the other 
quarrels arise and separations result from 

6.] Vitium, ‘this weakness,’ ‘ egritu- 
dinem animi.’— Barth. 

7.] Rudem, amoris expertem. 

9.] In ossibus, Cf. vy. 4, 70, ‘Nam 

Vesta—culpam alit et plures condit in ossa 
faces.’—aut tua vina, 7.e. if your wine will 
not heal it, nothing but death will. 

12.] There is some doubt as to the true 
reading of this verse. The Groning. MS, 
gives animum vexat utringue meum; the 
Naples MS. and ed. Rheg. animo versat 
utroque modo. Iam inclined to think that 
utroque is genuine, and that the other ab- 
latives are corruptions arising from an at- 
tempt to adapt some substantive to the 
supposed pronoun. I therefore follow 
Kuinoel and Lachmann rather than Barth 
and Jacob, who give versat utrogue modo, 
and so also Keil and Miiller. Hertzberg 
has versat utringue meum. Mr. Wratislaw, 
utraque. The sense is, ‘As a sober night 
is always dismal to a lover who lies vacuo 
toro, and as my mind is distracted at present 
between hope and the fear of disappoint- 
ment, therefore I will have recourse to 

13.] Construe donis per fervida tempora, 
sc. fusis, ‘by wine acting on my feverish 
brow.’ Compare ‘hoc sollicitum caput,’ 
inf, 42. 

15.] Pangam, disponam, conseram, dis- 
tinguam.—me vigilante, τ. ὁ. quos custodiam 
ne carpant fere. 

17—20.] ‘Provided only I have a 
neyer-failing supply of grape juice, I will 



Et nova pressantis inquinet. uva pedes, 
Quod superest vite, per te et tua cornua vivam, 

Virtutisque tuze, Bacche, poeta ferar. 
Dicam ego maternos Aitnzeo fulmine partus, 
Indica Nysxis arma fugata choris, 

Vesanumque nova nequidquam in vite Lycurgum, 
Pentheos in triplices funera grata greges, 

Curvaque Tyrrhenos delphinum corpora nautas 


In vada pampinea desiluisse rate, 
Et tibi per mediam bene olentia flumina Naxon, 

ever be your votary and the poet of your 
valourous deeds.’ Jacob and Hertzberg 
seem to have rightly transferred the full 
stop usually placed at pedes v.18, to fere 
y. 16, since the condition in dwmmodo refers 
rather to what follows than to zpse seram 
vites &e. 

19.] Cornua. One of the attributes of 
' Bacchus was κερασφόρος. See Tibull. 11. 
.1, 3; Plutarch, Jsid. § 35, who identifies 
the god with Osiris. The true explanation 
seems to be that the bull was the common 
Eastern symbol of vitality and physical 
power, whence it so commonly occurs in 
the Assyrian sculptures. According to 
Plutarch, Symposiae. lib. ix. ii. § 3, ἄλφα 
was the Phoenician name of the ox, which 
may be supposed to have stood first in a 
phonetic alphabet as the most important 
gift of Earth. Now the grape was so 
naturally associated with the ox, as being 
one of the most essential vegetable pro- 
ducts of the soil, that we need not be 
surprised at Bacchus being painted with 
horns. Corn, wine, and cattle, were the 
three staple commodities of the early set- 
tlers, and closely associated in their my- 

21.) tno fulmine. Eurip. Bacch, 
Σεμέλη λοχευθεῖσ᾽ ἀστραπηφόρῳ πυρί. 

This legend also is easily explained: in 
fact, Strabo gave the true interpretation 
of it long before philology was thought of 
asa science. The vine, it is well known, 
delights in volcanic soils, on the potash and 
sulphur of which it feeds; hence the grape 
was called the offspring of eruptions. 
Strabo, lib. xiii. iv.: τινὲς δὲ εἰκότως πυ- 
ριγενῆ τὸν Διόνυσον λέγεσθαί φασιν, ἐκ 
τῶν τοιούτων χωρίων τεκμαιρόμενοι. Idem, 
lib. v. cap. 4, (speaking of Vesuvius, which 
in his time was not an active volcano), 
τάχα δὲ καὶ τῆς εὐκαρπίας τῆς κύκλῳ TOUT 
αἴτιον, ὥσπερ τῇ Κατάνῃ φασὶ, 7d κατα- 
τεφρωθὲν μέρος ἐκ τῆς σποδοῦ τῆς ἀνε- 

νεχθείσης ὑπὸ τοῦ Αἰτναίου πυρὸς, εὐάμ- 
πέλον τὴν γῆν ἐποίησεν: ἔχει μὲν γὰρ τὸ 
λιπαῖνον καὶ τὴν ἐκπυρουμένην βῶλον, καὶ 
τὴν ἐκφέρουσαν τοὺς καρπούς. 

23,1 Vesanum in vite, ‘acting madly in 
the case of the vine,’ 7.e. in his treatment 
of it, by a well-known idiom. Various 
accounts of this Thracian king are given: 
the epithet nova implies that he opposed 
the introduction of the grape, or, perhaps, 
some particular variety of it. He is said 
to haye gone mad and to have cut his own 
knee, or, according to others, to have killed 
his own son, in attempting to destroy the 
vines. See Iliad, vi. 180; Soph. Ant. 959. 
Apollodor. iii. 5, 1, Λυκοῦργος δὲ, παῖς 
Aptavros, "Hdwvav βασιλεὺς, of Στρύμονα 
ποταμὸν παροικοῦσι, πρῶτος ὑβρίσας ἐξέ- 
βαλεν αὐτόν.---Ὁ δὲ, μεμηνὼς, Δρύαντα 
τὸν παῖδα, ἀμπέλου νομίζων κλῆμα κόπτειν, 
πελέκει πλήξας, ἀπέκτεινε, καὶ ἀκρωτη- 
ριάσας αὐτὸν, ἐσωφρόνησε. 

24.] In triplices greges. Barth supplies 
divisa, which is certainly better than Kui- 
noel’s ‘funera grata in triplices greges pro, 
triplicibus gregibus.’—grata, t.e. Baccho. 
Compare Eur. Bacch. 680, ὁρῶ δὲ θιάσους 
τρεῖς γυναικείων χορῶν, ὧν ἦρχ᾽ ἑνὸς μὲν 

Αὐτονόη, τοῦ δευτέρου Μήτηρ ᾿Αγαύη σὴ; | 

τρίτου δ᾽ ᾿Ινὼ χοροῦ. 

25—6.] This story is beautifully told... 

in one of the Homeric Hymns to Bacchus. Ὁ 

See also Ovid, Wet. iii. 630 seq.—delphinum. τ 

corpora, mutatos in delphinas. 

27.] Flumina, i.e. dicam, v.21. ‘Dicam 
vini flumina per mediam Naxon tibi efflux- 
isse.’ The tradition was that at Naxos 
there was a spring of pure wine; a legend 
expressive of abundance of the grape. Eur. 
Bacch. 707, καὶ τῇδε κρήνην ἐξανῆκ᾽ οἴνου 
θεός. It was in this fertile and beautiful 

Ariadne mourning for the perfidious The- 
seus, and that the wedding ceremony was 
held, which is here alluded to. 

Ε = 



island, also called Dia, that Bacchus Ἂ 

LIBER IV. 18 (17). 193 

Unde tuum potant Naxia turba merum. 
Candida laxatis onerato colla corymbis ὲ 

Cinget Bassaricas Lydia mitra comas; ἢ 30 
Levis odorato cervix manabit olivo, 

Et feries nudos veste fluente pedes. 

Molla Dircee pulsabunt tympana Thebe ; 
Capripedes calamo Panes hiante canent; 
Vertice turrigero juxta dea magna Cybelle 

ep ΟΣ 

Tundet ad Τάξθοβ. cymbala rauca choros. 
Ante fores templi crater antistitis auro 
Libatum fundens in tua sacra merum. 
Hee ego non humili referam memeranda cothurno, 
Qualis Pindarico spiritus ore tonat. 40 
Tu modo servitio vacuum me siste superbo, 
Atque hoe sollicitum vince sopore caput. 


Clausus ab umbroso qua ludit Pontus Averno, 

30.] Cinget and the following futures 
mean in meo carmine. Cf. 39. — Lydia 
mitra. Hertzberg considers this to have 
been a peculiar form of the head-dress, 
with pendents covering the cheeks. See 
vy. 7, 62, and ibid. 5, 72. 

32.] Nudos pedes. Bacchus seems to 
have been thus represented from the custom 
of treading grapes. ‘Tinge novo mecum 
dereptis crura cothurnis,’ Virg. Georg. ii. 8. 
The vestis fluens alluded to is the long 
palla. See iii. 23, 16, and on vy. 6, 76. 

36.] The MSS. give fundet, There can 
be no doubt of the truth of Scaliger’s cor- 
rection, though Jacob hesitates to admit it. 
The transposition of eymbala and tympana, 
on account of their respective epithets, is 
mere trifling with the text, and it is sur- 
prising that Lachmann should have followed 
Burmann in the alteration. The tympana 
are ‘soft,’ z.e. yielding to the blow, because 
made of stretched hide; the cymbala are 
‘harsh’ from their noisy clang. On the 
other hand, as Hertzberg observes, modlia 
cymbala is an absurdity. 

37.] auro, supply factus erit, 
1 Siste &c., κατάστησον, ‘fac me 
carere servitio mihi a Cynthia imposito.’ 

XVIII. On the death of Marcellus, son 
of C. Marcellus and Octayia, sister of Au- 

gustus, which event took place at Baia, 
B.C. 23, when he was in his 20th year 
(v. 15). The celebrated passage in the 
Aimeid, vi. 860 seq., commemorates and 
immortalises his memory. From a mis- 
taken notion that the poet speaks of him 
in v. 9 as having been accidentally drowned, 
it has been erroneously inferred that sus- 
picion of foul play on the part of Livia 
was entertained. The silence of Suetonius 
on the subject of his death is remarkable ; 
but there is no reason to doubt that it was 
caused by the incautious or excessive use 
of the bath, added, perhaps, to the ener- 
vating effects of the sea air: see on τ. 9. 
1.] The MSS. and edd. give Judit, 
‘chafes and ripples,’ which has been re- 
tained by the recent editors, except Hertz- 
berg, who reads adludit, the conjecture of 
Canter, 7.e. ‘where the sea washes Baiz.’ 
But the elision is not metrically elegant, 
and perhaps it is better to take stagna in 
apposition to Pontus, i.e. ubi sunt stagna. 
The Lucrine lake, it is well known, was 
connected with the Avernian (Georg. ii. 
161), by a cutting through the intervening 
ridge, so as to form a connected series of 
docks or harbours, called the Julian Port, 
the outer sea, or bay of Naples, being kept 
out by the natural barrier of the via 
Herculis, see i, 11, 12. The lake Avernus 


35 th baer. “ 




Fumida Baiarum stagna tepentis aque, 

Qua jacet et Trojz tubicen Misenus arena, 
Et sonat Hereculeo structa labore via, 

Hic, ubi, mortales dextra cum quereret urbes, 5 
Cymbala Thebano concrepuere deo,-— 

At nunc, invisee magno cum crimine Baie, 

is called wnbrosus, because the overhanging 
sides were formerly covered with a verdure 
which imparted a gloomy and dismal aspect 
to a lake which was already regarded as 
‘uncannie,’ and wmbrarum locus (Ain. vi. 
890). So wnbrost rogi in v. 11, 8, are the 
shadow-haunted tombs. Strabo, v. cap. 4, 
περικλείεται δ᾽ ~Aopvos ὀφρύσιν ὀρθίαις, 
ὑπερκειμέναις πανταχόθεν πλὴν τοῦ εἴσ- 
πλου, νῦν μὲν ἡμέρως ἐκπεπονημέναις, 
πρότερον δὲ συνηρεφέσιν ἀγρίᾳ ὕλῃ με- 
γαλοδένδρῳ καὶ ἀβάτῳ, αἱ κατὰ δεισι- 
δαιμονίαν κατάσκιον ἐποίουν τὸν κόλπον. 
The Lucrine lake extended nearly up to 
Baie (πλατύνεται μέχρι Balwy, Strabo) 
whence it is here in a manner identified 
with the hot sulphur baths of that watering 
place. Pontus must therefore be under- 
stood of the Lucrine lake, not of the outer 
sea. It is clausus, as divided by a strip of 
land from Avernus. Hertzberg has a sus- 
picion that Averno is here put for Lucrino, 
and that Pontus is the bay of Naples, shut 
out by the via Herculis. Strabo, in fact, 
distinctly says that Artemidorus considered 
the Lucrine lake to be the Avernus.—The 
topography of the place is known from 
ancient accounts; but the nature of the 
ground has, been greatly changed, both by 
the alteration of the coast line and by the 
Monte Nuovo rising up in a single night, 
Sept. 19, 1538, in the site of the Lucrine 
lake, which thus disappeared. See Hum- 
boldt, Cosmos, vol.i. p. 229. It is probable 
that the via Herculis was in part at least 
artificial, as Agrippa, who executed the 
above great work, is said by Strabo to 
have repaired it (ἐπισκευάσαι). See Ritter 
on Tac. Ann. xiv. 8.  ‘Lucrino addita 
claustra,’ Georg. ii. 161. 

2.] Fumida. The copies and earlier 
edd. give hwmida. Scaliger’s emendation 
admits of no doubt. Ovid, 4. A. i. 256, 
‘Quid referam Baias, preetextaque litora 
velis, Et que de calido sulphure fumat, 
aquam δ᾽ 

8.1 Misenus, See 1.11, 4; Virg. Zn, 
vi. 162, seq.—sonat, ¢.e. ‘maris vehemen- 
tioris appulsu,’ as Hertzberg rightly ex- 
plains. Others understand eguorwm ungulis. 
But Strabo says it was only as wide as a 

carriage road, and not easily crossed even 
on foot. It was, in fact, a long and narrow 
trap dyke, which could hardly have been 
used for horses or even mules, especially 
as there was, of course, an entrance through 
it into the Lucrine Lake. 

5.] I have adopted mortales (for mor- 
talis) from the Naples and Groning. MSS. 
The nominative, as Hertzberg shows, is 
objectionable for two reasons; first, the 
very next line speaks of Hercules as deus, 
not homo; secondly, he was at all events 
not mortalis, even in the condition of homo 
on earth.—guerere mortales urbes is op- 
posed to celum adire, implied in deo. Both 
Keil and Miiller however, and also Mr. 
Wratislaw, read mortalis. It is not quite 
clear whether Thebanus deus is Hercules or 

Bacchus; and on this depends the sense of i : 
The addition of dextra, ‘by ἡ 

prowess of hand,’ seems to fix the sense to 
Hercules and his conquests. If we read 

mortalis, the meaning will be, ‘on the 

spot where the Theban god was worshipped 
for conquering cities as a human hero on 
earth.’ From his legendary exploits in 
this part of Italy the town of Herculaneum 
derived its name. He was also the patron, 
as Hertzberg observes, of hot springs, and 
hence was additionally honoured at Bais, 
as well as at Tibur (vy. 7, 82). Hence, 
too, there is a peculiar force in hostis deus, 
v. 8, as if the patron god had abandoned 
the springs and some noxious deity had 
occupied his place. Dr, Livingstone, writ- 
ing from Central Africa, says, the Manyema 
people ‘call the spirit of evil, who resides 
in the deep, Mulambu. A hot fountain 
near Bambarre is supposed to belong to 
this being, the author of death by drown- 
ing and other misfortunes.’ 

7.] The anacoluthon in the opening 
verses presents no serious difficulty; the 
distich 7—8 containing one of those sudden 
apostrophes so characteristic of Propertius. 
The apodosis is at vy. 9. ‘Where Baiz is, 
—formerly favoured by the presence of a 
god, but now having a less benign influence, 
—here,’ &c. The name of Marcellus, it 
will be observed, is suppressed. 



Alse Sy Td harne γῶν. Avlgnus> 

ΙΒ FV. 18. (17). 

Quis deus in vestra constitit hostis aqua ?— 
His pressus Stygias vultum demisit in undas, 

- Errat et in vestro spiritus 1116 lacu. 


Quid genus, aut virtus, aut optima profuit illi 
Mater, et amplexum Cesaris esse focos ? 

Aut modo tam pleno fluitantia vela theatro, 
Et per maternas omnia gesta manus ? 

Occidit, et misero steterat vigesimus annus: 

Tot bona tam parvo clausit in orbe dies. 
I nunc, tolle animos, et tecum finge triumphos, 
Stantiaque in plausum tota theatra juvent. 
Attalicas supera vestes, atque omnia magnis 

Gemmea sint ludis: ignibus ista dabis. 

Sed tamen huc omnes, hue 

9.] His pressus, i.e. stagnis, sup. 2. 
This verse is commonly nusinterpreted to 
signify that the youth was drowned in the 
bay of Baiz. But it is evident that this is 
a gratuitous supposition. Such an ex- 
planation leaves it doubtful to what his 
refers: in fact it is only by supplying 
aquis, that such a sense could be elicited. 
By saying that Marcellus died oppressed 
and overcome by the baths at Baie, he 
explains why that watering-place was now 
invise cum magno crimine. Mr. Wratislaw, 
referring iis to his Baits, naturally finds a 
difficulty in vestro Jacu, and proposes hic. 
It is hard to say if ‘demittere vultum in 
Stygias aquas’ is a general term for dying, 
or has reference to dipping the head and 
face in sulphur-waters supposed to be in- 
fested with a demon. Lachmann, Barth, 
and others read demersit, which would 
rather require im undis. Hertzberg rightly 
explains pressus by oppressus, afflictus, show- 
ing from Cic. Ep. ad Fam. ix. 12, that the 
climate of Baize was considered very re- 
laxing and unwholesome. Strabo too calls 
the volcanic vapours καμνώδεις. 

10.] This fine verse is certainly not im- 
proved by Lachmann’s punctuation, ‘ Errat 
et in vestro, spiritus, Ile, lacu.’ He is 
right, however, as to the sense. Marcellus 
‘flits a spirit’ in those fatal waters. The 

| Avernian lake was the very abode of 

ghosts, νεκυομαντεῖον, Strabo, γ. cap. 4. 
12.] Amplexum esse.—amplexo Barth 
and Kuinoel, but against the good copies. 
What availed it, the poet asks, that he 
was connected with the house of Cesar? 
‘Amplexus vero erat Augusti focos non 
tantum adoptione, sed etiam sponsaliis 

primus et ultimus ordo: 

celebratis ante deos Penates cum Julia, 
Augusti filia.’—Barth. 

13.] The sense is thus given by Hertz- 
berg : ‘ Quid referam Marcelli ipsius gesta, 
quid preeterea omnia illa, que ejus nomine 
mater gesserit >’ Ἵ 
the duties of her son as .25.4116, when he ἡ 
was unable through illness to attend to 
them. The theatre of Marcellus was 
erected by Augustus in the name of his 
nephew. See Tac. Ann. ili. 64; Sueton. 
Oct. § 29. ‘Quedam etiam opera sub 
nomine alieno, nepotum scilicet et uxoris 
sororisque, fecit : ut porticum basilicamque 
Caii et Lucii; item porticus Livie et 
Octavie, theatrumque Marcelli.’ — Jodo 
tam pleno seems more correct than modo 
Jfluitantia, i.e. que nuper fluitare vidimus. 
To the same gift he alludes in y.19, Atta- 
licas supera vestes. See v.5, 24. The vela 
were the awnings, (sinuosa vela, v. 1, 15), 
graphically described in the old theatre by 
Lucretius, iv. 75 seqq., where they are 
also called vela, different perhaps from 
aulea, Georg. 111. 25. 

16.] Dies, i.e. the brief life of Marcellus. 

17.] 1 mune. Addressed ironically to 
any vain believer in human glory. 

20.] The MSS. agree in ὑδέα. Jacob 
and Lachmann, apparently by an over- 
sight, print usta, which is also given by 
Kuinoel from a late MS., though not by 
Barth. The reading is decidedly inferior, 
as it ought rather to have been wrenda. 
On the contrary, ista, ‘those riches and 
honours of yours,’ happily expresses the 
perishable and worthless nature of them. 

21.] Hue, sc. tendimus. The Naples 
and Gron. MSS. have hoe, which Lach- 

Octavia had conducted » 

KANTO re ς 
arin Δαναῶν fT 

«μύμδα Td eN® 


Est mala, sed cunctis ista terenda via est. 
Exoranda canis tria sunt latrantia colla; 
Scandenda est torvi publica cymba senis. : 

ΠΙῸ licet ferro cautus se condat et ere, 
Mors tamen inclusum protrahit inde caput. 

Nirea non facies, non vis exemit Achillem, 
Creesum aut, Pactoli quas parit humor, opes. 

Hic olim ignaros luctus populavit Achivos, 
Atridze magno cum stetit alter amor. 

At tibi nauta, pias hominum qui traicit™umbras, 
Hue anime portet corpus inane tue, 

Qua Siculee victor flluris Claudius et qua 

Cesar ab humana cessit 

mann reads in both places, sc. ‘hoc omnes 
coguntur facere.’—ordo perhaps refers to 
the different ranks as arranged in the 
theatre. —tamen implies some ellipse: ‘(in- 
visa quidem est mors) sed tamen’ &e. This 
sentiment in fact is expressed in the pen- 

25.] lle, ‘this (1.6. any) man may hide 
his body in iron and brass; yet Death will 
come and force him to put out his head.’ 
The figure is perhaps derived from a snail 
or tortoise concealed in a shell. 

29.] Jgnaros, sc. imprudentes, causam 
mali nescientes. Alter amor is the love of 
Chryseis; whence Clytemnestra taunts her 
husband with having been Χρυσηΐδων 
μείλιγμα τῶν ὑπ᾽ Ἰλίῳ, Ag. 1414. Lach- 
mann gives altus amor, and refers magno 
stetit to the Greeks, not to Agamemnon 
himself. Hertzberg thus paraphrases: 
‘quo tempore A. iterum amore male mulc- 
tatus est;’ observing that in all his loves 
Agamemnon was unfortunate. As popu- 
lavit is stronger than vexavit, it is likely 
that Zwetws is the grief of Achilles for the 
loss of Briseis; which grief caused the 
loss, by war and pestilence, of so many of 
the Greeks. ‘Talis tantusque est hic luctus 
ob Marcellum extinctum, qualis quantus- 
que Greecorum fuit, publicus nempe, non 

32.] Miller, with Lachmann and Kui- 
noel reads suze for tue, which latter is 
found in all the copies. The passage is 
obscure, and has been variously altered 
and explained. The common reading is, 
‘At tibi, nauta, pias hominum qui trajicis 
umbras, Hue anime portent corpus inane 
tue.’ Hertzberg has a rather tedious note 
of four pages upon it: ‘ Tue anime are ex- 

in astra via. 

plained ‘tui venti, tua flamina, O Charon,’ 
as Pucci interpreted it: tii, ἐ.6. ‘tuo dicto 
obedientes.’ Corpus inane is for wnbram 
mortui, the confusion between the soul 
and the body being, as elsewhere remarked, 
very common in the Latin poets. This 
explanation of the vulgate is the best that 
has been proposed. Few however will 
consider it satisfactory. In the former 
edition I proposed the reading now given 
in the text, and it has been adopted by 
Mr. Wratislaw; ὁ, 6. ‘Tibi, O Marcelle, 
hue portet Charon corpus inane anime 
tux, (sc. vita defunctum), Qua,’ &c. (see 
v. 7,60). The natural mistake of connect- 
ing tibi, O nauta, necessarily led to the 
corruption of trajicit to trajicis—Lachmann 
quotes ‘corpus inane anime’ from Ovid, 
Met. ii. 611, and xiii. 488. So Hor. Od. iii. 
11, 26, ‘inane lymphe dolium.’ 

33.] Claudius, i.e. Claudius Marcellus, 
conqueror of Syracuse B.c. 212. To him 
Ovid alludes, Fast. iv. 873, ‘Utque Syra- 
cusas Arethusidas abstulit armis Claudius, 
et bello te quoque cepit, Eryx,’ &c. The 
meaning of the whole passage is thus given 
by Hertzberg: ‘ Hoc Charontem obsecrat, 
ut Marcellum eo advehat, qua via ad sedes 
beatorum ducat. Hae quondam avyum 
Claudium cessisse, hac divum Czsarem 
ingressum ulterius etiam astra petisse.’ 
Humana via is the road which all must 
tread, ὦ 6. death, according to the same 
authority : but why not ad hominum con- 
versatione 2 In astra must of course be 
understood of Julius Cesar alone: gua 
(agit or vivit) Claudius, ze. in Elysium, is 
to be supplied in the former part of the 

LIBER IV. 19 (18). 



Objicitur totiens a te mihi nostra libido; 
Crede mihi, vobis imperat ista magis. 
Vos, ubi contempti rupistis frena pudoris, 
Nescitis captee mentis habere modum. 

Flamma per incensas citius sedetur aristas, 5 

Fluminaque ad fontis sint reditura caput, 
Et placidum Syrtes portum et bona litora nautis 

Preebeat hospitio seva Malea suo, 

Quam possit, vestros quisquam reprehendere cursus, 
Et rabide stimulos frangere nequitie. 

Testis, Cretzi fastus que passa juvenci 


Induit abiegne cornua falsa bovis; 
Testis Thessalico flagrans Salmonis Enipeo, 
Que voluit liquido tota subire deo. 

Crimen et illa fuit patria succensa senecta 

Arboris in frondes condita Myrrha nove. 

Nam quid Medex referam quo tempore matris 
Tram natorum cede piavit amor? 

Quidve Clytzemnestre, propter quam tota Mycenis 

XIX. The poet endeavours to prove 
that the passions of the female sex are 
stronger and less under control than in 

5.] Sedetur. The potential of sedare. 
Kuinoel reads sedaret from the Palatine 
MS., which however is manifestly wrong, 
the verb being active. 

7.] Syrtes, the plural, to which prebeant 
is to be supplied. 

8.] MMalea. Pucci observes that Virgil 
shortens the second syllable, zn. συ. 193, 
‘ Malezeque sequacibus undis.’ The Greek 
is Μάλεια and Μαλέα. It seems certain 
that the diphthong εἰ as well as αἱ is sus- 
ceptible of being pronounced short before 
a vowel. So Auschylus uses dyieta, Ag. 
972, and we have #schyléo in iii. 26, 41. 

9.] Reprehendere, cohibere, retinere. 

10.] Rabide Miller, from the corrected 
copies, for rapide, which Lachmann and 
Keil retain. The strong words flagrans 
(13) and suecensa (15) justify the correc- 

12.] See v. 7, 57, ‘mentite lignea 
monstra bovis.’—cornua, t.e. formam boyis. 

13.] Salmonis. See oni, 13, 21, ~ 

14.] Swubire, se subdere. 

15.] Crimen. For eriminosa, by a Greek 
use, as plonua, στύγημα &e. applied to 
persons. Compare i. 11, 30, ‘Ah pereant 
Baie, crimen amoris, aque.’—patria suc- 
censa senecta, ‘flagrans amore patris senis 
Cinyre.’— Kuinoel. See Ovid, Met. x. 298. 

17.] Medez, sc. crimen. The same 
word must be supplied in vy. 19. The 
construction is, ‘cum Medex amor piavit 
(explevit) matris iram (sc. in Creusam) 
cede natorum suorum :’ when the love of 
a mother was so far overcome by her in- 
fatuated attachment that she killed her 
own children. Matris ira is the resent- 
ment she felt as a mother, on the father 
of her children deserting her for another. 
And this is contrasted with the conflicting 
emotion, amor conjugis. Jacob considers 
the construction to be; ‘quid referam quo 
tempore Medew amor matris iram piavit.’ 
But this leaves the genitive Clytemnestre 
unprovided for except by supplying amor. 
Lachmann reads Clytemnestra, in the nomi- 
native, which however leaves some ellipse 
to be supplied. 


Infamis stupro stat Pelopea domus ? 



Tuque o Minoa venumdata, Scylla, figura, 
Tondens purpurea regna paterna coma. 
Hane igitur dotem virgo desponderat hosti: 
Nise, tuas portas fraude reclusit Amor. 

At vos, innuptee, felicius urite tedas: 

Pendet Cretza tracta puella rate. 
Non tamen immerito Minos sedet arbiter Orci: 
Victor erat quamvis, zquus in hoste fuit. 


Credis eum jam posse tus meminisse figure, 
Vidisti a lecto quem dare vela tuo? 
Durus, qui lucro potuit mutare puellam! 

21.] Tuque O &e. 1.6. tu quoque, Ὁ 
Scylla, venumdata es, capta, Minois pul- 
critudine. On this Propertian use of 
Jigura see 1.4, 9. Scylla, daughter of 
Nisus king of Megara, (sometimes wrongly 
confounded with Scylla the marine monster, 
as in y. 4, 39) sold herself and her country 
to Minos, king of Crete, by cutting off a 
certain purple lock of her father’s hair, 
See Asch. Cho. 615 &e. Pausan. Aft. 1, 
xix. 5: és τοῦτον τὸν Νῖσον ἔχει λόγος, 
τρίχας ἐν τῇ κεφαλῇ οἱ πορφυρᾶς εἶναι, 
χρῆναι δὲ αὐτὸν ἐπὶ ταύταις ἀποκαρείσαις 
τελευτᾶν. ‘Os δὲ οἱ Κρῆτες ἦλθον ἐς τὴν 
γῆν, τὰς μὲν ἄλλας ἥρουν ἐξ ἐπιδρομῆς τὰς 
ἐν τῇ Μεγαρίδι πόλεις, ἐς δὲ τὴν Νισαίαν 
καταφεύγοντα τὸν Νῖσον ἐπολιόρκουν" 
ἐνταῦθα τοῦ Νίσον λέγεται θυγατέρα 
ἐρασθῆναι Μίνω, καὶ ὡς ἀπέκειρε τὰς 
τρίχας τοῦ πατρός. 

22. Tondens. ‘Cum purpurea coma 
patris Nisi regnum simul tondens et ex- 
cidens.’—Barth. Perhaps we should read 
purpuream comam, to which regna would 
stand in apposition; ‘comam a qua pen- 
debat regni salus.’ See on iv. 13,2. Keil 
and Miiller read tondes. It is easy to 
supply either crimen es or testis es from 13, 
23.] Hane dotem, t.e. prodende patric. 
Compare y. 4, 56, ‘Dos tibi non humilis 
prodita Roma venit.’ 

25.) Felicius write, i.e. may your mar- 
riages have a happier result. 

26.] Tracta rate. She was tied to the 
rudder of Minos’ ship. 

27.] Though a conqueror, he showed 
his justice even in the case of an enemy, 
ἦ.6. mM avenging even an enemy by punish- 
ing her who had betrayed him. Pindar 
(Pyth. ii. 73) gives a similar reason for 
Rhadamanthys being a judge in Hades, 
because he was sensible and not deceived 
by guiles and flatteries. 

XX. Barth is of opinion that this diffi- 
cult elegy is one of the earliest of the 
poet’s compositions; and he places the date 
at A.u.c. 723, while Hertzberg assigns 
A.u.c. 732. He shrewdly observes, that 
the name Cynthia does not occur in it; 
and it is certainly not easy to understand 
vy. 9 and 13 otherwise than as implying 
the commencement of their intimacy (in 
726). Lachmann and Jacob indeed, as 
well as Keil and Miller, follow Scaliger 
in beginning a new elegy after ver. 10, 
and transposing the distich 13, 14, before 
11, 12. If we adopt the latter almost 
necessary correction, there is no want of 
continuity in the ordinary arrangement. 
Having invited Cynthia (or Hostia) to ac- 
cept his protection and regard, he imme- 
diately proceeds to arrange the terms as if 
he were tpso facto her recognised lover. 
Such a fragmentary and unfinished address 
of ten lines is not rashly to be attributed 
to the poet. Who the faithless rival al- 
luded to in y. 1—2 may have been, is un- 

2.1 Dare velaalecto. ἐκ τῶν ἁβροτίμων 
προκαλυμμάτων ἕπλευσεν, Asch. 4g. 700. 

LIBER IV. 20 (19). 


Tantine, ut lacrimes, Africa tota fuit ? 
At tu, stulta, deos tu fingis, inania verba! ὄ 
Forsitan 1116 alio pectus amore terat. 

Est tibi forma potens, sunt cast Palladis artes, 
Splendidaque a docto fama refulget avo. μ᾽ 


Fortunata domus, modo sit tibi fidus amicus. 

Fidus ero: in nostros curre, puella, toros. 


Nox mihi prima venit; prime data tempora noctis 13 

Longius in primo, Luna, morare toro ; 14 
Tu quoque, qui ezstivos spatiosius exigis ignes, 11 
Phcebe, morature contrahe lucis iter. 1 
Foedera sunt ponenda prius, signandaque jura, 15 

Et scribenda mihi lex in amore novo. 

4. Tantine is the reading of Pucci: 

the MSS. give tantisne in lacrimis, except 
that iz is omitted inthe MS. Gron. Jacob 
has tantine in lacrimis, which he explains 
‘inter lacrymas,’ and so Keil; Hertzberg 
tantine, his lacrimis, &e. 1, 6. ‘hac lacri- 
mante;’ Lachmann TYantisne in lacrimis 
Africa grata fuit 5 Barth Tantisne in lucris 
&c. and lastly, Kuinoel, with Heinsius, 
Tantine ut lacrymes ἕο. Miiller, after 
Heinsius, tantine, ut lacrimes. Of these 
various attempts I prefer that of Miiller, 
which gives the easiest and most natural 
sense. Compare sup. 12, 3, ‘tantine ulla 
fuit spoliati gloria Parthi ?’ 
6.) At tu &e. ‘But you, simpleton, 
console yourself by fancying that there are 
gods who will avenge his perfidy; vain 
belief! while he meanwhile is perhaps 
cherishing another.’ Hertzberg condemns 
this simple explanation, which is due to 
Kuinoel, and prefers the following: ‘Tu 
deos veros esse et quales deos esse decet 
(perjurii vindices) falso tibi persuades. 
At illi perfidiam non curant,’ &c. while 
verba jingis he takes in a different sense, 
‘verba componis, ne perfidum credere ama- 
torem sustineas.’ Lachmann gives vera 
for verba, and he is followed by Miller. 
Jacob says: ‘sensus est: et deos et inania 
promissa tu fingis;—illa istius deos, per 
quos juraverat, promissaque, que dederat, 
vera fingens, quum essent inania, se ipsa 

6.] Terat, 
pectus &e. 

7.1 Forma potens, cf. ii. 5, 28, ‘Cynthia 
forma potens, Cynthia verba levis.’—Pal- 
ladis artes, see oni. 2, 27. On the doctus 
avus, whom some haye supposed to be the 

consumat, vexet suum 

poet Hostius, Hertzberg has a not very 
convincing discussion, Quest. pp. 38—9, 
where he insists that Cynthia (7. e. Hostia) 
must have been born of Zibertini, but makes 
no attempt to account for the strong ex- 
pressions splendida fama and docto avo. 
The avus in question may probably have , 
been celebrated as an actor or musician on © 
the stage; for the highly laudatory words 
of the poet may fairly be regarded as the 
language of compliment. Nothing what- 
ever is known of Cynthia’s parentage. 

10.] One of the inferior MSS. gives 
sinus, which is certainly more elegant than 
the vulgate, and 1s adopted by Barth and 
Kuinoel. Had the poet already conferred 
the name Cynthia on his mistress, he would 
probably have written ‘Cynthia eurre’ for 
‘curre puella.’ 

12.] Morature lueis, i.e. the day which 
would in the natural course of events 
linger on. Compare ‘Luna moraturis 
sedula luminibus,’ i. 3, 32, and ‘victura 
rosaria Peesti,’ v. 5,61. The idea, which 
is most poetically expressed, perhaps is 
taken from the legend in Plautus, Am- 
phitr. 118, ‘et hee ob eam rem nox est 
facta longior, Dum cum illa quacum vult 
voluptatem capit,’ sc. Jupiter. 

13.] The connexion is, ‘nox enim prima 
venit? &e. For data Lachmann, Keil, and 
Miiller give date, with the Naples MS. 

15—20.] ‘The marriage rite has first 
to be duly solemnised.’ This, as Jacob 
supposes, is mentioned as a reason why 
the day should be shortened and the night 
protracted. If this be right, priws in 16 
means that before the night has passed 
the marriage ceremonies haye to be gone 
through, 7.¢. the novus amor to be con- 


Hc Amor ipse suo constringet pignera signo ; 
. . “ 
Testis sidereze tota corona dee. 


Quam multz ante meis cedent sermonibus hore, 

Dulcia quam nobis concitet arma Venus! 

Namque, ubi non certo vincitur feedere lectus, 
Non habet ultores nox vigilanda deos, 

Et quibus imposuit, solvit mox vincla libido :— 
Contineant nobis omina prima fidem ! 

Ergo, qui pactas in foedera ruperit aras, 

Pollueritque novo sacra marita toro, 
Uh sint, quicumque solent in amore dolores, 
Et caput argutze prebeat histori ; 

summated. The allusion to the marriage 
is of course allegorical; he means, ‘ We 
must first make a formal engagement to 
live faithfully to each other.’ Such com- 
pacts appear to have been really made 
among the Romans, where justwm matri- 
monium was out of the question. It has 
been shewn on ‘ii. 7, 1, that Propertius 
could not legally have married Cynthia if 
he had wished. 

17.] Signo. So Juvenal, alluding to 
the shameless marriage of Messalina with 
Silius, x. 336, ‘veniet cum signatoribus 
auspex.’ As the marriage is not a real, 
but only a pretended one; so the signatures 
and the witnesses are impossible personages. 
But all these ideas are exquisitely ren- 
dered, and it would be difficult to find 
more beautiful verses. For tota all the 
copies give torta, which Hertzberg alone 
retains, explaining it of the apparent revo- 
lution of the heavens, and comparing n. 
v. 738, ‘torquet medios nox humida ecur- 
rus,’ and Ovid, Jet. ii. 71, ‘caelum—Si- 
deraque alta trahit celerique volumine 
torquet.’ As a matter of poetical taste, 
one would prefer fota, as there is some- 
thing fine in calling a// the ‘ conscia sidera’ 
to witness the contract.—siderew dea, i.e. 

19.] Quam multe &e. ‘How many 
hours must pass in talk,—must be talked 
away—before,’ ἕο. Barth and Kuinoel 
read cedant; the latter even interprets 
guam ante in reference to fadera sunt po- 
nenda prius, making vv. 17, 18, paren- 
thetical. Lachmann follows Scaliger in 
transposing this couplet to precede 16. 
Thus namgue in 21 is left to explain testis 
ete. in 18. 

21.]. Namque &e. ‘For, when no 
marriage-tie as yet exists, the gods will 
not bring punishment on a night spent in 
talk.’ If the order of this very obscure 
distich is right, the reference must be to 
the delay alluded to in 19—20. Some 
from inferior copies give xox violanda, 
which must mean adulteriwm. 

23.] Nox is the reading of all the good 
copies, and is retained by Jacob and Hertz- 
berg. ‘And besides, mere passion (apart 
from legal marriage) soon breaks the tie 
between those on whom it has fastened it. 
In owr case may these first rites prove the 
means of preserving our good faith!’ Only 
inferior MSS. give mor. Jacob supposes 
the order of the words to be: ‘quibus 
libido vincula imposuit, iis (una) nox solvit 
(ea),’ adding, ‘ quo nihil potest dici melius.’ 
But this is a complexity of construction 
which no language will bear, if it is to 
convey intelligible sentiments. It is more 
probable that mox solvit forms an antithesis 
with contineant.—omina prima, %.e. aus- 
picia quasi nuptialia. ] 

25.| Pactas in federa, ‘pledged in at- 
testation of the contract.’ The Groningen 
MS. gives actas in federe, Barth and 
Kuinoel tactas from a late copy. Ergo 
introduces the terms of the mutual agree- 
ment: ‘Accordingly, let us pledge our- 
selves as follows; May he who violates,’ 
&e., where the words gui ruperit are ap- 
plied by the poet to his own case. 

28.) Argute historie. ‘La nouvelle 
galante.’— Barth. Hertzberg also cor- 
rectly understands ‘the gossip of the 

Sm sucasahs : chafaler 

(Of sulyeel malir ἣν 
chape+ ν 

LIBER IV. 21. 


Nec flenti domine patefiant nocte fenestre : 

Semper amet, fructu semper amoris egens. 



Magnum iter ad doctas proficisci cogor Athenas, 
Ut me longa gravi solvat amore via. 

Crescit enim assidue spectando cura puelle: 
Ipse alimenta 5101 maxima prebet amor. 

Omnia sunt tentata mihi, quacumque fugari 5 
Possit: at ex omni me premit ipse deus. 

Vix tamen aut semel admittit, cum spe negavit ; 
Seu venit, extremo dormit amica toro. 

Unum erit auxilium; mutatis Cynthia terris 

29.] ‘Nec fienti (illi) patefiant domine 
fenestre.’ Compare the beautiful lines in 
lib. v. 7, 15—18. Jacob inclines to the 
reading of the Groningen MS. patefacte, 
understanding sint from vy. 27. 

XXI. It is altogether uncertain whether 
the journey to Athens here spoken of was 
ever really made, or even really contem- 
plated. It may have been a mere threat, 
—a ruse to alarm the jealousy of Cynthia. 
The argument bears some resemblance to 
the various passages in the first book (i. 1, 
30; 7.6 and 15), where he speaks of 
travelling as a remedy for love. Hertzberg 
is inclined to suspect that the same journey 
is here referred to: but observes (Quest. 
p. 26), that if he had really made the tour 
of Athens and Asia, some allusion to it 
might have been looked for in the follow- 
ing elegies. It seems more probable that 
he was becoming anxious to shake off 
Cynthia, though he disguises his real feel- 
ings here; see however inf. El. 24. We 
may perhaps surmise, that the poet, who 
has elsewhere frequently arranged his ele- 
gies in connected couplets, purposely placed 
the present after the preceding, that the 
commencement of his love might be con- 
trasted with the valediction—for such it 
virtually is—he has resolved to pronounce. 

3.] Spectanti Miiller, the Naples MS. 
giving spectandt. 

6.] Ex omni, sc. parte; as ‘omnia rerum 
(genera)’ sup. 9, 7.—dpse deus, t.e. the very 
god who compels me to gaze, afflicts and 
distresses me by the sight. J/e for ipse is 
only found in the later copies. Miiller 
reads iste. 

7.1 Negarit Miller, with the Naples MS. 

8.] Amica. This is the reading of all 
MSS. and early edd. Scaliger proposed 
amicta, (in the sense of operta iii. 6, 6, and 
vestita ibid. 18), which the obsequious 
Broukhusius (Broeckhuizen) pronounces 
‘ex tripode dictum ;’ and he is followed by 
Lachmann, Barth, Kuinoel, and the recent 
editors. Hertzberg places only a comma 
after deus (v.6), and makes it the subject 
to admittit and negavit, thus ingeniously 
introducing some sort of necessity for a 
new nominative amica. But I cannot per- 
suade myself that this was the poet’s 
meaning. -Amicta is certainly probable, 
though the word is rather unusual in the 
precise sense to be conveyed; compare 
‘pudor est velatus amictu,’ sup. 15, 3; 
‘vestita cubaris,’ iii. 7, 17, and ‘tunica 
duxit operta moram’ 7.6. But amica, if 
taken with admittit and the following 
verbs, and not with dormit alone, has 
nothing objectionable in itself. Venit is 
understood by some as a verbum amatorium 
for copiam dat sui. Lachmann more pro- 
bably regards it as opposed to admittit, 7. ὁ. 
whether I go to her or she to me.—eztremo 
toro, 1.e. extrema sponda, Hor. Ep. iii. 22, 
for the bed had a raised ledge (pluteus) 
on one side, the outer part being called 
sponda ; which explains fractus utroque 
toro, ili. 8,4. See Becker, Gallus, p. 291, 
and inf. y. 8, 68. 

9.] Hertzberg rightly follows Lachmann 
in regarding Cynthia as the nominative 
rather than the vocative: ‘Cum Cynthiam 
non amplius videbo, non amabo amplius.’ 
—quantum, 1, 6. quam procul Cynthia ab 
oculis, tam procul amor ex animo. 


“»ωνκα τ ετελιδισ κῶν 


Quantum oculis, animo tam procul ibit amor. 



Nune agite, o socii, propellite in squora navim, 
Remorumque pares ducite sorte vices ; 
Jungiteque extremo felicia lintea malo: - 
Jam liquidum nautis aura secundat iter. 

Romane turres et vos valeatis amici, 


Qualiscumque mihi tuque puella vale. 
Ergo ego nunc rudis Hadriaci vehar zquoris hospes, 
Cogar et undisonos nunc prece adire deos. 
Deinde per Ionium vectus cum fessa Lechzo 

Sedarit placida vela phaselus aqua, 


Quod superest, sufferte pedes, properate laborem, 
Isthmos qua terris arcet utrumque mare. 

Inde ubi Pireei capient me litora portus, 
Scandam ego Theseze brachia longa vie. 

Tllic vel studiis animum emendare Platonis 

12.] Pares sorte vices, ‘draw lots for 
your turns at the oar in couples.’ Virg. 
Ain. iii. 509, ‘Sternimur optate gremio 
telluris ad undam, Sortiti vemos.’ It seems 
that they drew lots (1) who should be 
paired, and (2) in what order they should 
relieve each other. But the sense may be, 
‘pull the equal pairs of oars in your al- 
lotted places.’ 

13.] Extremo, summo malo; 1.6. hoist 
all sail, put on all the canvass, as we say. 

16.] One MS. is said to give tuque 
Johanna vale. The scribe was evidently 

- thinking of his own Cynthia. 

19.] Lecheo. One of the harbours of 
Corinth on the side of the Sinus Corinth- 
iacus. The isthmus had to be crossed by 
travellers to Athens, and a boat taken on 
the other side, or the rest of the journey 
was performed by land. Hertzberg seems 
to understand y. 21 in the latter sense. It 
may however refer only to crossing the 
isthmus; for v.23 seems rather to imply 
his sailing into the Pireus, though Jacob 
says ‘ad terrestre iter ea oratio’ (sc. Pirei 
litora portus) ‘optime vertitur.’ In truth 
it is ambiguous, for ζίέογα might refer 
equally to the ship touching the shore, 
and to the traveller who merely approaches 
the port by land. The isthmus is only 
three or four miles in the narrowest part. 

23.] Lachmann alone prefers the read- 
ing of the Groning. MS. mea lintea portus. 
But he candidly adds, ‘utra lectio verior 
sit, non possum dicere.’ 


25.] It is not easy to comprehend on 
what grounds almost every commentator 
has felt difficulties about this passage. 
‘When arrived at Athens,’ says the poet, 
‘T shall improve my mind by the study of 
Plato, Epicurus, or Menander.’ Nothing 
can be simpler, no resolve more prudent 
and reasonable. ‘But,’ says one, ‘ Epi- 
curus was not doctus; besides, docte Me- 
nandre occurs just below. We should 
read dux Epicure.’ Another will have it 
that studiis Platonis and studium Demos- 
thenis cannot haye been written by the 
poet; and therefore corrects spatiis or 
stadiis. yen Lachmann was so far led 
away by these hypercritical objections, 
that he has enclosed vy. 25—6 in brackets 
as spurious: and Hertzberg adds, ‘ fortasse 
rectius abessent;’ a verdict from which 
we may be allowed to dissent. See the 
remark on El. 8, 4, supra. Some have 
maintained that studia Platonis cannot 
literally signify ‘the study of Plato;’ to 
which Hertzberg replies that the words 
mean ‘studia, qualibus Plato vacabat.’ 
Lastly, the objection that ved—aut cannot 
be used as disjunctives, has perhaps but 
little foree in a poet like Propertius. 
Granting that the use is not strictly 
correct (see on ii. 8, 11), can a modern 
editor guarantee that a Roman poet never 
by any possibility did or could write in- 
accurately? I can only say, that I do not 
agree with Hertzberg in explaining vel 
studiis as equivalent to etiam studits. 


Incipiam, aut hortis, docte Epicure, tuis. 
Persequar aut studium lingue, Demosthenis arma, 
Librorumque tuos, docte Menandre, sales ; 
Aut certe tabule capient mea lumina picte, 

Sive ebore exactz, seu magis ere manus; 

Aut spatia annorum, aut longa intervalla profundi, 
Lenibunt tacito vulnera nostra sinu ; 

Seu moriar, fato, non turpi fractus amore ; 
Atque erit illa mihi mortis honesta dies. 


Frigida tam multos placuit 

Miiller edits the passage thus: ‘illic aut 
stadiis animum emendare Platonis Inci- 
piam’ &c., and (in 28) ‘libaboque tuos, 
scite Menandre, sales.’ In this I have no 
desire to follow him. Lachmann’s note is 
excellent, and the examples he quotes 
show that the Romans used (1) aut—, 
aut—, vel; (2) non—, nec—, aut—, vel 
—; (8) non—, aut—, vel—. But of vel 
—, aut—, he can adduce πὸ instance. 
Who shall venture to condemn the present 
passage, even if a ἅπαξ λεγόμενον, unless 
we moderns are to prescribe laws for the 
ancients? These details admit only of 
observation, not of being reduced to fixed 
rules. All who write or speak in living 
languages do so intuitively, and without 
the consciousness of any formal restraint: 
and we are by no means sure that we 
exactly realise the Roman feelings of pro- 
priety in speaking. 

27.] Persequar, ‘I will pursue,’ ‘ attain 
for myself.’ Perhaps the word means 
something more than seguar, since we 
know from y. 1, 134, that the poet was in- 
tended for the bar in early life. The 
Groning. MS. has prosequar, a very good 

28.] Jacob follows Lachmann in placing 
a stop after Zibrorwmque, and understanding 
studium, to which twos sales may stand in 
opposition, as arma in the preceding verse. 
There is nothing more than a poetical 
enallage in tuos sales librorum. 

30.] Manus. A bold expression for 
manuum opera. 

32.] Tacito sinu, ‘in a quiet nook ; ‘in 
silent retirement.’ Possibly he may mean 
‘animi tranquillitate, the ablative of the 
means. Barth seems to understand it ‘in 

IV. 22. 203 

tibi Cyzicus annos, 

their quiet bosom,’ 7.¢. retirement. Cf. 

Tac. Agric. § 4, ‘in hujus sinu indulgen- 
tiaque educatus.’ 7014, § 30, ‘nos—re- 
cessus ipse ac sinus fame in hune diem 
defendit.’ Heinsius reads situ.—situs is 
properly ‘the being let alone,’ and thence 
the consequences of it, neglect, decay, dirt, 
&e. <A similar word is s¢zus, also perhaps 
from sinere, ἐᾶν. Buta nook is a fold or 
bend ; whence sinuo. 

33.] Fractus, &e. ‘Or, if I am to die, 
it will at least be by a natural death, and 
not through grief at being the victim of 
a discreditable attachment.’ ‘ Recte’ (says 
Hertzberg) ‘contuleris Britannorum heart- 
broken.” From the epithet turpi we may 
infer that this elegy was not addressed ‘ ad 
Cynthiam,’ as most editors have thought, 
probably from regarding Cynthia in v. 9, 
as the yocative. Nor does y. 16 militate 
against the view that it is designed to 
inform his friends of the intended journey 
and its motives. For he there takes leave 
of her in common with other persons and 
other objects. 

XXII. This elegy is addressed to the 
same friend as i. 6, &c., and is an exhorta- 
tion that he should return to Rome after a 
long residence at the noble and picturesque 
city of Cyzicus on the Propontis (sea of 
Marmara). He had followed his uncle to 
Asia in the capacity of legatus (see on i. 6, 
34), and after his year of office had expired, 
remained for the sake of pleasure and im- 
provement in that country. The chief 
point of the poem is the /audes Italie, much 
in the same strain as the well-known 
passage, Georgie ii. 136, &e. 

—————————e ee 
Stelle Aaughler σ 

: ΄σ 
Kearthus rv Jro for Rarely ¢ frickic, tnh Vea where Kec Greame “τις 

Jal amor, 




Tulle, Propontiaca qua fluit Isthmos aqua, 

Dindymus, et sacre fabricata juvenca Cybelle, 
Raptorisque tulit qua via Ditis equos. 

Si te forte juvant Helles Athamantidos urbes, _ 5 
Nec desiderio, Tulle, movere meo: 

Tu licet aspicias ceelum omne Atlanta gerentem, 
Sectaque Persea Phorcidos ora manu, 

Geryonis stabula, et Iuctantum in pulvere signa 

2.1 Fluit Isthmos. For the connexion 
of the island on which the city stood with 
the continent was only by a bridge. He 
means that the access to it was over water, 
not solid earth. 

3.| Dindymus. A mountain of this 
name, close to the city, was famous for 
the worship of the Asiatic goddess Rhea 
or Cybele, like that of the same name in 
Phrygia. —juvenca is the conjecture of 
Vossius, and has been admitted by most 
of the later editors for nventa. The par- 
ticular allusion cannot be fully explained 
from deficiency of direct testimonies: but 
as the identity of Rhea or Cybele with 
Isis or Io is unquestionable, and as the 
cow was the Indian as well as the Egyptian 
symbol of Earth, there can be no difficulty 
in supposing that a famous statue of Cybele 
under this form existed at Cyzicus. Hertz- 
berg observes that the impress of a cow is 
frequent on Cyzicenian coins. The MSS. 
give sacra. Pucci wrote on the margin of 

the ed. Rheg., ‘Dindyma qua Argivum 

fabricata inventa Cybele est,’ but whether 
from his MS. or his conjecture is uncertain. 
Miiller after Haupt gives sacra fabricata 
e vite Cybebe (MS. Naples Cibele). Hertz- 
berg reads ‘ Dindyma sacra Rhee, et fabri- 
cata juvenca Cybele,’—but his reasons 
scarcely seem to justify so wide a departure 
from the copies. He is probably right in 
regarding Cybele as the dative, since our 
poet prefers the Greek form of the genitive 
in es. Lachmann accordingly has edited 

4.1 No other record of Proserpine hay- 
ing been carried down to Hades at Cyzicus 
exists, except a single passage quoted by 
Hertzberg from the Latin anthology. 
Among the endless aflinities of the ancient 
deities, due perhaps in great part to the 
confusion of Semitic and Indo-germanic 
legends with various local modifications of 
belief, Proserpine, Isis, and Io, and there- 
fore Cybele, become eventually identified 
as personifications of the moon. Hence 
we may expect to find the worship of Pro- 

serpine connected with that of Cybele. 

5—18.] The whole of this passage forms 
one connected sentiment, of which this is 
the brief outline: ‘However much you 
may be pleased with the beauties of art 
and nature by the Hellespont, and how- 
ever little, in consequence, you may care 
to return to your friends; know, that if 
you were to visit all the wonders of the 
world, Italy would be found to equal any 
of them.’ Lachmann places a comma at 
equos, a full stop at meo. He gives the 
sense thus: ‘Diu tibi Cyzicus placuit, si 
te Dindymus forte juvat et Hellesponti 
urbes, qua Ditis raptoris equos via tulit.’ 

7.1 Licet aspicias. ‘Though you may 
love to gaze on the statues of Atlas, 
Perseus, and Hercules,’ &c. Humboldt 
contends that the ancient Atlas is the 
magnificent volcano now known as the 
Peak of Teneriffe, which is 12,172 feet 
above the sea, and generally has its snow- 
capped cone enveloped in ‘clouds. The 
highest of the Atlas mountains in the n.w. 
of Africa rises to 11,400 feet; but it does 
not appear to have been the original giant 
of the Hesiodean mythology. See Aspects 
of Nature, vol.i. p. 144. 

9.] Signa. Not, as Hertzberg thinks, 
any statues, but vestigia, the marks fanci- 
fully supposed to be left by the wrestling 
place in Mauretania. Pliny, W. H. v.1. 
But it is more probable that the poet 
means the works of art preserved at 
Cyzicus. It will be observed that where 
he speaks of actual travels in the following 
verses, he confines himself to reasonable 
distances from that city. To send his 
friend to the extreme west, and then back 
to Asia, is an improbable arrangement. 
On the oxen of Geryon see y. 9, 2.—I have 
preferred the form Geryonis (Gr. Τηρυὼν, 
Aisch. Ag. 870), the reading of the Naples 
and Groningen MSS., to Geryone or Gery- 
oni, the former of which is commonly 
adopted from the ed. Rheg. 

The event was said to have taken - 

a 7 Orckemenre + healer 7 Phaymo, ( bath by Mephe le) δος 
Khe QU cm Core wtk no Wer Jona Vel verter ey iy PI A fl 4 Pradnege Ah, ulled 


LIBER IV. 22. 

Herculis Antzique, Hesperidumque choros, 10 
Tuque tuo Colchum propellas remige Phasim, 
Peliaceeque trabis totum iter ipse legas, 
Qua rudis Argoa natat inter saxa columba : 
In faciem prore pinus adacta nove, 
Et si, qua Ortygiz visenda est ora Caystri, 
Et qua septenas temperat unda vias ; 
Omnia Romane cedent miracula terre : 
Natura hic posuit, quidquid ubique fuit. 
Armis apta magis tellus, quam commoda noxe, 
Famam, Roma, tuz non pudet historie. 20 
Nam quantum ferro, tantum pietate potentes 
Stamus; victrices temperat ira manus. 
Hic Anio Tiburne fluis, Citumnus ab Umbro agutuct FG Y 

Tramite, et eternum Marcius humor opus; 

Albanus lacus et socia Nemorensis ab unda, 25 

10.] Anteigue. With the elision in 
this verse compare i. 5, 32, ‘non impune 
illa rogata venit.’ 

12.] 1586, sc. quod olim heroes legebant. 

13.] Argoa columba, i.e. cum columba 
Argoa adesset. (Hertzberg). See on iii. 
18, 39. 

14.] In faciem &c. ‘ Arbor, rudis antea, 
redacta in formam navigii novi.’— Barth. 

15.] Ortygie is probably the dative of 
place, ‘at Ortygia.’ ‘Et si navigaveris, 
qua memorabilis Caystri ora juxta Ephesum 
tendit.’— Hertzberg. ‘Qua Caystri ora est, 
tam vicina illa Ortygiz, ut huic videnda 
sit.,—Lachmann. ‘ Ortygia’s shore of (or 
on) Cayster’ may be defended by ‘ Libyz 
Jovis antrum,’ v.1, 103. The reading is 
doubtful: most of the copies give origz or 
orige, but some of the earliest editions have 
ogygia, origiz, or gygzi. Kuinoel prints 
a verse which will not even scan; Et δὲ 
qua Gyg@ai ἕο. Miiller, ‘et sis, qua Or- 
tygia et visenda est ora Caystri.’ Ortygia 
was the ancient name for Ephesus, or 
rather of a grove near that city, connected 
with the worship of Diana and Latona. 
The reading adopted from Vossius by Barth, 
Ortygii—Caystri is not improbable, as the 
river might have been called Ortygian from 
the vicinity of the grove, though an ob- 
jection has been raised, that it was not on 
the very bank of that river, but of the 

16.] ‘ Zemperare propria significatione 
liquor Nili dicitur, qui denuo semper per 

vias suas effunditur, novasque aquas pri- 
oribus addit, et has suis miscet.’ Hertzberg. 
This explanation is too artificial: the poet 
probably only meant ‘reduces his speed 
and volume by dividing his waters into 
seven channels.’ It is not, perhaps, certain, ἢ 
that the Nile is here spoken of. 
suggests that the Rhesus, a river of the » 
Troad, may be meant, which Strabo de- 

scribes as having seven mouths. Yet few 
readers, unless the context clearly deter- 
mined the matter, could hesitate to refer 
the familiar expression to the famous Nile. 

19.] Commoda noxe, ‘damno inferendo : 
Magis vincunt quam nocent Romani.’— 

21.] Pietate, ‘ patriotism.’ 

22.] Ira temperat, z.e. iva facile remissa 
temperat victoriam.’ ‘Ira in hostem, simul 
ac victum videmus, cessat et manus a 
seviendo retrahit.’—Zachmann. ‘Sic ex 
studio brevitatis interdum loquuntur poete, 
ut dicant rem fieri ab aliquo, a quo nihil 
impedimenti interponitur, quo minus fiat.’ 
(Editor’s note on Msch. Suppl. 612). 
Others understand ‘postquam vicimus 
quamyis irati manibus temperamus.’ 

23.] Hie, ‘in Italia.” —Barth. 

24.] Marcius humor. See on iy. 2, 12. 

25:] The Naples and Groningen MSs. 
give socii, whence Hertzberg reads ‘ Alba- 
nusque lacus, socii Nemorensis et unda,’ 
(et for αὖ from MS. Gron.) explaining socti 
as equivalent to propingui. The two lakes, 
the former said to be of immense depth, 

Barth αἰ! 


Potaque Pollucis lympha salubris equo. 
At non squamoso labuntur ventre cerastie, 


formed Serpents 

Itala portentis nec fluit unda novis; 
Non hic Andromedze resonant pro matre catene, 

Nec tremis Ausonias, Phoebe fugate, dapes ; 


Nec cuiquam absentes arserunt in caput ignes, 
Exitium nato matre movente suo; 

Penthea non seve venantur in arbore Bacche ; 
Nec solvit Danaas subdita cerva rates ; 

Cornua nec valuit curvare in pellice Juno, 


Aut faciem turpi dedecorare bove: 
Arboreasque cruces Sinis, et non hospita Gratis 

and believed to be an extinct crater, now 
Lago di Albano, certainly cannot with 
truth be said (as Lachmann asserts) to 
have a common source. But it is so pro- 
bable that Propertius records some tra- 
dition to that effect, that it seems rash to 
depart from the reading generally received. 
There has always been, as there still is, 
a popular tendency to connect deep waters, 
whose sources are unknown, by under- 
ground communications with other lakes. 
Barth and Kuinoel also give -Albanusque 
lacus, which is found in two or three cor- 
rected copies. Nemorensis is now Nem. 
26.] Lympha. The Naples MS. has 
nympha. The pond in the forum Roma- 
num, called Lacus Juturne, is here 

''| meant, from which Castor and Pollux are 

‘| said to have watered their horses after the 

battle at Lake Regillus, Ovid, Fast. 1. 707. 
The enthusiasm with which the Latin poets 
enumerate the rivers and springs and aque- 
ducts can only be understood by remem- 
bering the great scarcity of wholesome 
water over a large district of lower Italy. 

27.] At non &. Compare Virg. Georg. 
li. 140 seqq., ‘heee loca non tauri spirantes 
raribus ignem Invertere satis immanis 
dentibus hydri’ &e. 

29.] Andromede. ‘For 
through her mother’s fault.’ 

30.] Ausonias dapes. The banquet of 
Thyestes. ‘The sense is, ‘You have not 
to fear an Italian banquet as you were 
horrified by that in Greece.’ 

31.] The story of Althea, who threw 

See on vy. 7, 

' on the fire the fatal log of wood, the δαλὸς 
᾿ ἧλιξ of Esch. Cho. 607, by which the 
' death of her son Meleager was caused. 

Pausan. Phocic. x. cap. 31, Τὸν δὲ ἐπὶ τῷ 
δαλῷ λόγον, ὡς δοθείη μὲν ὑπὸ Μοιρῶν τῇ 

᾿Αλθαίᾳ, Μελεάγρῳ δὲ οὐ πρότερον ἔδει τὴν 
τελευτὴν συμβῆναι, πρὶν ἢ ὑπὸ πυρὸς 
ἀφανισθῆναι τὸν δαλὸν, καὶ ws ὕπὸ τοῦ 
θυμοῦ καταπρήσειεν αὐτὸν ἡ ᾿Αλθαία, τοῦτον 
τὸν λόγον Φρύνιχος 6 Πολυφράδμονος πρῶ- 
τος ἐν δράματι ἔδειξε Πλευρῶνι" 

“EK κρυερὸν γὰρ οὐκ ἤλυξεν μόρον" 
᾿Ωκεῖα δέ νιν φλὸξ κατεδαίσατο 
Δαλοῦ περθομένου 

Ματρὸς ὑπ᾽ αἰνᾶς κακομηχάνου.᾽ 

—absentes ignes is elegantly used, because, 
ordinarily, fire can only damage the persons 
of those in contact. 

33.] In arbore, ἴ, 6, sedentem. 
Eur. Bacch. 1093. 

34.] Subdita cerva, the substitution of 
a deer for Iphigenia when laid on the altar 
at Aulis. 

36.] Bove, for bovis figura, in allusion 
to Io. See iii. 20,17. sch. Suppl. 299, 
βοῦν τὴν γυναῖκ᾽ ἔθηκεν ᾿Αργεία θεός. 

37.] Arboreasve Lachmann. With eru- 
ces the commentators usually supply valwit 
curvare from y. 35. But this, as Barth 
observed before Hertzberg, will not ex- 
plain the accusative saxa, nor could eurvare 
curvatas trabes be tolerated. We must 
therefore supply non valuit habere or ad- 
hibere, as Lachmann suggests. Miller 
marks the loss of some lines before this 
verse, in which he supposes the labours of 
Hercules to have been described.—in sua 


fata, because the robber was killed as he 

had killed others, by being tied to fir- 
trees which were bent together and then 
let go. Hence he was called πιτυοκάμπ- 
της. The saxa are the Scironian rocks, 
which are interposed awkwardly enough, 
since in sua fata must refer, not to Sciron, 
but to Sinis. Perhaps the poet confused 
the two stories, since both robbers were 

Ἔν i ee 




| Hertzberg understands the rocky Isthmus 


LIBER IV. 23. 


Saxa, et curvatas in sua fata trabes. 
Hee tibi, Tulle, parens, hee est pulcherrima sedes ; 

Hic tibi pro digna gente petendus honos. 


Hic tibi ad eloquium cives, hic ampla nepotum 

Spes et venture conjugis aptus amor. 

Ergo tam doctz nobis periere tabelle, 
Scripta quibus pariter tot periere bona! Vi 

Has quondam nostris manibus detriverat usus, 
Qui non signatas jussit habere fidem. 

Ile jam sine me norant placare puellas, 


Et queedam sine me verba diserta loqui. 
Non illas fixum caras effecerat aurum: 

Vulgari buxo sordida cera fuit. 
Qualescumque, mihi semper mansere fideles, 

Semper et effectus promeruere bonos. 


Forsitan heec illis fuerant mandata tabellis: 
‘Trascor, quoniam es, lente, moratus heri. 
An tibi nescio quze visa est formosior? an tu 

killed by Theseus. See however iv. 16, 12. 

where Sinis dwelt. Pausan. ii. 1, 4: ἔστι 
δὲ ἐπὶ τοῦ Ἰσθμοῦ τῆς apxis, ἔνθα ὁ 
λήστης Σίνις λαμβανόμενος πιτύων ἦγεν 
ἐς τὸ κάτω σφᾶς. Τοιούτῳ διεφθάρη 
τρόπῳ καὶ αὐτὸς ὑπὸ Θησέως 6 Σίνις. 

40.] Pro digna gente. ‘Ambiendi tibi 
sunt honores et magistratus capiendi prout 
nobilitas gentis tue postulat.”— Barth. 
Tullus was therefore yet a youth, and an 
aspirant to the usual routine of offices in 
the city. The concluding verse shows 
that he was not yet married. 

41.] Ad eloquium. ‘To whom you 
may exhibit your eloquence, and for whom 
you may profitably employ it.’ 

XXIII. This little poem stands alone 
in the writings of Propertius. It is a 
playful lament on the loss of his tabelle,— 
thin tablets of wood, covered with wax, 
and hinged together, used for the trans- 
mission of messages by post,—and con- 
cludes with the offer of a reward for their 

2.] Tot bona. For the book was lost 
in returning from Cynthia, and with it 

therefore the answer she had sent. Or 
perhaps he had written in it some verses, 
which he playfully calls bona. 

3.] Usus detriverat manibus, poetically 
for manus detriverant usu. 

4.] Non signatas, ‘Even without being 
sealed.’ ‘Namque amica Propertii no- 
verat illas ita, ut signo nihil opus esset.’— 
Barth. For the method of folding and 
tying these missives the reader may con- 
sult Becker’s Gallus, p. 339. 

5.] Sine me. ‘They were as effectual 
as my presence in appeasing the anger of 
my mistresses.’ The good copies agree in 
puellas: Lachmann and his predecessors 
give puellam from corrected MSS.  Else- 
where, however, (as iii. 26, 57), he boasts 
of a plurality of female acquaintances. 
Compare Martial, xiv. 8, ‘Nondum legerit 
hos licet puella; Novit quid cupiant yitel- 

9.] Qualescumgue, sc. fuerunt. Supr. 
El. 21, 16, ‘Qualiscunque mihi tuque 
puella vale.” Lib. v. 1, 1, ‘hoc, quodeun- 
que vides, hospes.’—promervere, ‘they won 
for me.’ 

13,] An tibi &e. ‘Was the cause of 
your coming indifference (/ente), or because 



45) bene, properrit 

Non bene de nobis crimina ficta jacis ?’ 

Aut dixit: ‘Venies hodie, cessabimus una: 
Hospitium tota nocte paravit Amor.’ . 

Et quecumque volens reperit non stulta puella, 
Garrula cum blandis dicitur hora dolis. 

Me miserum, his aliquis rationem scribit avarus, ™ wor 

Et ponit duras inter ephemeridas ! 20 
Quas si quis mihi rettulerit, donabitur auro. 

Quis pro divitiis hgna retenta velit ? 
I puer, et citus heee aliqua propone columna, 

Et dominum Esquiliis scribe habitare tuum. 


Falsa est ista tuee, mulier, fiducia forme, 
Olim oculis nimium facta superba meis. 

you preferred the charms of another, or 
because you are spending your time in 
getting up false charges against me?’ The 
third reason should rather be, ‘that you 
are listening to charges against me;’ and 
perhaps for jacis we should read rapis. 

14.] The MSS. give zon bona. All the 
editors have admitted on bene, from one 
late copy and two of the early edd. Jacob 
quotes dene from the Naples MS. 

17.] Volens. This is the correction of 
Broukhusius for dolens, which is clearly 
against the sense. 

18.] Dicitur, ¢.e. condicitur, indicitur,’ 
‘when with winning wiles she appoints an 
hour for a chat.’ This reading was re- 
stored by Lachmann from the MS. Groning. 
The others have ducitur. Kuinoel reads 
ducitur hora jocis, the last word from 
Heinsius. But a little consideration will 
show that this is far from the poet’s mean- 
ing, and indeed from common sense. Cyn- 
thia would not write ‘ while the time was 
passing in jokes,’ but she would add ‘ such 
persuasive and complimentary expressions 
as a clever girl can devise when she in- 
vites to an interview.’ Blandi doli may 
be understood of stealthy or clandestine 
meetings; or ‘dolose blanditiz,’ κρύφιοι 

20.] Duras ephemeridas, ‘his clumsy 
ledgers ;’ or, perhaps, his heartless ac- 
counts.’ Hertzberg refers duras to the 
thick and heavy clasped books in which 
the miser kept his daily reckonings, Oyid 


has copied this passage, Am. i. 12, 25. 

22.] Ligna is from Pucci. 
have signa. 

23.] Colwmna, pila, a public post or 
column, perhaps before a bookseller’s shop. 
See Hor. Sat. i. 4, 71, and Epist. ad Pison. 

XXIV. Kuinoel pronounces this elegy 
‘ingenuo nitore commendabilis.’ One al- 
most regrets to find the poetry of a romantic 
attachment dispelled by an unfeeling and 
unexpected farewell, conveying at once a 
taunt (v. 8), and a boast that the lover has ; 
escaped from a great danger. But we can- | 
not forget that Cynthia was really in fault; ὦ 
the concluding elegy shows that the sepa- — 
ration had cost the poet a pang, and con- 

tains a fair apology for his apparently — 

harsh conduct. It will be observed that 
this elegy has a particular reference to the 
introductory one of the first book: to 
which it therefore forms a palinodia. 

2.1 Oculis meis. The meaning is a little 
obscure. Kuinoel explains ‘ oculorum ju- 
dicio,’ Hertzberg ‘oculis quasi spoliis qui- 
busdam superba,’ as a lover’s eyes are said 
capi, to be captivated. But this seems to 
be less consistent with what follows; the 
admission that he had seen her with partial 
eyes. Hence the sense must rather be 
supplied thus: ‘made conceited by the 
charms which my partial eyes discovered 
in you, and which found expression in my 
impassioned verse.’ 

The others fw 

LIBER IV. 24. 


Noster amor tales tribuit tibi, Cynthia, laudes; 
Versibus insignem te pudet esse meis. 

Mixtam te varia laudavi sepe figura, 


Ut, quod non esses, esse putaret amor. 

Et color est totiens roseo collatus Eoo, 
Cum tibi quesitus candor in ore foret. 

Quod mihi non patrii poterant avertere amici, 

Eluere aut vasto Thessala saga mari, 

Hee ego, non ferro, non igne coactus, et ipsa 
Naufragus Aigzea verba fatebor aqua. 

Correptus seevo Veneris torrebar aheno ; 
Vinctus eram yversas In mea terga manus. 

Ecce coronate portum tetigere carine, 


Trajectze Syrtes, ancora jacta mihi est. 

Nunc demum vasto fessi resipiscimus estu, 
Vulneraque ad sanum nunc coiere mea. 

Mens Bona, si qua dea es, tua me in_sacraria dono. 

4.1 Te pudet esse, i.e. pudet me te in- 
signem esse, &c. 

5.| Varia figura, i.e. variis pulchritu- 
dinis partibus, elementis. See ii. 3, 9, 
seqq.—wut &c., for ita ut, ‘so that love 
fancied you were what you were not,’ or 
that your artificial charms were real ones. 
The connexion and meaning are not clear, 
and Miller thinks a distich has been lost 
after 4, beginning with ¢f. Perhaps mizx- 
tam means compositam, partly real and 
partly made up. Barth compares Theocr. 
vi. 18, ἢ yap ἔρωτι Πολλάκις ὦ Πολύφημε, 
τὰ μὴ καλὰ καλὰ πέφανται. 

7.1 Roseo Eoo. ‘The blush of morn- 
ing.’ Georgie. i. 288, ‘Aut cum sole novo 
terras irrorat Eous.’ 

9.1 Patrii amici. Compare i. 1, 25, εὖ. 
9, and for ferro and igne, a metaphor from 
surgery, 7. 27. 

12.] Hertzberg alone retains the read- 
ing of all the copies, verba fatebor. The 
others admit the probable conjecture of 
Passerat, vera fatebar. The words would 
then allude to the fine elegy, i.17, where 
he bewails his absence from Cynthia in 
the midst of a storm. ‘ Without being 
forced into the confession by violent reme- 
dies, but merely moved by the danger of a 
shipwreck, I acknowledged to you that I 
loved you, torrevi me Veneris aheno.’ There 
is not, perhaps, much difficulty in under- 
standing et ipsa for nec ipsa, t.e. continuing 
the negative sense, ‘nor even by ship- 

wreck’ &c. The reading in the text may 
be thus explained: ‘As for that enthral- 
ment which I once said neither my friends 
nor even magic arts could prevent,—all 
this I will now confess to have been 
mere words, and that without being put 
to the torture which I then had to en- 
dure; nay, even though again in such 
danger of a shipwreck as formerly called 
forth all those tender expressions.’ This 
is nearly the sense as given by Hertz- 
berg. By the words naufragus &e. he 
means to say, ‘Place me in like danger 
again, and see if I will use the same lan- 
guage towards Cynthia.’ Others place a 
full stop at mari and a colon at foret in 
ver. 8. In that case quod (9) will mean 
‘which infatuation of believing in your 

15.] Coronate. Cf. Georgie. i. 303, ‘Ceu 
fesse cum jam portum tetigere carine, 
Puppibus et leti nautee imposuere coronas.’ 

19.] Dono, I hereby make an offering of 
myself, as a tabula votiva for haying es- 
caped as it were amoral shipwreck. Barth 
and Kuinoel adopt the needless correction 
of Heinsius, condo.—Condere in aliquid is 
a construction familiar to Propertius, as ii. 
1, 42, ‘in Phrygios condere nomen avos ;’ 
iv. 19, 16, ‘Arboris in frondes condita 
Myrrha nove.’ But the same Grecism 
explains donare in aliquid. ‘Ipsum se pro 
donario vel ἀναθήματι donat Rone Menti.’ 
Lachmann. Mens Bona, as Hertzberg well 


Exciderant surdo tot mea vota Jovi. 





Risus eram positis inter convivia mensis, 
Et de me poterat quilibet esse loquax. 
Quinque tibi potui servire fideliter annos: 

Ungue meam morso spe querere fidem. 

Nil moveor lacrimis: ista sum captus ab arte. 

Semper ab insidiis, Cynthia, flere soles. 
Flebo ego discedens, sed fletum injuria vincet. 
Tu bene conveniens non sinis ire jugum. 
Limina jam nostris valeant lacrimantia verbis, 

Nec tamen irata janua fracta manu. 


At te celatis «tas gravis urgeat annis, 

observes, is not an abstract idea personified 
by the fancy of the poet, but a real goddess 
worshipped as such by the Romans, and 
possessing a temple. See Ovid, Must. vi. 
241, and compare Am. i. 2, 31. 

20.] Exciderant. “1 dedicate myself to 
you, since all my vows fad been slighted 
by Jupiter before I had recourse to you 
(1.6. to Reason) for liberating me.’ Others 
have proposed exciderint, or exciderunt. 
The ed. Rheg. has ewciderent. See on v. 
7, 15, ‘Jamne tibi exciderant vigilacis 
furta suburee >’ 

XXV. The subject of the last is con- 

tinued, and more explicit reasons are given 
for the poet’s resolution to resign all con- 
nexion with Cynthia. Lachmann and 
Jacob, following the suggestion of Pucci, 
print this elegy in continuation with the 
preceding. It is however probable that 
the present is a reply to her expostulations 
and tears on receiving the last. 
! 117 Risus eram. Hertzberg regards 
| risus as the substantive, γέλως, and so 
' Kuinoel had explained it. As the plu- 
_ perfect of videor it is less suited to the 
sense. He would have said ridebar. 

3.] Quingue annos, i.e. from the year 
726 to the beginning of 732, according to 
the careful chronology of Hertzberg (Quest. 
p- 16), who includes in his reckoning the 
year of separation mentioned iv. 16, 9, 
*Peccaram semel, et totum sum pulsus in 
annum,’ which seems to have been A.v.c., 
729. That the word jideliter must not be 
taken in the sense we are wont to attach 

to it, as implying exclusive devotion to one, 
has been before observed, and is clear from 
admissions frequently made in the fore- 
going elegies. So jfidem, v.7, 58. 

6.| Ab insidiis, The motive for crying 
is generally an artful one. Such is the 
force of ab. In the preceding verse, a 
arte, the mode and the agent are mentally 
confused, a te captus sum arte lacrimandi. 

7.) Flebo ego, i.e. ego quoque. 

8.] tw &e., ‘It is you (not I) who do 
not allow the pair to be well-matched in 
the journey through life.’ 

9.1 Lacrimantia. Compare i. 17-—44, 
where the door is spoken of as susceptible 
of feelings of compassion. So concise 
however is the language of our poet, that 
he may have meant, ‘lacrimis perfusa 
inter verba querentis.’—nec tamen, see on 
ili. 20, 52. ‘Et janua quam, iratus quam- 
vis, nolui manu frangere, /.e. pulsando.’ 

11.] Celatis, ‘tacite adlabentibus,’ Kui- 
noel, Rather, dissimulatis.—The impre- 
cation, bad as it is and cruel in a former 
lover to utter it, must be taken for what it 
is worth in the mouth of a Roman lover, 
to whom it came almost as a form and 
a matter of course, poetically at least. 
See v. 6, 75. 

13—16.] Lachmann and _ Hertzberg 
follow the best MSS. in reading cupias, 
patiare, and gueraris. Jacob and the other 
two later editors prefer the future on the 
authority of Pucci, (the Groning. MS. 
haying cwpies). The optative seems better 
to agree with has diras, v.17. 






LIBER IV. 25. 211 

Et veniat forme ruga sinistra tue. 
Vellere tum cupias albos a stirpe capillos, 
Ah, speculo rugas increpitante tibi; 

Exclusa inque vicem fastus patiare superbos, 


Et que fecisti, facta queraris anus. 
Has tibi fatalis cecinit mea pagina diras. 
Eventum forme disce timere tue. 

14.] The MSS. have a syeculo. Barth 
reads ef, Kuinoel at.—ah is often written 
@ in the copies. Et speculo, i.e. vel ipso 
speculo, is a good reading, but is found 
only in the corrected MSS. The meaning 
is, that when you look into the mirror 

during the process of pulling out the grey 
hairs, you will be startled to see how 
wrinkled you have got. 

18.] Eventum forme. ‘Quod forme 
tuz eveniet, rugas intelligit et canos cum- 
que his conjunctum contemptum.’— Barth. 

iP O Pai ΤΙ 




C, quodcumque vides, hospes, qua maxima Roma est, 
Ante Phrygem Afnean collis et herba fuit ; 

Atque ubi Navyali stant sacra Palatia Pheebo, 

The elegies in this book are of a mis- 
cellaneous character, and of dates varying 
between a.u.c. 726 and 738. They are all 
good, each differing in subject and cha- 
racter, and of the highest value and interest 
for their large stores of legendary and 
archeological lore. At the same time they 
are full of difficulties, and demand, as they 
fairly deserve, a long and careful study. 
It is the opinion of Lachmann, in which 
Hertzberg concurs, that they were not 
published during the life of the poet, but 
collected and edited by his friends; and he 
thinks that they are generally in a more 
rude and imperfect state than the others. 
There are indications without doubt (see 
on 67 inf., and on ii. 57 inf.) of a re- 
arrangement and correction of previously 
written poems; but it is likely enough 
that the author undertook the task himself 
when he had risen to fame. From the 
fifth elegy Ovid would seem to have bor- 
rowed the idea of his 74is, and also his 
Ars Amatoria; from the third,—a most 
beautiful composition,—his Lpistles, from 
the first, second, ninth and tenth, his Fasti. 
Howeyer this may be, it is certain that 
not a few of these posthumous poems are 
of surpassing beauty, and a very high 
order of poetical merit. There is a marked 
difference in style between this. book and 
the first, especially in the studied use, in 
the first, of long words at the end of the 

I. This difficult elegy, as far as v. 70, 
is supposed by Hertzberg to have been 
designed as a procmium to a book of 
Roman Fasti, undertaken by the poet, 
probably in the year of the city 726, and 

just before his love for Cynthia, in imi- 
tation of the Atria of Callimachus. To 
the same work probably belong El. 2, 4, 9 
and 10, all of which are among his earliest 
performances. The latter part of the pre- 
sent elegy was evidently added after his 
attachment had commenced (inf. 140), and 
was meant as a kind of apology for ποῦ. 
pursuing the historic style of composition 
further, but devoting himself to amatory 
versification. (See iv. 38, 5). Hence the 
hospes addressed in y. 1, originally repre- 
sented an imaginary stranger to whom the 
poet was pointing out the antiquities of 
the city; the idea of making him speak in 
the character of a Babylonian Seer may 
have subsequently suggested itself. But 
it is more likely that the two persons are 
not the same, 
1.] The MSS. have guam for gua. The /\ 
mistake arose from supposing guam nal { 


was an intensive superlative. ‘This small 
site, where now is mighty Rome, before 
/Eineas came from Phrygia (Troy) was a 
grassy hill.’—guodeumque, as it may appear 
in your eyes, either large or small. So 
Lucret. ii. 16, ‘qualibus in tenebris vite 
quantisque periclis Degitur hoe vi, quod- 
cunque est.’ See also sup. iv. 28, 9.— 
Phrygem, see iv. 13, 68. 

3.] Navali Phebo. ‘Significat adem 
Apollinis in monte Palatino, quam Au- 
gustus A.U.C. DCCXXVI propter navalem ad 
Actium de Antonio et Cleopatra reportatam 
victoriam <Apollini, cui hane victoriam 
nayalem tribuebat, extruxerat.’—Xuinoel. ' 
See on vy. 6, init. The Navalis Phebus of If 
the Palatine was the local Aetius Apollo. | 
whom Augustus thus honoured by trans- |) } | 
ferring his cultus to Rome. See Zn. viii. } | 



LIBER V. 1. 

Evandri profugze concubuere boves. 

Fictilibus crevere deis hxc 


aurea templa, 

Nec fuit opprobrio facta sine arte casa, 
Tarpeiusque pater nuda de rupe tonabat, 


Et Tiberis nostris advena bubus erat. 

Quo gradibus domus ista Remi se sustulit, olim 
Unus erat. fratrum maxima regna focus. 10 

Curia, preetexto que nunc nitet alta Senatu, 
Pellitos habuit, rustica corda, patres. 

Buccina cogebat priscos ad 

704,—Palatia, as usual, includes the Pala- 
tine hill itself, as well as merely the build- 
ings upon it. Compare ‘pecorosa palatia’ 
inf. v. 9, 3. Tibull. ii. 5, 25, ‘sed tune 
pascebant herbosa palatia vacee.’ Mar- 
tial, i. 70, 5. 

4.1 Profuge, ‘exiled, as ‘profugos 
Penates’ inf. 39. For the story of Evander 
and his prophetic mother Carmentis, see 
Ovid, Fast. i. 470 seqq. ' 

5.] Crevere, as inf. 56, ‘qualia creverunt 
meenia lacte tuo,’ means that from humble 
beginnings, a mere shed (casa) for clayen 
gods, the present gilded temple of Jupiter 
Capitolinus arose. Perhaps a structure of 
green boughs or turf is meant as the orig- 
inal shrine. Cf. Tib. ii. 5, 25, ‘sed tunc 
pascebant herbosa Palatia vacce, Et sta- 
bant humiles in Jovis arce case.’ Ovid, 
Fast. i. 203, ‘frondibus ornabant que nunc 
Capitolia gemmis,’ and 202, ‘Inque Jovis 
dextra fictile fulmen erat.’ We have casa 
similarly used inf. 9, 28 and 56.—oppro- 
brio, sc. ilis. 

7.] Nuda de rupe. The temple of 

|| Jupiter Tonans (as distinct from Capito- 
| linus) stood on the Arx, above the Tarpeian 
‘rock. The poet means, that he formerly 

thundered from the bare rock, in all the 
majesty of nature, and had no temple at 
allonthespot. Virg. 4x. viii. 347, ‘hinc 
ad Tarpeiam sedem et Capitolia ducit, 
Aurea nunc, olim silvestribus horrida 
dumis.’ Juvenal, xiii. 78, speaks of swear- 
ing ‘per Tarpeia fulmina.’ 

8.] -Advena, ‘the Tiber rolled his waters 
from afar (only) for our oxen,’ not for the 
inhabitants of a mighty city. Ovid has 
this phrase more than once, e.g. Fast. ii. 
68, ‘qua petit sequoreas advena Tibris 
aquas,’ 72. 1. 524, ‘haud procul a ripis, 
advena Tibri, tuis.’ Also νυ. 268, ‘et per- 
eunt lentes, advena Nile, tue;’ and a 
similar sentiment occurs ibid. 641, ‘et 
quem nunc gentes Tiberim noruntque ti- 

verba Quirites : 

mentque, Tune etiam pecori despiciendus 
eram.’ The notion seems derived from 
the water, in passing from its source into 
the sea, visiting different places in its 

9—10.] Quo, ‘eo loco, in quo nune 
stat domus (casa) Romuli, olim fratres 
habebant unius foci commune regnum, et 
magnum quidem.’ The word domus is 
used improperly in reference to the humble 
cottage which was still traditionally point- 
ed to as the ‘casa Romuli,’ but poetically 
as the residence of kings. ‘One hearth- 
stone was a large kingdom for two brothers’ 
is a happy expression. Compare sup. iii. 
7, 8, ‘et ipse Straminea posset dux habi- 
tare casa.’ Fast.i. 199, ‘dum casa Marti- 
genam capiebat-parva Quirinum.’ 172. iii. 
183, ‘que fuerit nostri, si queris, regia 
nati, Aspice de canna straminibusque do- 
mum.’ 4. viii. 654, ‘ Romuleoque recens 
horrebat regia culmo.’—se sustlit gradibus 
means that the casa had ‘mounted up’ on 
steps to a higher place of dignity, viz. 
from its original site in the valley near the 
Circus, to the Palatine. Hertzberg thinks 
the gradus here mentioned are the βαθμοὶ 
of Plutarch, Romul. § 20, and the Scale 
Gaii of Solinus. 

11.] Curia, the new senate-house built 
and consecrated by Augustus, which did 
not stand on the site of the old Curia 
Hostilia.—pretexto, pretextato, in refer- 
ence to the purple border on the senatorial 
toga, as nitet is said of the ‘nitida toga,’ 
or clean white woollen mantle. The old ° 
senate-house had ‘skin-clad fathers, clown- 
ish minds,’ whom the poet describes, in 
the following distich, as summoned to 
their parliament (ad verba) by the shep- 
herd’s horn, and ‘often to have had no 
other meeting-place than a meadow.’— 
centum illi, ‘ the original hundred appoint-~ 
ed by Romulus,’ 

ce lhe Bude trsfa ther ah 



Centum illi in prato seepe Senatus erat. 

Nec sinuosa cavo pendebant vela theatro, 


Pulpita sollemnes non oluere crocos. : 
Nulli cura fuit externos quzrere divos, 

Cum tremeret patrio pendula turba sacro, 
Annuaque accenso celebrare Parilia fzeno, 

Qualia nunc curto lustra novantur equo. 


Vesta coronatis pauper gaudebat asellis, 
Ducebant macre vilia sacra boves. 
Parva saginati lustrabant compita porci, 

15.] Vela, the awnings of the theatre 
of Marcellus: See on iy. 18, 13.—pulpita 
&c., ‘nor was the stage made fragrant 
with the saffron used on great days,’ or 
festive occasions when unusual displays 
were made. Saffron-water was sprinkled 
about the theatre to cool the air and to 
afford a refreshing smell. Ovid, Fast. i. 
342, ‘ Nec fuerant rubri cognita fila croci,’ 
(where jila are the dried pistils of eracus 
sativus, the spica Cilissa of 6, 74, inf.) 
Martial, Hp. v. 25, ‘rubro pulpita nimbo 
spargere, et effuso permaduisse croco.’ 
Ovid, A. A.i. 103, ‘Tum neque marmoreo 
pendebant vela theatro, Nec fuerant liqui- 
do pulpita rubra croco,’—a passage perhaps 
borrowed from this. 

18—20.] Nulli &e. ‘No one then cared 
to look for foreign gods, when the crowd 
hung in anxious suspense over their native 
rites, or to celebrate the annual Parilia 
with lighted hay, for expiations such as 
are still kept up with the blood of a dock- 
tailed horse.’ By externi dit, ἐπακτοὶ θεοὶ, 
the worship of Isis with other Syrian and 
Egyptian gods, more or less lately intro- 
duced, is meant.—tremeret pendula is a 
comment on the most probable meaning of 
superstitio, ‘the standing over an object of 
awe’ (e.g. a puteal or a bidental), or the ex- 

_ hibition of any sacred rite or mystery. 

19.1 Parilia, or Palilia (1 and ry being 
convertible) was the old festival kept 
in honour of the country goddess Pales, 

' probably the female of the god Φαλῆς, 

Ar. Acharn. 263, and the origin of Pala- 
tium. The poet seems to say that, rude 
and simple as the ceremony was, viz. that 
of jumping through lighted bonfires placed 
at intervals, if was not known at the earliest 
period. See inf. 4, 77. Ovid. Dust. iv, 
720 seqq. Persius, i. 72, ‘fumosa Palilia 
foeno,’ It is probable that it was a sym- 
bolic record of a kind of Moloch-worship, 
in which victims were burnt alive to the 

demon-spirits,—for such, alas! was primi- 
tive religion.—curto equo, like eurto mulo, 
Hor. Sat. i. 6, 105. Certain expiatory 
rites (lustra) were performed with the 
blood of the October horse; which rites 
are said novari, 1.6. solemniter fieri, after 
the old fashion. The horse was killed for 
the purpose six months beforehand, and 
the tail was cut off that the blood might 
drop on the altar of Vesta, from which it 
was removed in a concrete form to be used 
as a suffimen, mixed with other substances 
enumerated by Ovid, Fast. iv. 733, ‘San- 
guis equi suftimen erit, vitulique favilla: 
Tertia res, duree culmen inane fabe.’ By 
novantur it is meant that the rites are 
renewed and kept up every year, as, it is 
clear from the passage in Ovid, was really 
the case. The blood of the horse, perhaps, 
had some relation to sun-worship, since 
that was the victim offered by the Persians 
to the sun, Ovid, Fast. i. 3865. 

21.] Coronatis asellis. On the feast of 
Vesta, or the fifth before the Ides of June, 
a procession took place in honour of that 
goddess, in which the prominent figure 
was an ass decked with strings of loaves. 
Ovid, Fust. vi. 818, ‘ Kece coronatis panis 
dependet asellis, Et velant scabras florida 
serta molas.’ Jbid. v. 347, ‘Quem tu, 
Diva, memor de pane monilibus ornas.’ 
The origin of the custom is explained at 
length in that passage. —macre boves, 
‘poorly-fed cows conveyed the homely 
altar-fittings,’ εὐτελῆ ἱερά. By ὄργια, 
ἱερὰ, and sacra, not only the victims, but 
all the implements and instrumenta of a 
sacrifice are usually meant. 

23.] Compita,™ ‘the cross-roads, then 
but small, were consecrated (or exorcised) 
by the blood of home-fed porkers, and the 
shepherd offered the inwards of a ewe to 
the notes of a reed pipe.’ The sense is, 
that the feast of the Compitalia to the 
Lares (Fast. y. 140) was then celebrated 

ee Comp ele 



LIBER V. 1. 

Pastor et ad calamos exta litabat ovis. 

Verbera pellitus szetosa movebat arator, 

Unde licens Fabius sacra Lupercus habet. 
Nec rudis infestis miles radiabat in armis: 
Miscebant usta prcelia nuda sude. 
Prima galeritus posuit pratoria Lycmon, 

Magnaque pars Tatio rerum erat inter oves. 


Hinc Titiens Ramnesque viri Luceresque coloni, 

on a small scale, and with cheap and hum- 
ble victims only. Perhaps there is an 
allusion to the costly swovetaurilia of later 
times.—ad calamos, in place of the tibia 
(αὐλὸς) used in the ceremony.—ltabat, 
ἐκαλλιερεῖτο, a word not easy to render in 
English; Jitare is to make an offering ac- 
ceptable to the gods, as Fast. iv. 630, 
‘pontifices, forda sacra litate bove.’ Mart. 
Ep. x. 73, 6, ‘non quacunque manu vic- 
tima cesa litat.’? Pers. Sat. ii. 75, ‘farre 

25.] -Pellitus, ‘decked with pieces of 
goat-skin to imitate Pan.’—setosa verbera 
are the blows inflicted with thongs of raw 
goats’ hide by the Luperci on all whom 
they met in the streets, and especially on 
the women. This was regarded as a cause 
of prosperity and fecundity. Ovid, Fast. 
ii. 31, ‘Mensis ab his ({. 6. februis) dictus, 
secta quia pelle Luperci Omne solum lus- 
trant, idque piamen habent.’ See also 7b. 
427—4565, and lib. v. 102. The festival is 
described in detail, 7. ii. 267, &c. 1 add 
an interesting passage from Plutarch, Quest. 
Rom, § \xvili. Διὰ τί κύνα θύουσιν ot 
Λούπερκοι; (Λούπερκοι δ᾽ εἶσιν of τοῖς 
Δουπερκαλίοις γυμνοὶ διαθέοντες ἐν πε- 
ριζώμασι, καὶ καθικνούμενοι σκύτει τῶν 
ἀπαντώντων") πότερον ὅτι καθαρμός ἐστι 
τῆς πόλεως τὰ δρώμενα, καὶ τὸν μῆνα 
Φεβρουάριον καλοῦσι; καὶ νὴ Δία τὴν ἡμέραν 
ἐκείνην Φεβράτην, καὶ Φέβραριν τὸ τῶν 
σκυτῶν ἤθει καθικνεῖσθαι, τοῦ ῥήματος τὸ 
καθαίρειν σημαίνοντος; τῷ δὲ κυνὶ πάντες, 
ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν, Ἕλληνες ἐχρῶντο καὶ 
χρῶνταί γε μέχρι νῦν ἔνιοι σφαγίῳ πρὸς 
τοὺς καθαρμούς. The Lupercalia having 
fallen into disuse were restored by Au- 
gustus, Sueton. Oct. § 31. 

26.] Unde, ex quo more.—licens, ‘lewd,’ 
the conduct of these men in the perform- 
ance of a phallic ceremony not being very 
modest or refined. They are the ‘nudi 
Luperci’ of Zn. viii. 663, and the name 
would seem to indicate some primitive 
worship ad arcendos lupos, for keeping the 
wolves from the flocks placed under the 

protection of Pan. They were divided 


into two classes, the Fabii and the Quin- ἢ 
tilii, called (it was said) after the gens of | 
their respective founders, the followers of ἢ 

Romulus and Remus. See Fast. ii. 377, 
‘Risit, et indoluit Fabios potuisse Remum- 
que Vincere; Quintilios non potuisse suos.’ 
So the priests of Hercules were divided 
into Potilii and Pinarii, Livy, i. 7. 

27.] Nec rudis ἕο. ‘Rude was the 
soldier then, nor in offensive armour did 
he shine: they joined in the fight without 
covering, and with no weapons but a 
charred stake.’ — nuda, arevx7, without 
the protection even of a target. Ain. vii. 
523, ‘non jam certamine agresti, Stipiti- 
bus duris agitur sudibusve preeustis.’ 

29.] Lycmon, or Lygmon, (al. Licmon, 
LIuemo), seems either a general name for 
an Etruscan chief or noble, or the eponym 
hero of the Lucwmones or Luceres, (be they 
Latians or Etrurians). Compare Lyco- 
medius, inf.2, 51. Galeritus means ‘ clad 
in the rustic cap of wolf-skin.’ nn. 
vii. 688, ‘fulvosque lupi de pelle ga- 
leros Tegmen habent capiti.’ The sense 
appears to be, that the first regular camp, 
with separate quarters for the general, was 
introduced by the Luceres, with some at- 
tempt at protective armour as a covering 
for the head; and Titus Tatius, himself a 
warrior, was too much engaged in settling 
disputes among his shepherd people to give 
up his whole time to war. 

31.] Hine ἕο. ‘Yet, small as these 
beginnings were, it was from them that 
the three tribes of the Titienses, Ramnes, 
and Luceres arose, and that Romulus ended 
in driving four white steeds in triumph to 
the Capitol,’ viz. after his victory over the 
Ceeninenses, inf. 10, 9, Livy, i. 10. — 
Titiens (al. Tities) seems intended as the 
nominative singular of Titientes or Titienses, 
the ‘ warriors’ (Varronianus, p. 26). The 
Ramnes contain the same root as Romulus, 
Remus, Roma, ficus Ruminalis ἕο. (Don- 
aldson, Varron. p. 60, suggests the Lithu- 
arian raumu, ‘a dug,’ which certainly best 



Quattuor hine albos Romulus egit equos. 
Quippe suburbanz parva minus urbe Boville 

Hac -Fubi 

Et, qui nune nulli, maxima turba Gabi, 
Et stetit Alba potens, albze suis omine nata, 
Fidenas longe erat ire via. 

Nil patrium nisi nomen habet Romanus alumnus: 

4 ws 
Huc melius 

suits our idea of ‘to ruminate,’ or ‘make 
milk ;’ others groma, grumus, srouma, 
‘stream-town,’ but it is all guess). There 
is much difficulty in the antithesis vi and 
colonit. The sense cannot be ‘fighting- 
men’ and ‘farmers,’ because the Lucumo 
is said to have made the first camp. 
Therefore, colont probably means ἔποικοι, 
viz. that the Luceres came last and were 
added on, as new settlers, to the Roman 
and Sabine tribes. It is to be observed 
that Ovid, ust. 111. 131, makes the first 
syllable of JLwceres long, ‘Quin etiam 
partes totidem Titiensibus idem, Quosque 
vocant Ramnes, Luceribusque dedit.’ 

33.] Quippe seems to give the reason 
why Romulus could triumph over towns 
which afterwards became almost part of 
Rome. Bovyille was indeed about ten 
miles distant; yet Ovid also, Fust. iii. 667, 
applies the same epithet, ‘ Orta suburbanis 
quedam fuit Anna Boyillis.? Miller 
marks the loss of some verses before this, 
which he thus explains: ‘ When Rome 
was small, Boville was less in its im- 
mediate neighbourhood (minus suburbane) 
than it now is, when the imperial city has 
ΒΟ much encroached on the towns and 
villages near.’ The order of the words 
certainly suggests the construe of parva 
minus urbe, May this be the ablative of 
quality, and mean that formerly Boville, 
now small, and a mere suburb, was once 
‘of a less small and insignificant size,’ ¢.e. 
relatively? It was then thought a great 
place, because there was no larger city to 
contrast with it. This sense exactly suits 
the next verse, ‘And Gabii, now nothing, 
was a large people.’ Miiller however, 
rather ingeniously, transposes 34 and 36, 
and here reads ‘ Atque ibi Fidenas longe 
erat isse via.’ in this sense; ‘it was then 
a long journey from Rome to Fidens, 
which now seems close at hand.’ Others 
read parva eminus urbe; but I think Pro- 
pertins would certainly have used procul, 
not «minus, —It is hardly necessary to add 


altricem non pudet esse lupam. 
profugos misisti, Troia, penates. 
O qual vecta est Dardana puppis ave! 


that Gabii, once an important Alban or 
Latin town, was at this time almost de- 
serted, Hor. 1». 1. 11, 7. 

36.] Hac &c. ‘ Alba stood on the road 
which brought you to Fidene by a long | 
route.’ If this be genuine, the sense can 
only be, that Alba stood on the road to, 



ο f 

5 i 

rd Z 

Fidene, which in fact lay in an opposite τὸ 

direction from Rome. 
to have ever been the case; but as a 
poetical hyperbole it may mean that a 
journey even to Fidenze was then thought | 
a serious matter. I have marked the! 
passage however as doubtful both in sense 
and in the reading. 
isse for ire. 

37.] Nil patriwm &e. ‘Nomen tantum- 
modo a Romulo usurpant; sanguinem, #.e. 
indolem a Martia lupa habent.’—non pudet, 
gloriantur se a lupa nutritos esse, utpote 
gentem marte validam. This is said to 
show how and why the neighbouring 
towns were so soon absorbed in Rome, and 
why Rome still delights in its conquests. 

39.] Melius, felicius, quam si Grecis 
preeda cessisses.—Barth. huc, sc. in tam 
bellicosam terram.—gwali ave, quam bono 
omine. Hor. Od.i.15, 5, ‘mala ducis avi 
domum.’ Hew simply expresses admira- 
tion. Hertzberg and others read 0, against 
the good copies.—Dardana puppis, the ship 
that brought A®neas, who is virtually de- 
scribed under id/am in the next verse. It 
was a favourable circumstance, says the 
poet, and an omen of her future destinies, 
that Troy did not lose αἵ her citizens by 
the stratagem of the wooden horse, but 
that Aineas escaped with his father An- 
chises and a handful of followers. The 
vowel is shortened before sp as in iv. 11, 
53, ‘brachia spectayi,’ inf. v. 4, 48, ‘tu 
cave spinosi rorida terga πρὶ, where we 
trace the French pronunciation, épine, in 
the liquefaction of the s. So also in 
σκέπαρνον, smaragdus, Scamander &c., and 
στέγειν, σφάλλειν, compared with tegere, 
See also y. 5, 17. 

This is not likely 

ie * 

The Naples MS. gives) 

LIBER V. 1. 

Leeserat abiegni venter 

Jam bene spondebant tune omina, quod nihil illam 

apertus equi, 

Cum pater in gnati trepidus cervice pependit, 

Et verita est humeros urere flamma pios. 

Tune animi venere Deci Brutique secures, 

Vexit et ipsa sui Cesaris arma Venus, 

ὃ is portans 
Arma resurgent ortans 

victricia Troie: 

Felix terra tuos cepit, Iule, deos! 
Si modo Avernalis tremule cortina Sibylle 

Dixit Aventino rura pianda Remo, 


Aut si Pergamez sero rata carmina vatis 

Longeevum ad Priami vera fuere caput, 
Vertite equum, Danai, male vincitis: Ilha tellus 
Vivet, et huic cineri Juppiter arma dabit. 

Optima nutricum nostris lupa Martia rebus, 

Qualia creverunt mcenia 

lacte tuo! 

Mcenia namque pio conor disponere versu: 

44.] Flamma. See the fine account in 
Ain. ii. 721.—pios, ‘ filial.’ 

46.] Vexit arma. An elegant compli- 
ment to the victorious arms of Augustus, 
derived from the tale of Thetis bringing 
the arms of Achilles, and the probably 
older tale of the Nereids conveying the 
arms of Peleus as a marriage present from 
the gods. For vexit Miiller proposes awxit, 
which seems to me entirely to destroy the 
point and beauty of the passage.—yportans, 
‘in bringing the victorious arms of the 
Troy that was destined to rise again out of 

its own ashes, 7.e. in Rome, Venus brought 
the arms which were to be used by her 
own Cesar in his expeditions.’ 

49.] ‘Romam felicia fata manent, si 
vere Sibylla gemellos reges et auspicari et 
condere Urbem jussit.’ Hertzberg.—pianda, 
z.e. ad capiendum auspicium. Florus, 1.1, 
‘Gemini erant: uter auspicaretur et rege- 
ret, adhibuere piacula.’ Jdem.—<Aventino 
is perhaps the ablative of place, ‘on the 
Aventine;’ or we might read Aventini 
rura. The Sibyl is called Avernalis from 
her residence at Cumez near the Avernian 
lake, on which see iv. 18, 1, “7. 1. 442. 
cortina, the seat or cover of the prophetic 
tripod, originally, it is probable, intended 
to receive and inclose the volcanic gases 
which were supposed to be the breath of 
the spirits below. See Zn, iii, 92, ‘neque 
te Phoebi cortina fefellit.’ 

51.] Sero rata, ‘too late found true.’ 

The simple sense is, ‘aut si vera cecinit 
Cassandra, in fatis esse ut Troja resurgeret.’ 
See on iv. 18, 62.—ad Priami caput, viz. 
predicting that her father’s murder by Neo- 
ptolemus would be avenged. The apodosis 
is at Vertite equum, Danai. “ Τῇ prophecies 
were true, that Rome should be a second 
Troy, then the Greeks were wrong in 
seeking the old Troy, because they would 
be conquered in their turn by the new one.’ 
This is the sense of male vincitis. Muller 
regards vertite—dabit as Cassandra’s speech, 
to which he prefixes 87, 88 inf., transposed 
to this place. I cannot see the least ap- 
propriateness or probability in such an 

56.] Qualia, ἡλίκα, ‘to what a size 
have grown walls from your milk,’ ἢ. ὁ. 
built by one nourished from the wolf’s 
teat. A harsh expression; cf. sup. 5.— 
With this verse, as I believe, the original, 
or first draught of the poem ended. We 
now proceed with the verses of a man 
made vain by success, and marked by an 
egotism from which the earlier verses are 
free. I think too that in 67—70 I detect 
verses which were at first designed as a 
general proéme to his ballads on Roman 
history, but which were, in the subsequent 
recension, misplaced or interpolated in the 
wrong place, precisely like the lines con- 
cluding the Vertumnus (inf. 2, 59—64). 

57.] Menta is repeated from the pre- 
ceding verse, like arma in 47.—disponere 



eon yer 

eres eee 

SecA  ϑθραμαλ ΡΘΕ liebe 



Hei mihi, quod nostro est parvus in ore sonus! 
Sed tamen exiguo quodcumque e pectore rivi 

Fluxerit, hoc patriz serviet omne mee. 


Ennius hirsuta cingat sua dicta corona: 
Mi folia ex hedera porrige, Bacche, tua, 
Ut nostris tumefacta superbiat Umbria libris, 
; Umbria Romani patria Callimachi. 

Scandentes si quis cernet de vallibus arces, 
Ingenio muros zstimet ille meo. 
Roma, fave, tibi surgit opus, date candida cives 


Omina et inceptis dextera cantet avis. 
Sacra diesque canam et cognomina prisca locorum: 

Has meus ad metas sudet oportet equus. 
Dicam: Troia cades et Troica Roma resurges, 

Et maris et terre longa sepulcra canam. 
dicere sacra, Properti ? 

‘Quo ruis inprudens, vage 
2 hohe) 

is ‘to describe,’ by arranging in parts, or 
in a methodical way, and so is nearly a 
synonym of descridere. So Lucret. ili. 420, 
‘digna tua pergam disponere carmina cura.’ 
pio is here ‘affectionate.’ Miiller, who 
thinks the vulgate reading absurd, and de- 
nies that disponere can have this sense, 
edits on his own conjecture ‘ Munere nam- 
que pio conor disponere versus.’ 

61.] Ennius &e. The poet says he will 
devote his talents to the praise of his 
country, leaying however rough heroics to 
others, and preferring the soft and smooth 
elegiac verse. Miiller marks dicta with an 
obelus.—hedera, partly as the type of 

_ smoothness, partly in reference to the 

- *doctarum hederz premia frontium.’ 


_ these are opposed the thorny or prickly 

crown of Ennius. Cf. Ovid, Tvist. 11. 259, 
‘sumpserit Annales, nihil est hirsutius 
illis.’ Supra iy. 1,19, ‘ Mollia, Pegasides, 
date vestro serta poete; Non faciet capiti 
dura corona meo.’ Hertzberg: ‘hirsute 
corone dum mollius folium opponere poeta 
vult, sponte se prebuit hedera, cujus se- 
quax natura vel in  proverbium abiit. 
Hederam suam Bacchus sequutus est. 
Quem deum—ut poetarum lyricorum et 
elegiacorum patronum hic quoque, quam- 
vis majora ausurus, jure Propertius vene- 

64.] The poet calls himself the Roman 
Callimachus in accordance with the senti- 
ments before expressed, iv. 1, 1, &e. 

65.] Scandentes, i.e. ascendentes, sur- 

gentes.—arces are the same as muros, the 
natural precipices on which his native 
town arose. See below, v. 125.—quisguis- 
Miiller, from MS. Naples, for δὲ guts. ~~ 

66.] Zstimet ingenio meo. ‘Let him 
measure their greatness and importance 
by my genius,’ or by their being my birth- 
place. Ingenio is the ablative of price, as 
Hertzberg almost unnecessarily remarks. 
Compare inf. 126, ‘Murus ab ingenio 
notior ille tuo.’ 

67—70.] As above remarked (on 56), 
it is probable that these verses really 
formed a general prowmium, to which pur- 
pose they are singularly appropriate. Rome 
is asked to favour the work, and a fayour- 
able omen is asked to attend the under- 
taking. Add to these four verses the 
obscure distich, 87-8, ‘dicam Troja cades’ 
&c., and we have a statement of the general 
subject, much like that in the opening 
lines of the Fuasti, 0.g. 7, 8, ‘Sacra re- 
cognosces annalibus eruta priscis, Et quo 
sit merito queeque notata dies.’—/longa se- 
pulcra, longinquas mortes, the deaths of 
the heroes in their return from Troy. 

70.] Has ad metas. ‘This is the goal 
which my steed must toil to reach.’ Cf. 
Georg. iii. 202, ‘hic vel ad Elei metas et 
maxima campi Sudabit spatia.’ Miller 
here marks the loss of some verses, and 
Lachmann makes a space or break in 
the poem; but the abruptness does not 
show the passage to be faulty, No 
sooner has the poet announced his in- 

LIBER v. t= 

Non sunt ah dextro condita fila colo. 
Ayersis Charisin cantas, aversus Apollo: 

Poscis ab invita verba pigenda lyra. 

Certa feram certis auctoribus: aut ego vates 
Nescius wrata signa movere pila. 

Me creat Archytz soboles Babylonius Horos, 
Horon et a proavo ducta Conone domus. 

Di mihi sunt testes non degenerasse propinquos, 
Inque meis libris nil prius esse fide. 

Nune pretium fecere deos et fallitur auro 


tention, and the aim which he has in view, 
than his ardour is checked by the serious 
warning of an Astrologer, who extols his 
own infallibility in his art somewhat 
vauntingly, and at considerable length, in 
order to gain credit for his prediction that 
the contemplated historical poem will prove 
a failure. This is, of course, only an ex- 

the planets in concentric rings on the As- 
trolabe. Pila, which I before interpreted |) © 
a hollow sphere round which the planets || | 
were made to move as in an orrery, I ΠΟῪ ἢ 
think, from having seen one, must be the) | 
astrolabe, which is a flat circular disk with 
moving segments so contrived as to mark | 
conjunctions and opposition of the planets. © 

i ee i te eee eee 





a 5 . 5 
arcessis lacrimis. 

pedient on the part of the poet to apologize 
for his supposed unfitness for the task. 
There is no reason whatever to identify 
the Astrologer with the hospes in ver. 1. 
The Romans were greatly influenced by 
astrological predictions. See, for instance, 
Persius, Sat. v. 45 seqq., Tac. Ann. iv. 48, 
and inf. on 83 (after 108). 

Ibid. Imprudens, ‘thoughtless,’ ‘ with- 
out foreseeing the consequences.’— vage, 
desultory, restless, not keeping to one 
theme or subject. For sacra the best 
copies give fata or facta, Lachmann and 
Miiller adopt the former. Sacra certainly 
suits the sense better, as it takes up the 
word in ver. 69, ‘Sacra, did you say? 
That is not a thread for you to twist, nor 
for your lute to play.’ 

72.] Condita, ‘not put together from a 
lucky distaff,,—in allusion perhaps to the 
thread spun by the Fates. For the mas- 
culine colus see inf. ix. 47. 

73.] Charisin has no MS. authority, and 
is the conjecture of Heinsius. The Naples 
MS. gives accersis lacrimas, the Groningen 
Miiller proposes aversis 
rythmis, Lachmann arcessis Latium. Pucci 
versis musis, which Jacob adopts. Cf. 
Martial, Zp. viii. 62, ‘Scribit in aversa 
Picens epigrammata charta, Et dolet, averso 
quod facit illa deo.’ 

75.] Aut ego, i.e. ‘or put me down as one 
who does not know how to use the astro- 
labe.’ Jacob and Keil give haud, from 
Pucci, Miiller haut.—signa movere, to move 

77.] There is some uncertainty here 
about the reading. In the first line the 
MSS. vary between orops and horos, for 
which Pucci gives Oron; in the second all 
give oron or horon. The sense appears to 
be, ‘me creavit Horos, et Horon creavit 
domus Cononis.’ Lachmann understands, 
‘me Horon creat Horops et,’ &c., and so 
Miiller.—‘Nec nune anxie querendum, 
quomodo Archyte Tarentini gentem cum 
Cononis Alexandrini et Hori Chaldzi com- 
ponas. Satis erat homini gloriabundo 
clara mathematicorum nomina undique 
corrasa tanquam paterna et avita jactare.’ 
Hertzberg.—ereat for creavit, as inf. y. 121, 
edit for edidit. 

79.1 Degenerasse. This verb is followed 
by an accusative in Ovid Met. vii. 543; ex 
Pont. iii. 1, 45; quoted by Kuinoel. In 
the same sense, the Greeks say καταισ- 
χύνειν yéevos.—fide, ‘than declaring the 
truth, whether fayourable or not, to those 
who consult me.’ This was doubtless the 
boastful profession of the impostors in the 

81.1 Pretium fecere deos, ‘Now-a-days 
they have turned the gods to profit.’ The 
nominative to be supplied is, the pre- 
tenders to astrology; the Babylonian hay- 
ing just boasted of his own jides.—fallitur 
auro Jupiter, ‘for gold they misrepresent 
Jupiter ;’ 7.e. these pretenders, for money, 
will falsely announce the will of the gods 
to those who consult them. See below on 
11, 80. 

Aecettt lachygye mil cantat auersak A) σ᾽ apolle 


pop gz a1da 


Juppiter, oblique signa iterata rote. 82 

Dixi ego, cum geminos produceret Arria natos, 
(Illa dabat natis arma vetante deo) ᾿ 

Non posse ad patrios sua pila referre Penates: 
Nempe meam firmant nunc duo busta fidem. 

Quippe Lupercus, equi dum saucia protegit ora, 
Heu sibi prolapso non bene cavit equo: 

Gallus at, in castris dum credita signa tuetur, 

Concidit ante aquilee rostra cruenta sue. 
Fatales pueri, duo funera matris avare, 

Vera, sed invito contigit ista fides. 
Idem ego, cum Cinare traheret Lucina dolores 

Et facerent uteri pondera lenta moram, 


Junonis facito votum inpetrabile, dixi: 
Illa parit: libris est data palma meis. 

Hoe neque harenosum Libyze Jovis explicat antrum 

82.] Oblique rote signa. The sphere 
or globe is called rota, and the epithet ex- 
presses that the axis is deflected from the 
perpendicular, so that the ecliptic or plane 
of the sun cuts it transversely. Claudian, 
Epigr. xxv. ‘Fallaces vitreo stellas com- 
ponere mundo, Et vaga Saturni sidera 
seepe queri, Venturumque Jovem paucis 
promittere nummis, Cureti genitor noverat 
Uranius.’ The invention was attributed 
to Archimedes: Ovid, Fast. vi. 277, ‘ Arte 
Syracosia suspensus in aere clauso Stat 
globus, immensi parva figura poli.’ The 
signa iterata appear to be the signs of the 
zodiac repeatedly consulted and considered, 
—as we should say, hackneyed. See inf. 
8, 7. It seems best to supply set. 

89.] Dixiego. ‘I predicted (viz. which 
was more than these impostors could have 
done) when Arria was escorting her twin 
sons to the war, against the will of the 
gods, that it was impossible they should 
return alive to their home.’ This pro- 
phecy, like that following about Cinara in 
labour (100), was a pretty safe guess, and 
probably the examples are given merely to 
satirize the art.—producere is προπέμπειν, 
to give a complimentary escort. So Ovid, 
Her, 18, 141—8, ‘Arma dabit, dumque 
arma dabit, simul oscula sumet,—producet- 
que virum.’ 

94.] Sibi non bene cavit. In endeayour- 
ing to save his horse who had been wounded 
in the head, he took no care of his own 
safety after his horse had fallen, and he 


had no steed to mount. To avoid the 
repetition egui—equo, Heinsius proposed 
Lupercus eques. « 

95.] Credita (sibi) signa, as the bearer 
of the eagle of the legion. Signum more 
commonly means the vexillum of a cohort. 
In rostva cruenta there is a play on the 
double sense, derived from the habits of 
a bird of prey. 

97.] -Avare, either she had coveted the 
stipendium, or had sent them to war in the 
hope of spoils. Miller ingeniously pro- 
poses Martis avari. But there is pathos 
in the widowed mother too late bewailing 
her loss, and blaming herself as the cause 
of it. Lachmann makes the genitive de- 
pend on pueri; but funera means ‘ deaths,’ 
‘losses,’ as ‘funera Tantalidos,’ iii. 23, 14. 

98.] Jsta seems rather improperly used, 
and is best taken in the sense of hee.— 

Jides, ‘this fulfilment of the prediction came 

true, but I was sorry that it happened so.’ 

101.] Facito for facite is Burmann’s 
correction. Lachmann reads votwm facite. 
—Junonis, i.e. Lucine. Kuinoel and Barth 
read Junont with Scaliger. Lachmann 
defends the genitive by vota deum solvere 
in “232. xi. 4. 

103.] Hoe &e. As above remarked, 
there must be irony in making the As- 
trologer say ‘That is more than the oracle 
of Jupiter Ammon could tell you.’ The 
point of what follows is to magnify as- 
trology to the disparagement of all other 
kinds of divination.—Libye Jovis antrum, 

ππ. οὔ 

LIBRE V.+1. 221 

Aut sibi commissos fibra locuta deos, 

Aut si quis motas cornicis 

senserit alas, 105 

Umbra neque e magicis mortua prodit aquis. 
Aspicienda via est czli verusque per astra 

Trames et ab zonis quinque petenda fides, 
Felicesque Jovis stelle Martisque rapacis 
it grave Saturni sidus in omne caput, 

Quid moveant Pisces animosaque signa Leonis, 
Lotus et Hesperia quid Capricornus aqua. 


Exemplum grave erit Calchas: namque Aulide solvit 

Ille bene herentes ad pia saxa rates: 


Idem Agamemnoniz ferrum cervice puellz 
Tinxit, et Atrides vela cruenta dedit: 

‘the prophetic recess of Jupiter in Libya.’ 
See on iv. 22,15, ‘Ortygize visenda est 
ora Caystri.’ Pind. Pyth. iv. 56, Νείλοιο 
πρὸς πῖον τέμενος Kpovida, ‘the fertile 
oasis of Jupiter near the Nile ;’ where also 
the temple of Ammon is meant. 

106.1 Prodit, declarat. Some kind of 
νεκρομαντεία, necromancy, or what modern 
superstition calls ‘ spirit-rapping,’ was pro- 
bably practiced at the Avernian lake. 
Lachmann and Miiller read uwmbrave que, 
the Naples MS. having wmbrane que. 

107.] Verus per astra trames, ‘the true 
path that lies through the stars,’ or, as we 
should say, ‘the only road to truth is 
througk astrology.’ It is best perhaps to 
supply petendus est. The variant versus for 
verus is worth attention; cf. Georg. i. 238, 
‘via secta per ambas, Obliquus qua se 
signorum verteret ordo.’ The allusion 
here clearly is to a globe with the five 
zones (Georg. i. 233), in which the equator 
is intersected by the ecliptic.—After this 
verse I have inserted four lines which are 
at least appropriate in this place, (reading 
stelle for stelias, with Scaliger), while in 
their usual order they are well-nigh un- 
intelligible. The meaning now is clear; 
if one wants to know the future, one must 
take the horoscope of a person, and observe 
what the constellations or planets under 
which he was born portend for good or 
evil. Compare Persius, Sat. iv. 50, ‘Sat- 
urnumque gravem nostro Jove frangimus 

83—6.] ‘Even the good and bad plane- 
tary influences, and what the Pisces ἄο. 
portend,—all this is now a mere matter of 
traffic with the pretenders.’—In the punc- 

tuation and explanation of this obscure 
passage I have departed widely from both 
Jacob and Hertzberg. It must be re- 
membered that the astrologers (Chaldei or 
Mathematic?) obtained great and dangerous 
influence in Rome under the Emperors. 
Even Tacitus appears to have believed in 
the science: Ann. iv. 58. See also vi. 22, 
‘Plurimis mortalium non eximitur quin 
primo cujusque ortu ventura destinentur : 
sed queedam secus quam dicta sint cadere 
Jallaciis ignara dicentium. Juvenal, vi. 
553, ‘Chaldeis sed major erit fiducia: 
quicquid Dixerit astrologus, credent a fonte 
relatum Hammonis; quoniam Delphis ora- 
cula cessant’ ἕο. Augustus was a believer 
in the art. Suet. Oct. §94, ‘Tantam mox 
fiduciam fati Augustus habuit, ut thema 
suum vulgaverit, nummumque argenteum 
nota sideris Capricorni, quo natus est, per- 
cusserit.’ Tiberius had Chaldeans with 
him at Caprese, Juv. x. 94. 

85.] -dnimosa (iv. 9, 9), is perhaps an 
astrologer’s term, in reference to the sup- 
posed courage or spirit of the animal. 

109.] Exemplum grave, ‘a serious warn- 
ing,’ viz. of the danger of trusting seers 
rather than astrologers. | Agamemnon, 

misled by Calchas, let his fleet sail from | 

Aulis when it would have been well de- 

tained (bene hesisset) at rocks which | | 

asked not, as Diana did, the death of a 
child, Iphigenia.—pia saza, like pie porte, 
inf. 7, 87, having regard and reverence for 
loved objects. Cic. de Div. i. 16, ὁ 29, 
‘Agamemnon, quum Achivi coepissent 
inter sese strepere, aperteque artem obterere 
extispicum, Solvere imperat secundo rumore 
adversaque ai.’ 



Nec rediere tamen Danai: tu diruta fletum 
Supprime et Euboicos respice, Troia, sinus. 

Nauplius ultores sub noctem porrigit ignes 


Et natat exuviis Greecia pressa suis. 

Victor Oiliade, rape nunc et dilige vatem, 
A. Quam _vetat avelli veste Minerva sua. 
/~ Hactenus histori: nunc ad tua devehar astra: 
Incipe tu lacrimis zquus adesse novis. 



WN Umbria te notis antiqua Penatibus edit, 
(Mentior? an patrize tangitur ora tue 7) 

113.] ‘Dry your eyes, Ὁ Troy, when 
you turn them to view the destruction of 
the Grecian fleet off the south-eastern pro- 
montory of Eubcea, and see yourself thus 
avenged.’ The sense is, Calchas had pro- 
mised a safe return, but his prediction was 
proved by the event to have been false. 
Nauplius, the father of Palamedes, to 
avenge himself on the Greeks for the loss 
of his son, held up lights off the dangerous 
promontory of Caphareus, by which the 
Greek pilots were deceived and the vessels 
wrecked. Compare iv. 7, 39, ‘Saxa tri- 
umphales fregere Capharea puppes, Nau- 
fraga cum vasto Grecia tracta salo est.’ 

irg. Zn. xi. 260, ‘ Euboice cautes, ultor- 
que Caphareus.’ Pausan. iv. 36, 3, ἐοίκασι 
δὲ ai ἀνθρώπειαι τύχαι Kal χωρία τέως 
ἄγνωστα ἐς δόξαν προηχέναι. Καφηρέως 
γάρ ἐστιν ὄνομα τοῦ ἐν Εὐβοίᾳ, τοῖς σὺν 
᾿Αγαμέμνονι Ἕλλησιν ἐπιγενομένου χει- 
μῶνος ἐνταῦθα, ὡς ἐκομίζοντο ἐξ Ἰλίου. 

116.] Et natat ἕο. ‘The Grecian fleet 
floats helpless on the water (is water- 
logged), overweighted with sacrilegious 
spoils.’ For this sense of xatat see 11]. 17, 
24, and iv. 12, 82. It seems better to 
understand it thus than to refer it to the 
efforts of the crew to save themselves by 
swimming. The story is taken from the 
ancient tale of the Νόστοι, like the account 
of the storm in the Agamemnon and at the 
beginning of the Troades. 

117.] Oiliades, Ajax the son of Oileus. 
The initial O represents the digamma. 
Lachmann needlessly reads Iliade victor. 
Pindar has the form Ἰλιάδα for Ειλιάδα in 
Ol. ix. 112.—dilige, choose as your consort. 
Ajax, son of Oileus, had ravished Cassandra 
in the very temple of Pallas, and though 
she had taken refuge by clasping the sacred 
statue. See 4n.i.40, and the fine pas- 
sage in ii. 403, &.—veste sua, in allusion 
to the peplus, which was placed on the 

Bpéras, or ancient statue of Pallas in the 
Parthenon ; the same usage being supposed 
to exist at Troy, by a common practice of 
the poets. This scene, the rape of Cas- 
sandra from the Palladium, is one of the 
commonest of the designs on Greek Vases. 
The sense is, ‘Go, now, Ajax, commit 
sacrilege,—and suffer the just consequences 
of it.’ This use of the imperative is com- 
mon when the speaker dares or challenges 
another to brave a certain risk: so 7 nune, 
ite &c. iv. 7, 29, and 18,17. The calam- 
ities of the voyage homewards were attri- 
bated to this act of Ajax. See on Asch. 
Agam. 336. 

119.] Historie. ‘So far for history. 
Now I will come (lit. down the course of 
time) to your destinies. Prepare yourself 
to hear with patience a new subject of 
grief.’—novis, different from the old tale of 

all Mentior, ‘Am I speaking falsely, 
or do I hit (with my art) the border of 

your native land? Cf. Asch. Ag. 1165, 
ἥμαρτον, ἢ κυρῶ τι, τοξότης Tis ὥς ;—qua 
&e., ‘it is the place where dank Mevania 
(Bevagna) sheds its dews on the low-lying 
plain, and the Umbrian tarn basks with its 
waters in the summer sun.’ The Jacus 
Umber seems to be the sources of the river 
Clitumnus, described by Pliny in a well- 
known and beautiful letter, Zp. viii. 8, 
‘eluctatus (fons) quem facit gurgitem Jato 
gremio patescit purus et vitreus.’ Those 
who have seen the sources of the ‘New 
River’ near Ware, will understand the de- 
scription. But Pliny adds that its waters 
are intensely cold, ‘rigor aque certaverit 
nivibus.’ Poetically, perhaps, rather than 
truly, it is said to be warmed by the 
summer sun. But the form imtepeo (for 
intepesco) is suspected. Miiller reads δὲ 
tepet, but he does not condescend to explain 
what sense he thus attaches to the passage. 



LIBER V. 1. 


Qua nebulosa cavo rorat Mevania campo, 
Et lacus xstivis intepet Umber aquis, 

Scandentisque Asisi consurgit vertice murus, 


Murus ab ingenio notior ille tuo. 
Ossaque legisti non illa etate legenda 
| Patris et in tenues cogeris ipse Lares: 
Nam tua cum multi versarent rura juvenci, 

Abstulit excultas pertica tristis opes. 


Mox ubi bulla rudi demissa est aurea collo, 
Matris et ante deos libera sumpta toga, 
Tum tibi pauca suo de carmine dictat Apollo 

Et vetat insano verba tonare foro. 

At tu finge elegos, fallax opus, hee tua castra, 

Scribat ut exemplo cetera turba tuo. 
Militiam Veneris blandis patiere sub armis 
Et Veneris pueris utilis hostis eris. 
Nam tibi victrices quascumque “labore parasti, 

125.] Asis for Asis is the almost cer- 
tain correction of Lachmann and Haupt. 
Asisium, or Asisi, one of the many hill- 
towns of Italy, was the birthplace of the 

poet, and is better known in modern times 
Ἵ as that of St. Francis. With the vanity 
of one who had now made a fame, Pro- 
pertius puts his own biography into the 
ἡ mouth of the pseudo-astrologer. 

127.] It appears from 111. 26, ὅδ, that 
‘\Propertius was born of impoverished pa- 
rents, not conspicuous for their ancestry. 
VSee also iii. 16,21. That he was, how- 
ever, ingenuus is clear from the mention of 
the aurea bulla vy. 131. Of his parentage 
and gens next to nothing is known. See 
Hertzberg, Quest. pp. 12—14. 

Ξ 130.] Pertica, the measuring-rod, or 
: perch, by which the unjust distribution of 
confiscated lands was made to the veterans 
of Octavian in the year 713, an event so 
= well known from the first Eclogue of 
+ Virgil.—exeultas, ‘highly tilled;’ cf. Mar- 
‘ tial, Ep. i. 85, 1. 

* 181.] Bulla aurea. The pendent or 
amulet worn round the neck of infants, 
and retained till the age (16) for taking 
the toga virilis, (libera toga, vy. 132). This 
bulla was of gold if the parents were pa- 
trician, and of leather if they were in 
humble life. Juven. v. 164, ‘ Etruscum 
puero si contigit aurum, Vel nodus tantum, 
et signum de paupere loro.’ Hence the 


oo | document called ‘a bull,’ de- 

rives its name from the seal appended to it. 
Dimissa 15 ΤΊΣ in the Naples MS. 
Demissa is retained by Miiller. 

132.] Jlatris deos. His father being 
dead, the Lares are called his mother’s 
gods. We know from Persius, Sat. v. 31, 
that such was the custom: ‘Bullaque 
succinctis Laribus donata pependit.’ See 
Becker, Gallus, p. 183. 

133.] Tum tibi ο. The sense is, ‘then 
you began to write verses, and refused to 
be brought up as a lawyer.’ Of course, 
all this is attributed to the influence of 
Apollo. Whether the next distich con- 
tains the words of the god or of the 
astrologer, is not very clear. 

135]. Fallax opus, ‘disappointing though 
the work may be.’ Or perhaps, as Lach- 
mann explains it, ‘quod in fraudibus et 
fallaciis versatur,’ ‘intended to deceive.’— 
hee &c., ‘this is your field, to furnish a 
model for inferior poets to follow.’—turba, 
ὄχλος τῶν ποιητῶν. Soiy.1, 12, ‘scrip- 
torumque meas turba secuta rotas.’ 

138.] Utilis, you will serve the Cupids 
as a fit person to practice on. 

139.] Victrices palmas, victorias, or te 
victorem. ‘One girl will make vain, or 
baffle, all the victories you may have 
gained over love.’ The sentiment is ex- 
panded in the next couplet; ‘you may 
boast that you have resisted the charms of 
many, but Cynthia will catch you at last.’ 


Eludet palmas una puella tuas: 



Et bene cum fixum mento discusseris uncum, 
Nil erit hoc, rostro te premet ansa suo. 
Tllius arbitrio noctem lucemque videbis: 
Gutta quoque ex oculis non nisi jussa cadet. 

Nec mille excubiz nec te signata juvabunt 


Limina: persuase fallere rima sat est. 
Nune tua vel mediis puppis luctetur in undis, 
Vel licet armatis hostis nermis eas, 
Vel tremefacta cavo tellus diducat hiatum : 

Octipedis Cancri terga sinistra time. 


Quid mirare meas tot in uno corpore formas ? 
Accipe Vertumni signa paterna dei. 

142.] Ansa, the handle, or knop, of the 
hook by which a body was dragged igno- 
miniously from the place of execution. 
¢Sejanus ducitur unco Spectandus,’ Juven. 
x. 66. Hor. Carm. i. 35,19, ‘Nec severus 
Uncus abest liquidumve plumbum.” Ovid, 
Ibis, 167, ‘Carnificisque manu, populo 
plaudente traheris, Infixusque tuis ossibus 
uncus erit.’ The notion intended probably 
is, that when the sharp hook would not 
hold in a lacerated or putrified corpse, 
some use was made of the other end for 
pushing, shoving, or thrusting it along, 
which is the literal sense of premet; but 
this is only a conjectural explanation of 
a very obscure passage. The general sense 
may be, ‘you may get away from her 
now and then, but she will beat you in the 
end.’ The MSS. give vostro and ausa, and 
inf. 146 prima, which were emended by 

143.] Arbitrio, by her permission alone 
you will be allowed to sleep, or be awake, 
or even to ery. Compare i. 5, 11, ‘Non 
tibi jam somnos, non illa relinquet ocellos.’ 

145.] Nee ἕο. ‘Nor, though she thus 
holds you in thrall, will you keep her 
faithful to you.’—ypersuase, cui persuasum 
est; ef. Ovid, Avs. Am. 679, ‘jamdudum 
persuasus erit; miserebitur ultro.’ 

147.] ‘You need not now dread ship- 
fared battles, or earthquakes; your fate 
will come from a woman born under the 
constellation Cancer,’ and therefore rapa. 
This is almost a proverbial way of predict- 

ing a certain end, as when we say, ‘That 

man was not born to be drowned.’ See 
111. 19, 12; iv. 16, 11 seqq., and Tibull. i. 
2, 27, ‘ Quisquis amore tenetur, eat tutus- 
que sacerque Qualibet.” There is some 
satire perhaps on the mystic language of 
the astrologers in terga cancri. The al- 
lusion may be to Cynthia’s avaricious de- 
mands, 111. 7, and iy. 13. 

149.] Lachmann and others read cavo 
hiatu, with MS. Gron., and this would be 
satisfactory enough with deducat, ‘carry 
you down in its yawning gulf.’ Perhaps 
there were two readings, cavum diducat 
hiatum, (like diducere rictum, Juy. x. 230), 
and cavo deducat hiatu. As the text stands 
in the best editions, tremefacta cavo must be 
construed, @.e. utero concussa. 

II. A mythological account of the god 
Vertumnus, who is introduced as the per- 
sona loquens. Vertumnus was a kind of 
harlequin god, who in accordance with his 
name was made to take different costumes 
at different festivals and seasons. 

2.1 Vertumni. Another form, found in 
the best copies, is Vertunnt, which seems 
to point to Vertuni. Compare Portunus 
and Fortuna. The word is from an old 
participle of verto or vorto, i.e. vertomenus. 
Similarly Auctumnus for auctomenus, ‘the 
year as it gets old” It is well known that 
a duality of sexes characterized the oldest 
mythology, whence we find Liber and 
Libera, (Tac. Ann. ii. 41), Jupiter and 
Juno, (i.e. Jovino), Janus and Diana, Helios 
and Selene, &e. The origin of the name 

On Eee 

LIBER V. 2. 

Tuscus ego et Tuscis orior, 
Preelia Volsanos deseruisse focos. 

Hee me turba juvat, nec templo letor eburno: 
Romanum satis est posse videre forum. 

nec poeenitet inter . 

Hac quondam Tiberinus iter faciebat, et aiunt 
Remorum auditos per vada pulsa sonos: 
At postquam ille suis tantum concessit alumnis, 

Fortuna, otherwise called Fors (for Vorts), 
(the Fortis Fortuna of Fasti vi. 773), must 
be sought in the peculiar attributes of 
Chance,—uncertainty, fickleness, and revo- 
lutionary caprice. Hence she is painted 
with a wheel: see Ritter on Tac. Anz. iii. 
71; supra, ii. 8, 7—8. According to Pau- 
sanias, lib. iv. cap. 30, § 3, 4, the Messeni- 
ans represented their Τύχη as πόλον ἔχουσα 
ἐπὶ τῇ κεφαλῇ. Fortuna was worshipped 
as Nursia or Nortia (Nevortia, Juven. x. 
74) at Vulsinii, and hence she is clearly 
identified with Vertumnus. Some derived 
Vertumnus from ver, and so made him the 
husband of Pomona, from a fancied analogy 
of Vertumnus to Auctumnus. Varro (JZ. L. 
§ 74), writes ‘et aree Sabinam linguam olent, 
que Tati regis voto sunt Rome dedicate: 
nam ut Annales dicunt, vovit Opi,—Vor- 
tumno.’ But the semi-Greek form of the 
name points to a Tyrrhenian origin, verto 
being an Umbrian or indigenous word in- 
flected on the Pelasgic model. Compare 
Varronianus, p. 886. A writer in Dr. 
Smith’s smaller Classical Dictionary does 
not seem justified in saying: ‘The story 
of the Etruscan origin seems to be sufli- 
ciently refuted by his genuine Roman 
name, and it is much more probable that 
the worship of Vertumnus was of Sabine 
origin.’—signa paterna, ‘the proofs of the 
parentage or paternity, z.e. of the native 
land, of the god Vertumnus.’ He means 
the proofs, such as those adduced inf. 49 
seqq. But paternus and patrius are not 
synonyms, though here confused. 

8.1 Inter prelia, when the early wars of 
Rome with the Sabines were in progress. 
See inf. v. 51. 

4.] The MSS. vary between volsanos, 
volsinos, and volsanios, each of which forms, 
as usual in similar cases, finds an advocate 
in one or other of the editors. Volsiniis 
occurs in Tac. Ann. iv. 1, and in Juvenal, 
Sat. iii. 190, with the first 7 short, whence 
Volsinios was conjectured by Heinsius. 
Barth and Lachmann give Volsanos, which, 
according to Hertzberg, is also approved 
by Miiller. But he now reads Volsunios. 

5.] Hee turba, i.e. frequentissimus hic 
vicus.—jwvat, in a double sense: I like 
Rome, and I like to see the people, and 
therefore I would not have them hid from 
my sight. The statue of Vertumnus, ap- 
parently not inclosed in a shrine (nec tem- 
plo letor eburno), was placed in the vicus 
Tuscus, otherwise called, as Hertzberg 
shows in a very elaborate note, vicus tura- 
rius, (Hor. Epist. ii. 1, 269, ‘vicum ven- 
dentem thus et odores,’) from a confusion 
between Tuscus and tusculum or thuseulum. 
Varro, vy. 46, distinctly says, ‘ab eis (sc. 
Tuscis) dictus vicus Tuscus, et ibi ideo 
Vortumnum stare, quod is deus Etrurice 
princeps.’ Thus parts of English cities 
were called the Jewry from being assigned 
for the habitation of Jews. The vicus 
Tuscus led from the Velabrum into the 
Forum Romanum (see v. 4, 12), and ap- 

ears to have commanded a view of it. 

7.] The first reason the god assigns for 
his name is that the part of Rome called 
the Velabrum (from veda, inf. 9, 5) was 
formerly covered with water, and was re- 
covered by turning the course of the river. 
Ovid, Fast. vi. 405—10, ‘Qua Velabra 
solent ad Circum ducere pompas, Nil pree- 
ter salices crassaque canna fuit.—Nondum 
conyeniens diversis iste figuris Nomen ab 
averso ceperat amne Deus’ (Vertumnus 
quasi Vertamnus).—hac, δεικτικῶς, pointing 
to the Velabrum lying below.— Tiberinus, 
the river-god, who was supposed to have 
walked on the oozy shallows. 

9.1 Concessit, ‘gave up so much ground 
to the children whom he fed with his 
waters,’ as κουροτρόφος. Lucret. v. 1370, 
‘inque diem magis in montem succedere 
silvas cogebant, infraque locum concedere 
cultis.’” In the pentameter I have written 
Vertamnus (as in 12 Vertannus) in place of 
the ordinary form. It is evident that the 
poet discusses the origin of the name ac- 
cording to different ways of spelling and 
pronouncing it. Hence in 21 and 47 it is 
equally clear that Vertomnus was derived 
from vertere tn omnes, and in 64 from 
vertere omnes in fugam. 




Vertamnus verso dicor ab amne deus. 



Seu, quia vertentis fructum preecepimus anni, 
Vertanni rursus creditur esse sacrum. 
Prima mihi variat liventibus uva racemis, 
Et coma lactenti spicea fruge tumet. 

Hic dulces cerasos, hic auctumnalia pruna 


Cernis et «stivo mora rubere die. 

Insitor hic solvit pomosa vota corona, 
Cum pirus invito stipite mala tulit. | 
Mendax fama noces: alius mihi nominis index: 
De se narranti tu modo crede deo: 

Opportuna mea est cunctis natura figuris ; 
In quamcumque voles, verte; decorus ero. 
Indue me Cois, fiam non dura puella: 
Meque virum sumpta quis neget esse toga? 
Da falcem et torto frontem mihi comprime feno, 25 

11.] Another theory of the name is 
propounded, and enlarged upon by a de- 
scription of the changes of fruit in the 
autumn.—precepimus, ‘we take the first 
tribute of, —a preceptio of the fruits, as it 
were. The plural refers to the citizens 
generally, not to the god, who throughout 
uses the singular. They are said to take 
the early samples of garden-produce and 
offer them on the feast of Vertumnus, the 
perfect tense representing the aoristic sense 
‘preecipere solemus.’ It seems needless 
to alter this into precerpimus, with Fea, 
whom Miiller follows.—rursus, at, ‘for 
this other reason.’—sacrwm, i.e. tempus or 
festum; ‘the time of the first tasting is 
considered the Feast of Vertumnus.’ The 
MSS. give eredidit, which was corrected 
by Pucci. 

13.] Prima &e. This explains what is 
meant by the preceptio. ‘The first bunch 
of grapes that changes its colour is mine 
(lit. ‘does so for me’); and the first spiky 
ear that swells with milky grain,’ 1,6. in 
which the milky grain begins to enlarge.— 
variat, verti incipit; here intransitive, as 
in ii. 5,11, ‘non ita Carpathie variant 
Aquilonibus unde.’ The Greek is ὑπο- 
περκάζειν, Od. vii. 126. Soph. Frag. 239, 
6, καὶ κλίνεταί ye κἀποπερκοῦται βότρυς. 

15.] Hic, before my statue, to which 
the first ripe fruits (dulces) were duly 

16.] Rubere. Like the blackberry, the 
mulberry is green, scarlet, or black in 

different stages of ripening. Asch. Frag. 
Cress. 107, λευκοῖς τε γὰρ μόροισι καὶ 
μελαγχίμοις καὶ μιλτοπρέπτοις βρίθεται 
ταὐτοῦ χρόνου. 

17.] Another kind of change, the success 
of which is attributed to the god, is that 
produced by grafting; though, of course, a 
pear-stock will not bear apples any more 
than an elm will bear acorns, as Virgil 
fancied, Georg. ii. 72.—pomosa corona may 
mean either a string of young apples or a 
garland of apple-blossoms. 

19.] Noces, ‘you do me injustice.’ The 
popular notions about the origin of the 
name Vertumnus are all wrong; the real 
derivation is from verti in omnes figuras.— 
mihi, 1.6. alium habeo nominis indicem, 
sc. meipsum. Perhaps however tdi should 
be read, addressed, like the following tw, 
to the reader, or more simply still, to 
Fama, who is thus referred to the god 
himself for the account she is to give of 
him. Whether modo erede should be con- 
strued, or deo modo dum de se narrat, is 

21—2.] In eunctis and verte the name 
Vertomnus is implied, as inf. 47, The in- 
tervening verses describe the varieties of 
guise assumed by the god. 

23.] Cots, see i. 2, 2, and 11. 1. 5.—non 
dura, no awkward girl, but of natural and 
easy gait. 

25.] Falcem. Give me a sickle (or 
scythe) and a hayband round my brows, 
and you will swear I have been mowing 

LIBER V. 2. 

Jurabis nostra gramina secta manu. 
Arma tuli quondam et, memini, laudabar in illis: 
- Corbis in imposito pondere messor eram. 

Sobrius ad lites: at cum est imposta corona, 
Clamabis capiti vina subisse meo. 

Cinge caput mitra, speciem furabor Iacchi: 
Furabor Phebi, si modo plectra dabis. ἢ 
Cassibus impositis venor: sed harundine sumpta 

Faunus plumoso sum deus aucupio. 
Est etiam aurige species Vertumnus et ejus, 
Traicit alterno qui leve pondus equo. 

Suppetat hoc, pisces calamo preedabor, et ibo 
Mundus demissis institor in tunicis. 

Pastor me ad baculum possum curvare vel idem 

grass.’ The whole of this passage should 
be compared with Ovid, det, xiv. 641—41. 

27.] Arma, see 3 and 53.—laudabar, as 
sup. decorus ero ;—in illis, as Gr. ἐν ὅπλοις, 
dressed as a warrior. The use of 77) is the 
same in the pentameter, where cordis is 
| the reaper’s basket or hamper in which the 
ears of corn were placed, the straw being 
left standing. 

29.] Sobrius, οὐκ εἰμὶ πάροινος, ‘I am 
not easily provoked to a drunken brawl.’ 
He can assume the guise of a comissator or 
κωμαστὴ5, and appear as if wine had got 
into his head. Plaut. Amphitryo, 999, 
‘capiam coronam mi in caput, adsimulabo 
me esse ebrium.’ 

33.] Harundine, the fowler’s jointed 
rod, tipped with bird-lime and so con- 
structed that it could be suddenly darted 
out to a considerable length; the calamus 
of iy. 18, 46. Martial, ix. 54, 3, ‘aut 
crescente levis traheretur harundine prada, 
Pinquis et implicitas virga teneret aves.’— 
aucupio, ‘for bird-catching,’ ‘for taking 
feathered game.’ 

35.] ‘Vertumnus assumes also the guise 
of a charioteer, and of one who throws his 
light weight from one horse to another in 
the circus.’—leve pondus is the accusative, 
not the nominative in apposition to gw, as 
Lachmann thought. Barth rightly sup- 
plies ‘scil. corporis sui.’ So pedes trai- 
cere inf. 4, 78. The practice alluded to is 
much like that which is still commonly 
exhibited, viz., feats of agility on horseback 
at full speed. The horses were called equi 
desultortzi. Kuinoel refers to Sueton. Jul. 
Cesar, 39, ‘quadrigas bigasque et equos 
desultorios agitaverunt nobilissimi juyenes.’ 




| 90 


The celebrated and curious passage in 
Hom. 11, xv. 680 shows that this exhibi- 
tion sometimes took place on the high 

37.] Suppetat hoc, z.e. modo fiat mihi 
copia hujus rei. Compare inf. 4, 9. 

38.] Mundus, ‘spruce and tidy.’—de- 
missis tunicis, non succinctus. The latter 
implied hurry, exertion, and indifference 
to personal appearance. The pedlar (i- 
stitor) would seem to have found great 
favour in Roman families, and to have had 
interested motives in dressing so as to 
please female eyes. Compare Hor. Od. iii. 
6, 30; Epod. xvii. 20; Ovid, Art. Am. i. 
421; Remed. Amor. 305. The proper office 
of the znstitor seems to have been to dis- 
pose of goods on commission, much in the 
way practised by our commercial travellers. 

39.] All the good copies give pastorem 
ad baculum possum curare; a reading with 
which Jacob expresses no desire to quarrel. 
Hertzberg also retains it, and thinks pas- 
torem curare is not more harsh than dp/lere 
pastorem, ‘to fulfil the part of a shepherd,’ 
like ‘censorem implere,’ Vell. Paterc. ii. 96. 
So also Miiller and Keil. I still think this 
reading is nonsense, and I doubt if Mr. 
Wratislaw mends the matter by reading 
‘pastorem ad baculum possum curvyare,’ 
i.e. ‘curyum pastorem agere.’ I have 
therefore adopted, with Kuinoel, the ex- 
cellent conjecture of Ayrmann, in defence 
of which Kuinoel well observes, that on 
ancient gems shepherds are usually repre- 
sented as leaning on their staffs, and he 
quotes from Ovid, Zrist. iv. 1, 11, ‘ Fessus 
ut incubuit baculo saxoye resedit Pastor.’ 


Sirpiculis medio pulvere ferre rosam. 



Nam quid ego adiciam, de quo mihi maxima fama est, 
: Hortorum in manibus dona probata meis ? 

Ceruleus cucumis tumidoque cucurbita ventre 

Me notat et junco brassica vincta levi. 

Nec flos ullus hiat, pratis, quin 1116 decenter 

Impositus “fronti langueat ante mez. 

At mihi, quod formas unus vertebar in omnes, 
Nomen ab eventu patria lingua dedit. 

Et tu, Roma, meis tribuisti preemia Tuscis, 

Unde hodie vicus nomina Tuscus habet, 


Tempore quo sociis venit Lycomedius armis, 
Atque Sabina. feri contudit arma Tati, 
Vidi ego labentes acies et tela caduca, 

40.] Medio pulvere, which some take 
for media arena, and explain of the custom 
of selling roses to the spectators in the 
circus, Hertzberg and others more probably 
understand for media estate. ‘ Hortorum 
villicum vel adeo puellam rusticam tibi 
finge «state per vias pulverulentas canis- 
tras (canistra) florum plenas Romam por- 
tantem.’— Hertzberg, who perhaps presses 
the sense of medio pulvere too closely. 
The custom of sending flowers to sell in 
the city is mentioned Georg. iv. 134, 
‘Primus vere rosam, atque autumno car- 
pere poma.’ The sirpiculus was a hamper 
or flower-basket, alluded to perhaps in iy. 
18, 30. Varro (the worst of etymologists) 
says, perhaps rightly, v. § 187, ‘Falces 
sirpicule vocatee ab sirpando, id est ab alli- 
gando,’ and again § 139, ‘sirpea, quod virgis 
sirpatur, id est colligando implicatur.’ 

41.] Nam quid &e., ‘quid quod hor- 
torum dona ponuntur in manibus meis,’ 
z.e. accedit quod &e.—maxima fama, be- 
cause Vertumnus was associated with Po- 
mona.—dona probata, the choice produce 
of the garden, including fruits and vege- 
tables, but the latter here seem chiefly 

43.] Ceruleus, in respect of its bluish 
or glaucous bloom. So Lucretius has 
‘olearum ceerula plaga,’ v. 1374.—me notat, 
insignem facit; in a good, or at least, in- 
different sense. Cf, iv. 7, 22, ‘qua notat 
Argynni poena natantis aquas.’ 

45.|] Jlle seems to mean e¢ ile; as inf, 
7, 92, ‘nos vehimur’ is xos guogue. Com- 
pare however tid. 76.—pratis is opposed 
to hortorum,; ‘nay, even the first flowers 

of the fields are put to wither on my 

47.] In omnes, see sup. on 21.—patria, 
the language of my adopted country, the 

49.] Lt tu, Roma. ‘As 1 was called 
Vertomnus from verti in omnia, so Vicus 
Tuscus was called from the Tusci.’—unde, 
z.e. ‘nam ab iis’ το. 

51.] The good copies agree in Lycome- 
dius. Kuinoel and Lachmann admit Bur- 
mann’s conjecture, Lucwmonius. See on 
v. 1, 29. The historical incident referred 
to by the poet is the assistance lent to 
the Romans against the Sabines by the 
Tuscans under Cales Vibenna, whence the 
vicus Tuscus was believed to haye derived 

its name, and the tribe of the Luceres | 
seems to have sprung. Tacitus, Ann. iv. | 
65, ‘ Caelium (montem) appellitatum a Cele | - 

Vibenna, qui dux gentis Etrusce cum aux- 

ium tulisset, sedem suam acceperat a ~ 

Tarquinio Prisco, seu quis alius regum 
dedit: nam scriptores in eo dissentiunt. 
Cetera non ambigua sunt, magnas eas 
copias per plana etiam ac foro propinqua 
habitavisse, unde Tuscum Vicum e vo- 
cabulo advyenarum dictum.’ <A _ people 
called Lucomedi, the same in fact as the 
Luceres, are recorded by Festus and Paul 
the deacon, quoted by Hertzberg; but of 
a leader so called, no mention occurs ex- 
cept in the present passage. There seems 
an allusion to λύκος or λύκειος, as Suggest- 
ive of fierceness. 

53.] Vidi ego. See sup. 27.—tela ca- 
cin wrrita, weapons that fell short of the 






τ eee) 


eA EA RAL He nery: 


LIBER V. 3. 229 

Atque hostes turpi terga dedisse fuge. 
Sed facias, divum sator, ut Romana per evum 
Transeat ante meos turba togata pedes. 
Sex superant versus: te, qui ad vadimonia curris, 
Non moror: hee spatiis ultima meta meis. 
Stipes acernus eram, properanti falee dolatus, 
Ante Numam grata pauper in urbe deus. 60 
At tibi, Mamurri, forme celator ahene, 
Tellus artifices ne terat Osca manus, 
Qui me tam docilis potuisti fundere in usus. 
Unum opus est, operi non datur unus honos. 



Hee Arethusa suo mittit mandata Lycote, 

54.] Hostes, i.e. Sabinos. As they were 62.] Osca. It is not very clear whether 
versi in fugam, it is probable that the name the poet meant generally Itala, as Miiller 
Vertumnus is again alluded to. (quoted by Hertzberg) thinks, or Campana, 

56.] Ante meos pedes. The way to the as the latter prefers, or lastly, whether 
Circus maximus, which stood in the low any antithesis is intended between the 
ground between the Palatine and Aventine aboriginal Oscans and the Etrurian or 
hills, from the Forum Romanum, was by Pelasgic settlers. Possibly (as in Lyco- 
the Vicus Tuscus and the Velabrum, so »medius sup.) there is a fanciful allusion to 
that crowds of people were constantly pass- opifex in Osci or Opici. The name would 
ing the statue of Vertumnus. — Zogata, seem to be connected with IMamers, the 
peaceful or civilian. Oscan word for Mars; see Varronianus, 

57.] Ad vadimonia. Here used for any p.80. The general sense however is clear: 
urgent and important business. Juy.iii. ‘may the earth spare the skilful hands 
213, ‘differt vadimonia pretor.’ Any one that made me,’ ὦ, 6. may it be light to your 
in a hurry, says the poet, may pass over remains. 
the remaining six verses, as merely sup- 63.] Fundere, xwvetew, whence, of 
plementary. It may be conjectured, from course, our word foundry. There is this 
the unusual and awkward way in which difference between fundere and conflare 
the last six lines are connected with the (inf. v. 7, 47), that the former is to cast 
preceding, that the present elegy was at anew statue &c., the latter to melt down 
first commenced with the words ‘Stipes an old one.—doctles is here in a passive 
acernus eram’ &c. See sup. on i.67, and _ sense, ‘readily assumed:’ the mind of the 
compare Horace, Sat. i. 8,1. ‘Olim trun- poet was perhaps rather ‘me docilem in 
cus eram ficulnus,’ &e. tot usus,’ ‘who had the skill to cast me 

58.] Ultima meta, ‘the last heat;’ cf. fit for being turned into so many uses.’ 
sup.i. 70, ‘hasmeusad metas sudet oportet Hence xon unus honos operi; it is praised 
equus.’—spatia, as in Georg. i. 512, means under whichever of its attributes it is 
the courses run, each up-and-down, δί- viewed. 
avaos, being a ‘spatium.’ 

61.] Mamurius Veturius was a famous III. This elegy, which Kuinoel rightly 
sculptor or modeller in the time of Numa. |{ styles ‘mellitissimum carmen,’ as much 
Ovid, Fast. iii. 383, speaking of the ancilia:|{ resembles Ovid’s Heroides as the two 
‘Mamurius, morum fabrene exactior artis} preceding are like the style of the Fasti. 
Difficile est illud dicere, clausit opus.’ Under the feigned names of Arethusa and 
With Miiller and the Naples MSS., wef Lycotas it is generally thought that Alia 
should read Mamurri in the present pas-+Galla and her husband Postumus are 
sage, as Ovid shortens the w. meant. See on iv. 12, which also treats 



Cum totiens absis, si potes esse meus. 
Si qua tamen tibi lecturo pars oblita deerit, 
Hee erit 6 lacrimis facta litura meéis: 

Aut si qua incerto fallet te littera tractu, 5 
Signa mez dextree jam morientis erunt. 
Te modo viderunt iteratos Bactra per ortus, 
Te modo munito Neuricus hostis equo, “αἵ 
ames eee 1 (ἃ 
Hibernique Getz, pictoque Britannia curru, 
Ustus et Eoa discolor Indus aqua. 10 

Heecne marita fides et pacts gaudia noctes, 
Cum rudis urgenti brachia victa dedi ? 
Que mihi deduct fax omen preetulit, illa 

Traxit ab everso lumina nigra rogo, 

of Ceesar’s expedition to the East. Hertz- 
berg doubts the identity of the parties 
(Quest. lib. 1, cap. v. p. 22), because he 
thinks it improbable that feigned names 
should be used after the real ones had been 
given. <A more plausible argument lies in 
the curious fact, pointed out by Bentley on 
Hor. Od. ii. 12, 13, that when the Roman 
writers employed feigned names, they se- 
lected such as were of the same rhythm 
as the real ones, 7.e. metrically convertible. 
Whether this was a law, or merely a 
common practice, may perhaps fairly be 
questioned, The similarity of circum- 
stances detailed in the two elegies strongly 
suggests that the persons are the same. 
The date 734 is assigned by Hertzberg 
to the present elegy, Quest. p. 228. 

8.1 δὲ gua tamen ἕο. Ovid expresses 
this idea with not less beauty, Her. iii. 3, 
“Quascunque aspicies, lacrime fecere li- 
turas; Sed tamen et lacrime pondera vocis 
habent;’ and ¢bid. xi. 1, ‘si qua tamen 
cxecis errabunt scripta lituris, Oblitus a 
dominz crede libellus erit.’.—/ec is em- 
phatic: ‘this is not the ordinary erasure 
of letter-writers’ Ke. 

5.] Aut si &e. ‘Or, if you fail to read 
any letter from its unsteady stroke, this 
shall be a sign that death was even now 
upon my hand.’ 

7.1 Jteratos, ‘more than once visited ;’ 
in allusion perhaps to the sending troops 
and supplies for the second Parthian ex- 
pedition to revenge the death of Crassus 
(inf. 6, 83). Compare signa iterata sup. i. 
82, and Hor. Carm.i.7, 32, ‘cras ingens 
iterabimus equor.’ Miiller marks the 
_ passage as corrupt, the Naples MS. omit- 
| ting the words Bactra per ortus.—Neuricus 

is the conjecture of Jacob, adopted by 
Hertzberg and Miiller, for hertcus or euricus. 
Lachmann and the older editors read Sericus 
after Beroaldus. Keil gives Noricus. The 
Neuri were a Sarmatian people, mentioned 
by Strabo, vii. 3, ὁ 14, Herod. iv. 17, and 
elsewhere. JMzunito equo refers to the cata- 
phracte or mail-clad Sarmatian cavalry, 
Tac. Hist.i. 79. See sup. iv. 12, 12. 

9.] Pieto curru. Cf. ii. 1, 76, ‘esseda 
celatis siste Britanna jugis.’—EHoa aqua, 
‘ad aquam Eoam,’ Lachmann. This seems 
the best and simplest explanation; ‘the 
sun-burnt swarthy Indian by the eastern 
sea.’ The far north, west, and east are 
mentioned under the names Gete, Britanni, 
and Indi. The ancient idea, that the sun 
rose from the far-distant eastern ocean, 
and burnt black the natives of that region, 
is a fair subject for a poet to adopt. Others 
take Jndus for the name of the river, which 
makes it hard to explain wstus and discolor. 
Miiller, with Barth and Kuinoel, read eoo 
decolor Indus equo; one objection to which 
is, that eguo thus ends two consecutive 

11.1 Pacte et mihi gaudia noctis is the 
plausible conjecture of Miiller for δέ parce 
avia noctes (MS. Naples), or et pacte mihi 
noctes (MS. Gron.) The ordinary texts 
give he pacte sunt mihi noctes, after Pucci 
and Beroaldus. I formerly gave e¢ sie 
pacte &c. Mr. Shilleto suggests et pacte 
tum mihi noctes, Cum rudis ἕο. For avia 
Haupt proposed savia, a word but little 
used by elegiae writers. It occurs how- 
ever iii. 21, 39. 

13—14.] Que mthi &e. ‘The torch 
which preceded me as an omen of my 
marriage drew its dismal light from some 

Mf |b 537 

ὟΝ, “«( 



a ean 
a inet! 

LIBER V. ὃ. 

Et Stygio sum sparsa lacu, 


nec recta capillis 15 

Vitta data est: nupsi non comitante deo. 
Omnibus heu portis pendent mea noxia vota: 

Texitur hee castris quarta lacerna tuis. 
Occidat, immerita qui carpsit ab arbore vallum 

Et struxit querulas rauca per ossa tubas, 


Dignior obliquo funem qui torqueat Ocno, 

burnt-out pyre.’ —xigra, fuliginosa, not 
burning clear and bright, which was a 
good omen, sup. iv. 10, 20. Such fires are 
called nigri and atri, ¢.g. Hor. Carm. iv. 
12, 26; Zn. xi. 186. The Romans had a 
great dread of connecting in any way the 
rites of marriage and of burial. They did 
not marry during the Feralia, whence Ovid 
writes (Fust. ii. 561), ‘Conde tuas, Hy- 
mene, faces, et ab ignibus atris aufer: 
habent alias mcesta sepulcra faces.’ See 
ibid. v.487. They also thought much of 
lighting a torch from a lucky source. 
Ovid, Her. ii. 117—120, ‘Pronuba Tisi- 
phone thalamis ululavit in illis,—Suntque 
sepulcrali lumina mota face.’ 

15.] Stygio. The water used for sprink- 
ling was not fresh from the stream, but 
came from the Ayernian lake. The chaplet 
too was placed awry on my head, and this 
was an unlucky omen. The god Hymen, 
invoked in the marriage song, ‘Hymen 
ades, o Hymenzxe,’ did not come when he 
was called, and so I was married without 
his attendance.’ 

17.] Portis. Hertzberg appears to be 
right in understanding the city gates, at 
which altars and shrines of the Lares viales 
were placed, and before which written vows 
for the safety of the absent were suspended. 
In this case, her vows (1.6, promises of 
offerings) for Lycotas’ return from service 
were noxia, rather injurious than other- 
wise; not favourably received by the gods. 
‘Que magis nocent quam juvant, reditu 
non impetrato.’—Barth. In Cic. de Legg. 
ii. 23, § 58, mention is made of an altar 
in the temple of Honour without the 
Colline Gate. 

18.] Quarta lacerna. That her vows 
for his return had not been heard, was 
shown by his now being absent for the 
fourth year on service. The-custom of 
wives and their maidens weaving these 
military cloaks for their husbands in the 
camp, is alluded to in Livy i. 26, ‘soror— 
cognito super humeros fratris paludamento 
sponsi quod ipsa confecerat, solvit crines.’ 
Fast. ii. 745, ‘Mittenda est domino, nunc 

nune properate, puelle, Quam primum 
nostra facta lacerna manu.’ 

19.] Occidat, ‘perish he who first in- 
vented the implements of war!—vallum, 
the stake carried by the Roman soldier for 
fencing the camp.—immerita (inf. 4, 23) 
ἀναιτίῳ, not to be blamed as the cause of 
war; perhaps, deserving of a better fate ; 
or, which never should have been used for 
such a purpose.—gquerulas per ossa, uttering 
its hoarse notes through lengths of hollow 
bone. The leg-bone (tibia) seems anciently 
to have been so used, and it is said to be so 
still. The North American Indians make 
whistles out of the bones of their enemies. 
Among the arms taken from the natives of 
Dewangiri, Bhootan, was a trumpet made 
out of ahumanthigh-bone (Illustrated News, 
June 24, 1865). A New Zealand chief is 
said to have made a flute out of the thigh- 
bone of his enemy. Compare Ar. Acharn. 
863, τοῖς ὀστίνοις φυσῆτε.τὸν πρωκτὸν 
κυνός. Callim. H. Dian. 244, οὐ γάρ πω 
νέβρεια δι᾽ ὀστέα τετρήναντο. 

21.1 Dignior. ‘More worthy was he 
than the lollard Ocnus to twist the rope 
merely to provide a lasting supply of food 
for the hungry ass.’—odliguo, Ἀεχρίῳ, not 
sitting straight, but turning on one side so 
as not to see the ass at his elbow. This 
seems to have been either a well-known 
fable or a common subject for wall-painters. 
The general sense is, ‘ Dignior, qui funem 
torqueat, etiam quam Ocnus ipse, qui ob- 
liquus et transyersus operi incumbit, dum 
asinus ad latus ignaro funem comedit :’— 
the inventor of war ought to have been the 
personification of useless toil and trouble, 
rather than Ocnus in the picture. Pausan. 
Phocie. lib. x. cap. 29, 1, (speaking of cer- 
tain paintings at Delphi): μετὰ δὲ αὐτοὺς 
ἀνήρ ἐστι καθήμενος, ἐπίγραμμα δὲ Οκνον 
εἶναι λέγει τὸν ἄνθρωπον: πεποίηται μὲν 
πλέκων σχοινίον, παρέστηκε δὲ θήλεια ὄνος 
ἐπεσθίουσα τὸ πεπλεγμένον ἀεὶ τοῦ σχοινίου. 
Τοῦτον εἶναι τὸν “Oxvoy φίλεργόν φασιν 
ἄνθρωπον, γυναῖκα δὲ ἔχειν δαπανηράν" 
καὶ ὁπόσα συλλέξαιτο ἐργαζόμενος, οὐ πολὺ 
ἂν ὕστερον ὑπὸ ἐκείνης ἀνήλωτο. — οἷδα 


δ 3 

. 1 





/Eternusque tuam pascat, aselle, famem. 
Dic mihi, num teneros urit lorica lacertos ? 
Num gravis imbelles atterit hasta manus ? 

Hee noceant potius, quam dentibus ulla puella 


Det mihi plorandas per tua colla notas. 
Diceris et macie vultum tenuasse: sed opto, 
E desiderio sit color iste meo. 
At mihi cum noctes induxit vesper amaras, 

Si qua relicta jacent, osculor arma tua. 


Tum queror in toto non sidere pallia lecto, 
Lucis et auctores non dare carmen ayes. 

Noctibus hibernis castrensia pensa laboro 
Et Tyria in radios vellera secta suos, 

Et disco, qua parte fluat vincendus Araxes, 


Quot sine aqua Parthus milia currat equus, 
Conor et e tabula pictos ediscere mundos, 

δὲ καὶ ὑπὸ ᾿Ιώνων, ὁπότε ἴδοιέν τινα πο- 
νοῦντα, ἐπὶ οὐδενὶ ὄ ὄνησιν φέροντι, ὑπὸ τού- 
των εἰρημένον, ὡς 6 ἄνὴρ οὗτος συνάγει 
τοῦ Ὄκνου τὴν θώμιγγα. Pliny, NV. H. lib. 
χχχν. 11, ὁ 197, ‘piger qui appellatur Oc- 
nos, spartum torquens quod asellus rodit.’ 

23—4.] Dic mihi, ‘Tell me, does the 
corselet chafe those tender arms, or the 
heavy spear gall those too delicate hands? 
I would rather these should hurt you than 
that any girl should leave on your neck 
marks that I should have to deplore,’ viz. 
the ‘livor Quem facit impresso mutua 
dente Venus,’ Tibull.i.6, 14. Inf. 5, 39, 
‘semper habe morsus cirea tua colla re- 
centes, Litibus alternis quos putet esse 
datos.’—urit, so Hor. Epist. i. 13, 6, ‘si te 
forte me gravis uret sarcina charte.’ 

27.) ‘Iam told too that you look thin 
and wan: I only hope that paleness of 
yours comes from a longing for me,’ not 
from ill-health or over-fatigue. 

29.] Amaras, cf.i. 1, 88, ‘in me nostra 
Venus noctes exercet amaras.’ Ovid, ‘nunc 
et amara dies et noctis amarior umbra est.’ 
si qua &c., ‘if any arms left in the house 
lie about, I kiss them as yours.’ 

, 81.] In toto lecto, see oni. 14, 21. She 
‘complains that the coverlet (the χλαῖνα, 
| often used for this purpose), does not rest 
on the whole bed, but only on half of it, 
z.e. that one occupant of it is absent. i 
i think this is a more probable explanation 
than that she complains of its slipping off 
\ the bed, which in itself would be a trifling 
Cf. i. 14, 21, 

incident. et miserum toto 

juvenem versare cubili.’—aves, the cocks 
do not announce the coming dawn by 

34.] In radios suos, ‘cut in lengths to 
fit their shuttles.’ In weaving patterns of 
different coloured wool, several shuttles 
would be used, each charged with a certain 
quantity of dyed worsted. The MSS. have 
gladios, which was corrected by Perrey. 
For gladius is the batten, or σπάθη (Asch. 
Cho. 224), used for pressing the wool close. 
Tyria, of sea-purple dye; but there were 
many different hues in use. Cf. inf. 51. 

35.] Perhaps aut disco &e., viz. as one 
of the employments of the long winter- 
nights. ‘I try to make out in what part 
of the East the Araxes flows, that is to be 
conquered by your arms, and how many 
miles the Parthian steed runs without 
water’ (ὦ. ὁ. must run to get water). The 
Arab horse is second only to the camel in 
his endurance of thirst. 

37.] Conor is the reading of Hertzberg 
for cogor, after Broukhusius. The words are 
sometimes confused, and cogor could only 
express the truism, that as she was not with 
her husband in the east, she was obliged to 
haye recourse to the map. By ‘pictos 
mundos’ she seems to mean ‘ pictas mundi 
(<.e. orbis) partes.’ The πίναξ of Herod. 
v. 49 shows how early this device was in- 
vented; and only a few centuries have 
elapsed since anything approaching to ac- 
curacy in map- -making was attained. Some 
blunders in the map of Dicearchus are 
pointed out by Cicero, Hp. ad Att. vi. 2, 3. 

LIBER V. 3. 259 

Qualis et hee docti sit positura dei, 
Que tellus sit lenta gelu, que putris ab estu, 
Ventus in Italiam qui bene vela ferat. 40 
Adsidet una soror, curis et pallida nutrix 

Peierat hiberni temporis 

esse moras. 

Felix Hippolyte nuda tulit arma papilla 
Et texit galea barbara molle caput. 

Romanis utinam patuissent castra puellis! 45 

Essem militiz: sarcina fida tus, 


Nee me tardarent Scythie juga, cum pater altas 
+Africus in glaciem frigore nectit aquas. 

Omnis amor magnus, sed aperto in conjuge major: 
Hane Venus, ut vivat, ventilat ipsa facem. 50 
Nam mihi quo Peenis tibi purpura fulgeat ostris 

38.] Positurais a Lucretian word. The 
sense seems to be, ‘ And how this world of 
ours has been arranged in its parts by the 
wise Creator.’—docti dei, τοῦ σοφοῦ πάντων 
δημιουργοῦ. That she does not mean the 
geography of the east alone, seems shown 
by the use of Aze instead of ista. 

39.] Zenta, ‘numbed,’ ‘stiff,’ ‘frost- 
bound ;’ opposed to putris, as ‘adhesive’ 
to ‘loose and friable ;’ putre solum, Georg. 
li. 204, and zbed. 250, ‘haud unquam man- 
ibus jactata fatiscit, Sed picis in morem ad 
digitos lentescit habendo.’—ventus &c., in 
reference to the hoped-for return of her 
husband by the first favourable wind. 

42.] Pejerat, ‘ falsely swears.’ Though 
she knows it is not true, yet, for the 
purpose of consoling me, my nurse assures 
me the continued delay is caused solely by 
the sailing-season not yet having arrived. 

43.] Felix ἕο. ‘Happy was the queen 
of the Amazons who could bear arms with 
exposed breast’ (the one breast, as from & 
and pads), ‘and barbarian as she was, 
cover a woman’s head with the dog-skin 
cap. O that the camp were open to 
Roman wives too! A faithful companion 
to your train would I make.’ The sense 
is, ‘She, as an Eastern Queen, had a free- 
dom to serve in the wars which is denied 
to us Roman girls.’—/ida, virtuous amid 
all the allurements of a camp. On the 
exclusion of Roman wives from the service, 
see on il.7, 15. Ovid, Her. iii. 68, ‘non 
ego sum classi sarcina magna tue,’ says 
Briseis to Achilles. 

48.] The reading of the MSS. Africus 
must beconsidered doubtful. Assuming that 

the winds aresometimes personified, and that 
‘pater Boreas,’ ‘Zephyrus’ &c. might even 
be justified on the idea of their life-giving 
influence, yet the south-west wind would 
hardly be the wind to freeze the rivers of 
Scythia. It may be replied (1) that local 
meteorology may be very exceptional; (2) 
that Propertius may speak in ignorance of 
or indifference to exact eastern geography ; 
(3) that Africus is used indefinitely for any 
wind. These considerations have sufficient 
weight to make the rejection of the vulgate 
somewhat rash. The best correction, I 
think, that has been made is aprico for 
Africus; ‘when Jupiter freezes the deep 
rivers by clear cold frost.’ Miiller reads 
etheris, which he thinks ‘pane necessa- 
rium’ to explain ‘alte aque.’ But he 
forgets that ether is always associated 
with fire and upper bright air, never with 
rain. Lachmann reads Arctoo, Schneide- 
win and Haupt Zetricws, neither of which 
seem to have much probability. 

49.] -Aperto in conjuge, ‘in the case of 
an acknowledged and lawful husband,’ 
κουρίδιος πόσις. Kuinoel, after Burmann, 
reads deserta in conjuge. The alliteration 
in the next line seems intentional. It is 
a beautiful verse, the metaphor being taken 
from swinging to and fro, or fanning, a 
piece of charcoal or any feeble flame,— 
perhaps a torch or link. 

51.] Hertzberg, Keil, Miiller, and others 
place the question at guo? ‘What is it 
to me to be handsomely dressed? For 
your eyes alone let the costly Tyrian hues 
glow, and my hands wear clear crystal 
gems,’ But it seems simpler to understand 






Crystallusque meas ornet aquosa manus ? 
Omnia surda tacent, rarisque adsueta kalendis 
Vix aperit clausos una puella lares; 

Glaucidos et catulee vox est mihi grata querentis: 


Illa tui partem vindicat una toro. 
Flore sacella tego, verbenis compita velo, 
Et crepat ad veteres herba Sabina focos. 
Sive in finitimo gemuit stans noctua tigno, 

Seu voluit tangi, parca lucerna mero, 


Illa dies hornis ceedem denuntiat agnis, 

it thus: ‘What is it to me that you have 
fine clothes and that I wear fine gems? 
All is dull and silent without you’ &e. 
Lachmann, Barth, and Kuinoel reads? 
Fulgeat after Heins; but this should be δὲ 
fulget. The Naples MS. gives te for tidi, 
and the Groningen MS, twas for meas in 
the pentameter; and this reading is pre- 
ferred by Hertzberg, while Barth and 
others give sas. On erystallus aguosa see 
iii. 15,12. Whether the pela, or hand-ball 
of rock erystal is meant, or a crystal ring, 
or even a diamond (adamas), is very un- 
certain. The feminine seems to follow the 
analogy of 7 λίθος in the sense of ‘ precious 
stone.’—aguosa may mean ‘with water in 
it’ (the pila), or ‘clear as water,’ or lastly, 
‘congealed from water,’ according to the 
ideas prevalent about the origin of rock- 

53.] Raris Kalendis, ‘only now and 
then on the first of the month.’ So Mar- 
tial, Ep. iv. 66, 3, ‘Idibus et raris togula 
est excussa Kalendis.’ Kuinoel adopts the 
needless alteration of Schrader, ‘lanisque 
assueta colendis.’ The clausi Lares refers 
to the lararium, the shrine or closet in 
which the Lares were inclosed, something 
after the fashion of our altar-triptychs, 

perhaps. To the Roman mind, the shut- 
ἢ ting up of the Lar Familiaris was a symbol 
. of complete desolation in a house. 

55.] Et (perhaps at) seems to mean ‘et 
sola vox catule’ &e. Martial has a very 
pretty epigram, i. 110, on a lap-dog called 
Issa, which slept on its master’s bed.—tuz 
partem means ‘vindicat sibi partem quam 
tu debebas (solebas) capere in toro,’ 
Hertzberg explains it ‘non omne mariti 
munus, sed partem tantum;’ and this may 
be right. 

58.] Herba Sabina, the Savine or Ju- 
niper, seems to have been used in φίλτρα 
or love-potions, and an omen was derived 

from its crackling sound when burnt as a 
charm on the hearth. Ovid, Fust. i. 848, 
‘ Ara dabat fumos herbis contenta Sabinis.’ 
compita, at the shrines of the Lares viales, 

59—62.] ‘If an owl has whooped, or 
the lamp has sputtered, the omen is fol- 
lowed by a sacrifice, either to avert evil 
portended by the one, or to ensure the 
good promised by the other.’ The owl 
was counted inter diras aves by the Romans, 
and has been regarded with awe in every 
age. See iv. 6, 29. 

60.] Zangi mero. An omen was derived 
from the sputtering of a wick, which was 
called ‘sneezing.’ Anthol. Gr. A. 180, 
ἤδη, φίλτατε λύχνε, τρὶς ἔπταρες: ἢ τάχα 
τερπνὴν °Es θαλάμους ἥξειν ᾿Αντιγόνην 
mpodeyels. Kuinoel appositely quotes 
Ovid, Heroid, xix. 151, ‘Sternuit et lumen 
(posito nam scribimus illo), Sternuit, et 
nobis prospera signa dedit.. Ecce merum 
nutrix faustos instillat in ignes; Crasque 
erimus plures, inquit, et ipsa bibit :’—but 
it is singular that he should have stopped 
at the third line, whereas the fourth shows 
that if the lamp sputtered, an arrival was 
expected. The wine was poured by way 
of acknowledgment of the omen, and as a 
libation, and also, perhaps, because it made 
the lamp sputter the more. Compare the 
modern custom of predicting a guest from 
the tea-leaves at the bottom of a cup. 

61.] Hornis, hovernis, spring (or year- 
ling) lambs. If a lucky omen occurs, it is 
followed up at once by a sacrifice, and the 
butchers, with their sacrificial dress (called 
limus) tucked up for the work, are eager 
after fresh perquisites,—a portion of the 
meat being sent to them after duly perform- 
ing the sacrifice. The popa was employed 
to fell the victim, the cwltrarius to cut the 
throat. Persius has ‘popa venter,’ Sat. 
vi, 74. 





LIBER V. 4. 

Succinetique calent ad nova lucra pope. 

Ne, precor, ascensis tanti sit gloria Bactris, 
Raptave odorato carbasa lina duci, 
Plumbea cum torte sparguntur pondera funde, 

op δεῖ! 


Subdolus et versis increpat arcus equis. 
Sed, tua sic domitis Parthe telluris alumnis 
Pura triumphantis hasta sequatur equos, 

Incorrupta mei conserva fcedera lecti. 

Hac ego te sola lege redisse velim, 

Armaque cum tulero portze votiva Capene, 
Subscribam ‘salvo grata puella viro.’ 


Tarpeium nemus et Tarpeiz turpe sepulcrum 

63.] Tanti, sc. ut vitam perdas,—as- 
censis, as if Bactra was an acropolis. It is 
said to haye stood at the foot of the moun- 
tain range known as the Hindoo Koosh, 
odorato, from the notion that the east was 
the region of perfumes, and that the great 
potentates always used them.—carbasa lina, 
the colours, or standard, of embroidered 
linen cloth. The syolia opima may perhaps 
be meant (inf. 10,5). The combination 
carbasa lina is strange: probably all that 
Propertius knew was that carbasus was an 
eastern word, and it is pretty clear that he 
here uses it as an adjective. Virgil, 4. 
xi. 776, has ‘sinus crepantes carbaseos,’ 
where erepantes may refer to the thick and 
rustling material. It is said to be the 
Sanscrit Karpdsa, ‘cotton.’ Inf. 11, 54, 
‘exhibuit vivos carbasus alba focos.’ 

66.] Versis equis. The Parthian pre- 
tended flight, and then suddenly turned on 
his enemy and discharged arrows at him. 
See iii. 1, 13. 

67.] Sed &c. Do not care for glory, 
but think only of, and try to requite, the 
virtuous love of your wife. She adds, 
‘So may the virgin spear follow the horses 

\ in the triumphal car, after the conquest of 
' the Parthians.’ 

The pura hasta was a 
pointless wand presented as a badge of 
honour to those who had first distinguished 
themselves in the wars. It is like the 
‘ winning the spurs’ in our ages of chivalry. 
Compare Ain. vi. 760, ‘hic juvenis pura 
qui nititur hasta.’ 

71.] Porte Carpene, i.e. to the temple 
“of Mars ad portam. Ovid, Fast. vi. 191, 
‘Lux eadem Marti festa est, quem pro- 


spicit extra Appositum Tectz Porta Capena 
vie.’ It was the custom for wives to offer 
arms in this way on the safe return of 
theirlords. Ovid, Her. 1. 27, ‘grata ferunt 
Nymph pro salvis dona maritis.’ The 
four simple words that end this beauti- 
ful elegy form a most effective conclusion. 
The verb, it is needless to add, is usually 
omitted in this formula, as in the verse 
‘ Aineas hee de Danais victoribus arma,’ 
and even in much earlier Greek dedications. 
Ἱέρων---τῷ Aw Τυρρηνὰ ἀπὸ Κύμας is the 
inscription on a helmet about 8.0. 47 
(Donaldson’s Pindar, p.95). Sup. i. 20, 
44, ‘scribam ego, Per magnum salva 
puella Jovem.’ 

IV. The legend of Tarpeia, who be- 
trayed the capitol to Titus Tatius, king of 
the Sabines, for whom she had conceived 
an affection. See Ovid, Fast.i. 260; Livy, 
1.2. Tacit. Ann. xii. 24, ‘Forum Roma- 
num et Capitolium non a Romulo sed a 
Tito Tatio additum urbi credidere.’ Ro- 
man pride, of course, clung to the legend 
or tradition that the Capitol was betrayed 
to the Sabine king. This is one of the 
most beautiful of the elegies, and was 
doubtless composed for the work on the 
Fasti already alluded to. The date is un- 
certain, but it is one of the early poems. 

1.1 Zurpe sepulerum, infamem  sepul- 
turam, inf. v. 91.—Jdimina capta Jovis, ‘the 
capture of the fortress where now stands 
the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus.’ He is 
called antigui in contrast with the more 
modern temple: cf. sup. 1, 4. 


Fabor et antiqui limina capta Jovis. 
Lucus erat felix hederoso conditus antro, 
Multaque nativis obstrepit arbor aquis, 

Silvani ramosa domus, quo dulcis ab estu 
Fistula poturas ire jubebat oves. 


Hune Tatius fontem vallo preecingit acerno, 
Fidaque suggesta castra coronat humo. 
Quid tum Roma fuit, tubicen vicina Curetis 

Cum quateret lento murmure saxa Jovis, 


Atque ubi nune terris dicuntur jura subactis, 
Stabant Romano pila Sabina foro ? 

Murus erant montes: ubi nunc est Curia septa, 
Bellicus ex illo fonte bibebat equus. | 

Hine Tarpeia dee fontem libavit: at illi 

Urgebat medium fictilis urna caput. 

3.] Lucus felix, a thriving or luxuriant 
grove; the Zurpeti luci, inf. 8, 31.—con- 
ditus antro, ‘inclosed within an ivy-clad 
ravine,’ ὦ, 6. the sides of which were clothed 
with ivy. Consitus antro Barth, Kuinoel, 
‘and Lachmann, from inferior copies; and 
this Jacob approves.—Antrum is here used 
as ‘Partheniis in antris’ i. 1, 11, and 7did. 
. 2, 11, ‘surgat et in solis formosius arbutus 
antris.’ Virgil, “ΖΞ. viii. 347, describes the 
Tarpeia sedes as ‘olim sylvestribus horrida 

4 Obstrepit, ‘makes music to the rip- 
pling of a natural spring.’ Cf.i, 17, 46.— 
nativis, not conducted by pipes from an 
aqueduct: see iv. 2, 12. 

6.] Potwras, more usually potwm ire. 

7.) Hune fontem. Hertzberg considers 
this to have been a small mountain stream, 
rnnning down the gorge between wooded 
banks, and collected in a pond at the 
bottom, from which ‘bellicus equus_bi- 
bebat? v.14. From the spring-head Tar- 
peia drew water v.15, so that it is clear 
that it was not in the occupation of the 
Sabines. By hune fontem he seems to 
mean the pond itself at the bottom of the 
hill, which Tatius secured for his own use 
by fencing it in front with palisades. 
Hertzberg quotes the following important 
passage from Plutarch, Num. 13, τὴν δὲ 
πηγὴν ἣ κατάρδει τὸ χωρίον, ὕδωρ ἱερὸν 
ἀπέδειξε ταῖς Ἑστιάσι παρθένοις, ὕπως 
λαμβάνουσαι καθ᾽ ἡμέραν ἁγνίζωσι καὶ 
ῥαίνωσι τὸ ἀνάκτορον. It was sacred to 
the Muses, and known as Fons Came- 

8.1 Coronat, ‘he makes a secure camp 
by heaping up the earth into a circular 
agger, or ring-fence.’ A clever verse, in 
which every word has a special meaning. 

9.1 Curetis, Κουρῆτος, Quirini; Quirium 
and Cures being, perhaps, but different 
names for the chief town of the Sabines. 
Here, it would seem, as in Lyemon sup. 1, 
29, the poet makes Cures, Curetis, the 
eponym title of the Sabine fighting-men. 
Cf. Ovid, Fast. ii. 477, ‘sive quod hasta 
curis priscis est dicta Sabinis.’— Jento, 
‘lingering,’ ‘long-drawn,’ echoing against 
the rocks where now stands the temple of 

12.] Romano foro. As above remarked, 
from ‘Tacitus, the Forum Romanum was 
believed originally to have belonged to the 
Sabines. ; 

13.] Murus. There was no other wall 
but the mountains,—no agger, no Roma 
Quadrata, no pomerium.— Curia, the Curia 
Hostilia at the foot of the Capitoline hill. 
ex tllo fonte, ‘from a spring (or pond) on 
that spot,’ viz. that inclosed by a palisade 
by Tatius, sup. 7. From this spring, but 
at its source, or at some point on the hill- 
side, Tarpeia on one occasion drew water 
in her urn for the service of Vesta. Then 
first she saw Tatius, and fell in love at the 
sight of his kingly bearing and comely form. 

16.] Urgebat, premebat, #revye.—/ictilis, 
the terra-cotta urn used by Vestals. So 
Fast. iii. 14 (of the Vestal Silvia), ‘ ponitur 
e summa fictilis urna coma.’ Pers. Sat. 
11. 60, ‘aurum—vestalesque urnas et Tus- 
cum fictile mutat.’ 



LIBER V. 4. 


Et satis una male potuit mors esse puelle, 
Qu voluit flammas fallere, Vesta, tuas ? 
Vidit harenosis Tatium proludere campis 

Pictaque per flavas arma levare jubas: 20 

Paclacne Obstupuit regis facie et regalibus armis, 



Interque oblitas excidit urna manus. 

Spe illa immeritz causata est omina lune, 

Et sibi tingendas dixit in amne comas: 

Sepe tulit blandis argentea liha Nymphis, 25 

Romula ne faciem lederet hasta Tati: 
Dumque subit primo Capitolia nubila fumo, 
Rettulit hirsutis brachia secta rubis, 
Et sua Tarpeia residens ita flevit ab arce 

17.] Una. As the punishment of a 
faithless Vestal was to be buried alive, 
this“cruel fate is called ‘many deaths,’ like 
the Greek μυριάκις or πολλάκις τεθνάναι. 
So Hor. Carm. iii. 27, 37, quoted by Barth, 
‘levis una mors est Virginum culpx.’ — 
voluit fallere, ἤθελε or ἔτλη προδοῦναι, 
‘consented to betray.’ The remark an- 
ticipates the statement, that she fell in 
love with the royal barbarian whom she 
saw exercising on the level sand, and 
raising his arms, from his superior height, 
over the crested helmets of his officers 
around him.—yer, i.e. inter, as in iy. 1, 4. 

922. Execidit, cf. inf. 7, 96, ‘inter com- 
plexus excidit umbra meos.’ The sense 
merely is, that she forgot to take again 
into her hands the urn that she had lifted 
from her head. 

23—6.] Causata est, προὐφασίζετο, 
‘often she pleaded as an excuse (viz. for 
going to the spring) some ominous appear- 
ances of the moon, when the moon was 
not to be blamed, and declared that she 
must dip her hair in the water. Often too 
she brought silver lilies to the gentle 
nymphs of the spring, that the spear of 
Romulus might not harm the handsome 
face of her Tatius.’ Compare Tibull. i. 3, 
17, ‘aut ego sum causatus aves aut omina 
dira.’ Tac. Ann.i. 47, ‘mox hiemem aut 
negotia varie causatus primo prudentes, 
dein vulgum, diutissime provincias fefellit.’ 
immerite, sup. 3,19. The ‘omens’ were, 
of course, pretended; but eclipses, which 
were attributed to sorcery, were always 
dreaded, Tac. Ann.i.28. The dipping the 
head in running water was done avertendi 
ominis gratia. Pers. Sat. ii. 15, ‘hee 
sancte ut poscas, Tiberino in gurgite mer- 

gis Mane caput bis terque, et noctem flu- 
mine purgas.’ 

26.] Romula, for Romulea, like ‘ Ro- 
mula vincla’ in iy. 11, 52. The meaning 
appears to be, that while she professed to 
be making a pious offering to the Naiad 
nymphs, she accompanied it with a prayer 
that they would protect her Tatius, who 
had taken the spring under his own care, 
sup. 7. Hence this visit also to the spring 
was made under false pretences. j 

27.] Subit, ascendit.—primo fumo may ἢ 
mean the early evening smoke, when the}. 
fires were lighted for cooking the evening | 
meal. Virg. Eel. i. 83, ‘et jam summa’! 
procul villarum culmina fumant, Majores-” 
que cadunt longis de montibus umbree.’” 
If the morning smoke is meant, we must 
suppose she had been absent all night, 
which is unlikely, or at least, that she had 
gone out very early.—rudis, because the 
hill-side was spzvosus, inf. 48, 

29.] Πα, in the following terms (31— 
46). Barth and Miller extend the speech 
or soliloquy of the maid to ver. 66; but 
the address in ver. 48 should be regarded 
as distinct, since flevit is inapplicable to 
the command there given.—vulnera, the 
wounds of love, which, as they were 
destined to cause the betrayal of the Arx 
to the Sabines, were not to be tolerated, 
ov συγγνωστὰ, by the god of the neigh- 
bouring height (Jupiter Tarpeius, or Capi- 
tolinus, sup. 1, 5—7), especially in a 
Vestal. Compare inf. 86, ‘Sed Jupiter 
unus decrevit penis invigilare tuis.’” Lach- 
mann and Hertzberg prefer to make pati- 
enda the nominative; ‘she, who ought not 
to have been admitted to the Arx from 
which her complaints were made.’ 


Vulnera, vicino non patienda Jovi: 30 
‘Tgnes castrorum et Tatiz pratoria turme 
Et formosa oculis arma Sabina meis, 
O utinam ad vestros sedeam captiva Penates, 
Dum captiva mei conspicer ora Tati. 
Romani montes et montibus addita Roma 35 
Et valeat probro Vesta pudenda meo. 
Ile equus, ille meos in castra reponet amores, 
Cui Tatius dextras collocat ipse jubas. 
Quid mirum in patrios Scyllam szevisse capillos, 
Candidaque in szvos inguina versa canes ? 40 
Prodita quid mirum fraterni cornua monstri, 
Cum patuit lecto stamine torta via ? 
Quantum ego sum Ausoniis crimen factura puellis, 
Improba virgineo lecta ministra foco ! 
Pallados extinctos si quis mirabitur ignes, 45 

32.] Formosa oculis meis. They were 
picta arma sup. 20, and would have been 
thought barbaric and the reverse of beau~ 
tiful by less prejudiced Roman eyes. 

34.] Ora, ‘provided only that I might 
gaze a captive on the face of my Tatius.’ 
A beautiful sentiment. The Naples MS. 
gives esse Tati, the Groning. MS. arma 
Tati. As in 1. 8, 16, and iv. 18, 54, ora 
and arma have been interchanged by the 
transcribers, who here seem to have copied 
arma from 32 sup. Compare inf. 6, 32—6. 

35.] Tarpeia now speaks as if she had 
formed a desperate resolve to make at once 
for the enemy’s camp, and to bid good-bye 
to Rome and her service of the goddess. — 
addita, mountains lately covered with wood, 
collis et herba, sup. 1, 2, now crowned with 
buildings that add to their height.—pu- 
denda, like verba pigenda sup. 1, 74, and 
barba pudenda inf. 8, 26, ‘Vesta, whom I 
ought to be ashamed of for my crime.’ 

37.] Meos amores is explained me aman- 
tem; ‘that horse and none other shall take 
me back to the camp (?.e where my heart 
has long been), whose mane my Tatius 
with his own hand arranges on the right 
side of the neck.’ But I am now inclined 
to think meos amores means Tatius himself ; 
and thus she wishes she were the horse 
whose happy lot it was to bear his master 
back to the camp. Miiller approves the 
conjecture of Broukhusius, veportet for 76- 

38.] Dextras. Virgil, Georgic, iii. 36, 

‘densa juba, et dextro jactata recumbit in 

39—42.] She now recals cases of broken 
faith through the force of love, and says 

she can feel and understand the strength - 

of the motive. . ‘What wonder is it that 
Scylla should have betrayed her father, 
and Ariadne her brother the Minotaur, by 
giving Theseus a clue to guide him out of 
the labyrinth?’ For the legend of Scylla 
see iv. 19, 21. Propertius has confounded 

the Homeric monster (the cuttle-fish) with | 
the daughter of Nisus, king of Megara; | 

but other poets have done the same. See 
Virg. Eel. vi. 74, ‘Scyllam Nisi, quam 
fama secuta est, Candida succinctam la- 
trantibus inguina monstris.’ Ovid, Fast. 
iv. 500, and Avs. Am. i. 331. 

41.] Cornua, ‘the horned monster her 
brother,’ the Minotaur.—lecto stamine, ‘by 
the clue which he took up as he went 
along.’ This is the literal and perhaps 
primary sense of /egere, as in ‘ legere litus,’ 
‘flumina’ &e. Ovid, Her. x. 108, ‘nec 
tibi que reditus monstrarent, fila dedissem, 
Fila per adductas seepe recepta manus.’ 

43.] Quantum &e. <A feeling of remorse 
at her resolve comes over her mind: ‘ But 
then what a cause of reproach I am about 
to bring on Italian maidens, for having 
been chosen to serve the altar of the god- 
dess, unworthy wretch that I am!’ 

45.] LPallados. The Palladium (Fast. 
vi. 421 seqq.) is sometimes confounded 
with Vesta, in whose temple the image, 


LIBER V. 4. 

Ignoscat: lacrimis spargitur ara meis. 

Cras, ut rumor ait, tota pugnabitur urbe: 
Tu cape spinosi rorida terga jugi. 

Lubrica tota via est et perfida; quippe tacentes 

Fallaci celat limite semper aquas. 


O utinam magice nossem cantamina Muse ! 
Hee quoque formoso lingua tulisset opem. 

Te toga picta decet, non quem sine matris honore 
Nutrit inhumane dura papilla lupe. 

Sive hospes, pariamve tua regina sub aula, 

brought from Troy, was preserved. Ovid, 
Trist. iti. 1, 29, ‘hie locus est Vestee, qui 
Pallada servat et ignem.’—gnoscat, ‘let 
him make allowance for, let him pardon, 
the seeming negligence; the altar was wet 
with my tears and the fire would not 
burn.’ A truly poetical idea. 

47.1 Tarpeia now makes the resolve. 
She will betray the citadel at all hazards, 
and she chooses a day when the guards are 
on holiday and their attention will not be 
directed to the enemy’s movements (inf. 
81). At present, she gives the very op- 
posite reason, viz. the prospect of a general 
fight on the morrow. It is not easy to 
reconcile the two, especially as ‘ convenit 
hostem’ in 81 seems to indicate her first 
actual meeting with Tatius. In either 
case however the time named would be 
suitable to the attempt. But does tw cape 
(or tw cave) refer to Tatius, or is she ex- 
horting herself? I rather suspect the 
latter, even though ¢e in 53 is certainly 
addressed to him. She must either invite 
him to ascend the hill for an interview, or 
herself to descend for the same purpose. 
Then cape, the reading of the copies, is 
altered into cave by every editor but Hertz- 
berg. In the latter case, we may compare 
_ inf. 8, 6, ‘virgo, tale iter omne cave,’ and 
understand ‘beware how you ascend the 
back of the thorn-clad hill, for the whole 
path is dangerous and slippery from the 
hidden streamlet.’ On the other hand, 
cape, if addressed to herself, will mean the 
thorny path already familiar to her, and 
the same as that mentioned sup. 28, ‘ ret- 
tulit hirsutis brachia secta rubis.’ And 
thus also lubrica and perfida will have a 
very significant and appropriate double en- 
tendre; ‘the road is one of danger and 
perfidy,’ z.¢. of betrayal, and ‘one that is 
slippery and treacherous to the feet.’ 
Reading, then, with the MSS., tu cape, 
she will mean ‘take that path, but re- 


member that it is a dangerous one.’ Of 
course, cape or cave may be conceived as 
spoken to Tatius in his absence; but it 15 
a pointless thing to give a special direction 
where one knows it cannot be heard. 

50.] Aguas. Either the spring before 
alluded to (15), or a hot sulphurous spring 
which, according to Ovid, was sent forth 
by the god Janus expressly to stop the 
ascent of the Sabines: 

‘Oraque, qua pollens ope sum, fontana reclusi, 
Sumque repentinas ejaculatus aquas. 

Ante tamen madidis subjeci sulpura venis, 
Clauderet ut Tatio fervidus humor iter.’ 

—On the short vowel before spzxosi, see 
sup. 1, 41.— limite, ef. inf. 9, 60, ‘hee 
lympha puellis Avia secreti limitis una 

51.] Utinam &e. ‘Would that, like 
Medea, I knew the incantations of magic 
song! Then would my tongue too, lke 
her’s, bring aid to my handsome knight.’ 

53.] Ze. ‘You, barbarian and enemy 
though they call you, the robe of victory 
should grace: not him who, born of an 
unhonoured mother (a faithless Vestal), 
was nurtured by the hard teat of a she- 
wolf that had nothing of the human in it.’ 
Martial, Zp. x. 48, 14,. ‘hoedus inhumani 
raptus ab ore πρὶ. Cf. sup. 1, 38, ‘san- 
guinis altricem non pudet esse lupam.’ 

55.] The MSS. read sie hosyes pariamve 
tua &c., which Miiller retains, but marks 
as corrupt, after Lachmann. So also Barth 
and the older editors. Mr. Wratislaw 
thinks the vulgate may stand for sive—sive, 
‘Whether it be as a guest (7. e. concubine) 
or as a queen (1.6. legitimate wife) that I 
bear children within your palace.’ Hertz- 
berg reads ‘sic, hospes, patrizeve tua re- 
gina sub aula;’ Jacob, with Pucci, ‘si 
conjux, pariamve tua’ &c. I think s?ve— 
pariamve is sufficiently defended by 5, 19, 
‘exornabat opus verbis, seu blanda perurat 
Saxosamye terat sedula culpa viam.’ 



Dos tibi non humilis prodita Roma venit. 
Si minus, at, rapte ne sint impune Sabine, 
Me rape, et alterna lege repende vices. 
Commissas acies ego possum solvere; nuptee, 

Vos medium palla foedus inite mea. 


Adde, Hymenze, modos; tubicen fera murmura conde; 
Credite, vestra meus molliet arma torus. 

Et jam quarta canit venturam buccina lucem, 
Ipsaque in Oceanum sidera lapsa cadunt. 

Experiar somnum; de te mihi somnia queram: 


Fac venias oculis umbra benigna meis. 
Dixit, et incerto permisit brachia somno, 

Nescia vee furiis accubuisse novis. 
Nam Vesta, Iliace felix tutela faville, 

Culpam alit, et plures condit in ossa faces. 

57.] St minus &e. ‘If these terms 
please you not, then carry me off as a 
reprisal for the rape of the Sabine women. 
The good copies have δὲ, not ‘sin minus,’ 
as Barth and Kuinoel have edited. 

59.] Solvere, as inf. 8, 88, ‘tuto solvi- 
‘mus arma toro.’ The sense is, ‘It is in 
/ my power, t.e. not that of the generals, to 
separate the armies engaged in the fight.’ 
This is what the Sabine women were said 
to have done, expressing their willingness 
to remain with their Roman conquerors, 
Fast. iii. 217 seqq.—nupie, ‘ye Sabine 
brides,’ viz. in whose cause this war is 
being waged.—palla mea, nuptiis meis; 
the ablative implying the means whereby 
the treaty was to be effected. The padla 
seems to have been used as a marriage- 
dress. Hertzberg cites Ovid, Her. 21, 162, 
“et trahitur multo splendida palla croco.’— 
medium fadus means simply a treaty be- 
tween the two contending parties; ‘a 
mediating treaty,’ perhaps. 

61.] Zubicen. Let us have the tidia 
for the marriage strain, and not the tuba 
with its war-notes wild.—meus torus, again 
for ‘nuptiw me.’ This, she says, will be 
no rape, but a voluntary marriage on my 
part.—vestra arma, the contest about you, 
—‘my marriage (a surer bond than ἃ rapina 
for reprisal) shall allay the anger of those 
who would reclaim you or retain you by 
force of arms.’—modliet, solvet, compescet, 
καταλύσει μάχην. 

63—6.] A beautiful passage. Weary 
with watching, excitement, and grief, she 

lies down by her altar for repose. I may 
be allowed to cite a few lines from my 
‘Verse Translations from Propertius :’ 
‘Now the fourth bugle calls the coming morn ; 
The very stars sink paled before the dawn. 
Come sleep, come pleasing visions of the night ; 
Come thou, kind shade, and bless my longing 
She spoke, and sank with wearied arms to rest: 
Unlooked-for demons still her sleep infest :— 
Vesta, blest guardian of the Trojan fires, 
Burns in her bones, and kindles fierce desires.’ 
65,] De te, cf. Martial, Zp. vii. 54, 1, 
“semper mane mihi de me tua somnia 
nairas.’—fae venias, like fae teneas, inf. 11, 
68 ; fac simules, 5, 34.—benigna, in angelic 
form, as we should say; not as a ‘ goblin 
67.] Incerto, ‘fitful. —permisit brachia, 

a formula of complete submission, as dare Ὁ if 

manus, brachia victa, sup. 3, 12.—aceubuisse, 
‘little thinking she had lain down near 
one (Vesta) who would be to her a fresh 
cause of passion.’ Vesta, whom Tarpeia 
had wronged, now becomes to her a Furia 
and a vengeful power, though the kindly 
guardian of the sacred fire.’ Perhaps in- 
deed we should read swecubuisse, ‘that she 
had given way to a passion that would 
bring a fresh curse,’ ὦ, 6. her death by 
violence. Miiller, after Lachmann and 
the older editors, reads se furiis, the MSS. 
giving nefariis. Jacob, whom Hertzberg 
follows, proposed v@.—condit in ossa, viz. 
as the goddess of fire, ‘subdit ossibus 

τ river Thermodon. 
' cian Bacchante was meant, especially as 
οἰ Propertius often shows vague notions of 
ἢ geography.—sinu, the folds of the dress, 
||| πρόστερνοι στολμοὶ, ZEsch. Cho. 27, which 
|! were torn off in the mad excitement of 


= the race. 

EO oo a 

LIBER V. 4. 


Illa ruit, qualis celerem prope Thermodonta 

Strymonis abscisso fertur aperta sinu. 

Urbi festus erat, dixere Parilia patres, 
Hic primus ceepit moenibus esse dies, 
Annua pastorum convivia, lusus in urbe, 715) 
Cum pagana madent fercula deliciis, 
Cumque super raros fxeni flammantis acervos 
Traicit immundos ebria turba_pedes. 
Romulus excubias decrevit in otia solvi 
Atque intermissa castra silere tuba. 80 

Hoc Tarpeia suum tempus 

rata convenit hostem: 

Pacta ligat, pactis ipsa futura comes. 
Mons erat ascensu dubius festoque remissus: 
Nec mora, vocales occupat ense canes. 

Omnia prebebant somnos: 

sed Juppiter unus 85 

Decrevit poenis invigilare tuis. 

Prodiderat porteeque fidem 

71.) Ruit, μεγάροιο διέσσυτο μαινάδι 
ἴση, 11. xxii. 460.—illa is used superfluous- 
ly, as sup. 2, 45, inf. 6, 63.—Strymonis is 
usually taken for an Amazon, on account 
of the locality (Asch. Prom. 744) on the 
More probably a Thra- 

73.] Festus erat, supply dies from the 
next verse. This ‘is better than, with 
Lachmann and Haupt, to inclose dixere— 
esse in a parenthesis. —divere, indixerant; 
the burghers had given notice of a general 
holiday on the feast of the Parilia or Palilia 
(sup. 1, 19).—primus cepit esse, a poetical 
way of saying ‘hic primus dies fuit con- 
dendis moenibus,’ or ‘primus dies, quo 
coeperunt esse moenia.’ 

76.] Pagana fereula, ‘when the platters 
of the shepherds in the pagi, or hill fast- 
nesses, are moistened with richer fare,’ lit. 
with more oil in them than usual. The 
‘uncta patella’ (Pers. Sat. iv. 17), and 
‘madidi penates’ (Mart. Ep. vii. 27, 5), are 
opposed to ‘siccus cibus,’ ξηρὸς σῖτος, or- 
dinary dry fare,—our phrase ‘ dry bread.’ 

77.] Haros, ‘placed at intervals.’ See 
sup. on 1, 19.—immundos pedes, ‘their 
grimy feet,’ is a certain correction of im- 
mundas dapes, an error arising, as Hertz- 

patriamque jacentem, 

berg supposes, from the mind of the tran- 
scriber being fixed on the fercwla preceding. 

80.] Intermissa, ‘discontinued for a 
time,’ viz. for the day’s holiday. So ‘in- 
termissa custodiis loca,’ Livy, xxiv. 35. 

81.] Swwm, thinking their time was her 
time; judging that her chance of having 
an interview with Tatius was now a good 
one. —ligat, ‘she makes the compact a 
binding one by promising herself to take 
a part in the fulfilment of it.’ The bargain 
is to be null and void unless she is there 
at the appointed time to open the gates. 
Thus comes pactis is a short way of saying 
‘adfutura cum pacta rata fient.’ 

83.] Remissus, ‘left unguarded.’ ‘Nam 
loca natura munitissima ideoque ascensu 
difficillima, maxime negligi ab oppugnatis 

84.] Occupat, i.e. Tatius; he silences 
the dogs by striking them with his sword 
before they could give tongue; φθάνει 

85.] Omnia, the holiday, the good cheer, 
the wine &e.—unus, ¢.e. as the other guards 
were asleep, Jupiter resolyed that he at 
least would keep awake to punish the 
traitress. Barth, Lachmann, and others 
give suis, but against the good copies, 
Sudden apostrophes are a remarkable fea- 
ture in the style of Propertius. 

87.] Porte fidem, porte custodiam. Her 
father was in fact the warder, but she 
would naturally haye an casy task in be- 




Nubendique petit, quem velit ipse, diem. 
At Tatius (neque enim sceleri dedit hostis honorem) 

“ΝΘ, ait, ‘et regni scande cubile mei. 


Dixit, et ingestis comitum super obruit armis. 
Hee, virgo, officiis dos erat apta tuis. 

A duce Tarpeio mons est cognomen adeptus: 
O vigil, injustee preemia sortis habes. 


Terra tuum spinis obducat, lena, sepulcrum, 
Et tua, quod non vis, sentiat umbra sitim, 
Nec sedeant cineri Manes, et Cerberus ultor 

traying it. Livy, i. 11, ‘Sp. Tarpeius Ro- 
mane preerat arci. Hujus filiam virginem 
auro corrumpit Tatius, ut armatos in arcem 
accipiat. Aquam forte ea tum sacris extra 
moenia petitum ierat. Accepti obrutam 
armis necavere, seu ut vi capta potius arx 
videretur, seu prodendi exempli causa, ne 
quid usquam fidum proditori esset.’—ja- 
centem, ‘somno,’ perhaps; ‘ vino somnoque 
sepultam,’ Barth.—ipse, she leaves it to 
Tatius to name the day. Hertzberg and 
Barth retain the MSS. reading ipsa. The 
difference is not very important, but the 
best editors agree in accepting dpse. 

89.] Hostis, though an enemy, he had 
a noble soul, and would not give credit to 
treachery. Propertius had a patriotic zeal 
which was superior to the charms of women. 
Hence of Tarpeia the Vestal, not less than 
of Cleopatra the Queen, he speaks in terms 
of bitter reproach, as sup. iv. 11, 29 and 39, 
inf. 6, 22 &c. 

90.1 Scande cubile, a poetical way of 
saying ‘become my queen,’ or, ‘be this 
your royal bed,’ the place where you will 

91.] Armis. Livy, i. 11, and Ovid, 
Fast. i. 261, represent Tarpeia to have 
been bribed by the golden bracelets of the 
Sabines, and then treacherously killed by 
the weight of their shields.—virgo, 1.6. as 
a faithless Vestal such a death, to be buried 
alive, was a befitting end. But dos may 
have reference to the Sabine armille as 
her marriage portion.—offici’s, your services 
in betraying to them the capital. Cf. sup. 

93.] Zarpeio. The sense seems to be, 
that from the father, not from the daughter, 
the Tarpeian rock obtained its name. Thus 
the warder, vigi/, though he lost a daughter, 

which was injusta sors to one who had not 
deserved it, yet obtained the honour in 
question. Keil, Miiller, and Mr. Wratislaw 
read Tarpeia, and injuste, with Lachmann, 
who explains the verse thus: ‘Tarpeia 
exitus sui preemia immerito accepit, monte 
Tarpeio ab ea nomen adepto.’ 

V. This difficult’ but rather important 
poem in part resembles the 1015 of Ovid, 
and is yet more plainly imitated by that 
poet in Amor. i. 8, as Kuinoel has observed. 
It contains a malediction on an old lena 
called Acanthis (ver. 61), who appears to 
have incurred the resentment of our poet 
for some reasons unknown to us, and per- 
haps unconnected with his love for Cynthia. 
It is probable too that Ovid borrowed the 
idea of his Art of Love from vv. 21—60. 
And to the same verses he alludes when he 
says (Zrist. ii. 461), speaking of Tibullus, 
‘Multaque dat talis furti praecepta, docet- 
que Qua nupte possint fallere ab arte 
viros.’—Invenies eadem blandi praecepta 
Properti,’—lines which Lachmann has too 
hastily used as a proof that not all Pro- 
pertius’ writings have come down to us 
(Pref. p. Xxi.) 

1.1 Spinis, in allusion to the name 
Acanthis; ‘thorny in life, may you be 
thorny also in death.’—gwod non vis, which 
you, as a tippler, would specially dislike. 
Compare the propensities of the dena in 
Plautus, Cureul. 1. 2. 

3.] Nee sedeant. ‘May your shade not 
rest on your grave, and may vengeful 
Cerberus scare those foul old bones by his 
hungry bark.’ The notion of the ghost 
flitting restlessly over the tomb seems as 
old as literature. See Eur. Hee, 37; 

| be buried alive. 
ἢ Esquilize was used, Hor. Sat. i. 8, 22.— 

LIBER V. 5. 


Turpia jejuno terreat ossa sono. 

Docta vel Hippolytum Veneri mollire negantem, 


Concordique toro pessima semper avis, 
Penelopen quoque neglecto rumore mariti 
Nubere lascivo cogeret Antinoo. 
Tila velit, poterit magnes non ducere ferrum 

Et volucris nidis esse noverea suis. 


Quippe οὖ, Collinas ad fossam moverit herbas, 
Stantia currenti diluerentur aqua. 

Audax cantate leges imponere lune 
Et sua nocturno fallere terga lupo, 

Posset ut intentos astu ceecare maritos, 


Cornicum immeritas eruit ungue genas, 

Misch, Pers. 686; Plat. Phed. p. 81, ¢, 
ψυχὴ---περὶ τὰ μνήματά τε Kal τοὺς τάφους 
κυλινδουμένη, περὶ ἃ δὴ καὶ ὥφθη ἄττα 
ψυχῶν σκιοειδὴ φαντάσματα. Inf. 11], 8. 
Ibid, 25, ‘Cerberus et nullas hodie petat 
improbus umbras.’ 

d—8.] Docta &e. ‘One who had skill 
enough to reconcile the reluctant Hippo- 
lytus to the goddess of love, and who ever 
brought the worst luck on a well-assorted 
marriage’ (1,6. by causing groundless jeal- 
ousies), ‘would have forced even a Penelope 
to give up all concern to hear news of her 
husband, and to marry the amorous Anti- 
nous.’ See Od. xiv. 126 seqq.—concordi, 
ὁμόφρονος εὐνᾶς, Pind. Ol. vi. init. Eur. 
Med. 15, ὅταν γυνὴ πρὸς ἄνδρα μὴ δι- 
χοστατῇ.--- αὐὖδ, as ‘mala ducis avi domum’ 
&c., Hor. Carm.i. 15, 5. 

9—10.] Velit, si velit, as ‘suppetat hoc’ 
sup. 2, 387, ‘moverit’ inf.11 &c. ‘Should 
she desife it, the magnet could lose its 
power of attracting iron, and a bird could 
play the step-dame to its own nest,’ 1.6. by 
turning out of it its own callow young. 

11.] The ‘Colline herbs’ were supposed 
to have a special magic power, because 
near the Porta Collina was the ‘Campus 
Sceleratus,’ said to have been the cemetery 
for the Vestal Virgins who were doomed to 
So the grave-yard on the 

moverit, ‘let her but apply to the magic 
trench the rank weeds from the Colline 
field, and solid rocks would melt away in 
flowing water.’ Compare a fine passage 
on the supposed power of witchcraft, Tibull. 
i. 2, 43—54.—stantia, ‘res solidissime et 
firme liquescerent, mutata ipsa rerum 
natura.’— Barth, So Horace has ‘stat 

nive candidum Soracte,’ ‘stet 
iners’ ἄο. 

13—16.] The construction of these lines 
is nearly the same as 5—8, ‘Daring as 
she was in forcing the enchanted moon to 
obey her spells, and in disguising her own 
form by that of a night-prowling wolf, her 
custom was, in order to blind by her craft 
the keen-eyed husbands, to gouge out the 
eyes of poor harmless ravens with her nail.’ 
This is a very curious passage. See Becker, 
Gallus, p.120. The ancient and singular 
superstition that witches could change 
themselves into other forms, especially inte 
that of the were-wolf, and so become versi- 
pelles, is not yet extinct. I myself re- 
member a whole village in a panic because 
an old woman was said to have been seen 
in the form of a white hare, and at another 
time in that of a white pigeon. See 
Herod. iv. 105, κινδυνεύουσι δὲ of ἄνθρωποι 
οὗτοι γόητες εἶναι, λέγονται γὰρ ὑπὸ Σκυ- 
θέων καὶ Ἑλλήνων---ὡς ἔτεος ἑκάστου ἅπαξ 
τῶν Νευρῶν ἕκαστος λύκος γίνεται ἡμέρας 
ὀλίγας, καὶ αὖτις ὀπίσω ἐς ταὐτὰ Kabic- 
ταται. For the use of fallere compare inf. 
11, 80, ‘cum venient, siccis oscula falle 
genis.’ Virg. 4n. i. 684, ‘tu faciem illius 
noctem non amplius unam Falle dolo.’— 
For posset ut the MSS. give posset et, which 
Lachmann and Jacob retain, placing a full 
stop at the end of the verse. 

16.] Genas, ἱ. 6. oculos. The notion 
was, that if the eyes of a crow were added 
to a love-potion (like the ‘eye of newt,’ in 
Shakespeare’s Macbeth), they would draw 
away, by a sort of mesmeric influence, or 
in some way neutralise by their superior 
brightness, the vigilance of the husband’s 




Consuluitque striges nostro de sanguine et in me 
Hippomanes fete semina legit eque. 
Exornabat opus verbis, seu blanda perurat 

Saxosamve terat sedula culpa viam: 


‘Si te Eoa, Doryxenium, juvat aurea ripa, 
Et que sub Tyria concha superbit aqua, 
Eurypylique placet Coz textura Minervee 

17—18.] For striges I suspect that we 
should read strigas. The strige (the 
modern Italian stregas) were a kind of 
bird-witch, supposed to carry off and kill 

famous advice of the old woman to some 
young girl, who is here named (according 
to a common Greck usage of forming the 
ὑποκόρισμα of a harlot by a neuter diminu- 

The MSS. 

or lacerate infants in their cradle. (See 
| \\ my note on Ovid, Fast. vi. 131), Plautus, 
\| Pseud. 820, ‘non condimentis condiunt, sed 
| ||) strigibus, Vivis convivis intestina que ex- 
| jadint.’ It appears from this, that though 
‘| \\the short ὅ before striges may be defended 
\ \\(sup. 4, 48), we might here read ‘consuluit 

tive) Doryxeniwm, Δορυξένιον. 
have doroxanthum, or dorozantum, with 
some varieties, all of which are confessedly 
corrupt. My own conjecture, Dorymenium, 
I find has been anticipated by. Jacob. 
Hertzberg considers Dorozantum, ‘ignotum 
populi Indici nomen ;’ and Keil and Muller 

\striges.’—de sanguine, ‘nece,’ ‘exitio.”— 
‘Kuinoel.—Virg. Georgie. ili. 280, ‘ hippom- 
‘anes, quod sepe male legere noverce, 
‘Miscueruntque herbas et non innoxia 

19—20.] Exzornabat Kuinoel, Barth and 
Lachmann. The more recent editors retain 
exorabat, the MSS. reading; but the phrase 
opus exorare conveys no intelligible mean- 
ing, naturally at least. On the other hand 
exornare is like the Greek κοσμεῖν ἔργα ‘to 
dress up exploits’ by the graces of poetry, 
music &c. The passage is difficult, and 
variously explained and read, some giving 
pererrat for perurat on conjecture, lympha 
for culpa from one or two inferior MSS., 
and varying between cew of the good copies 
and seu, saxosamque and saxosamve. The 
sense seems to be this: ‘she dressed up 
(or glozed over) her vile work by specious 
words, whether the seductive crime (banda 
culpa) fires the victim, or slowly (seduia) 
wears its way in a stony heart.’ For 
seu—ve = seu—sive, see sup. iv. 55. The 
metaphor seems taken from the opposite 
effects of water and fire, the one wearing 
away a stone drop by drop, the other set- 
ting ablaze the fuel it touches; and these 
effects are transferred to phlegmatic or ex- 
citable constitutions. With perwrat supply 
puellee animum or ingenium, viam belonging 
only to terat. The emended reading viam 
pererrat teritque, which allows the reten- 
tion of the MSS. reading saxosamque, of 
course refers only to the slow effects of 
water; and thus vam forms the pbject to 
both verbs alike. 

21—62.! These lines contain the in- 

adopt this. 'Turnebus perceived that the 
name of a girl was required by the sense ; 
but he proposed one of unintelligible for- 
mation, Doroxanium, which Lachmann 
prefers, therein following Barth. The 
sense is, ‘If you wish for the gold of the 
east, or Tyrian purples,’ &c. By the in- 
definite term awrea ripa, we may under- 
stand the eastern shore of the Erythrean 
sea, the ancient Ophir, vipa being used im- 
properly, as conversely ditus in i. 2, 18. 
Hertzberg raises the objection, that Cyn- 
thia in particular is here meant. But 
where is the proof? The poet is deserib- 
ing in general terms the insidious arts 
which the old woman practised on her 
youthful victims. Nor is nostre amice, 
y. 63, conclusive in his favour, since his 
may very well mean ‘his atque talibus.’ 

22.| Concha. Our poet speaks of the 
shell that furnishes the sea-purple (a spe- 
cies of whelk) as if its purple hue were 
visible in the water, which of course is not 
the case; so that we must regard saperdit 
as a poetical hyperbole. 

23.] Eurypyli. The double genitive is 

not so rare as to cause any reasonable } 

perplexity. See sup. 1, 103. ‘Eurypy- 
lus’s texture of Coan art,’ is not more 
strange than ‘so and so’s Manchester 
cotton’ would sound to our ears. Eury- 
pylus was an ancient king of Cos. JU. 11. 
677. See on i. 2, 2. Hertzberg makes 
Eurypyli the genitive after Coe, which is 
scarcely good Latinity. 

24.] Putria signa. ‘Tattered fragments 
of tapestry cut from divans which belonged 
to Attalus,’ king of Pergamus, whose wealth 





| was inherited by the Roman people. Hertz- 
ἢ berg thinks that signa are the designs in 
' overlaid wood, ivory, or tortoise-shell, so 
often mentioned in connexion with the 
ancient sponde or sofas. This is not im- 
probable in itself, as the Romans were ex- 
tremely fond of collecting articles of vertu. 
But the eastern method of covering settees 
with rich embroidery is not to be over- 
looked. lian, Var. Hist. viii. 7, (speak- 
ing of an entertainment given by Alex- 
ander), καὶ ἑκάστη κλίνη ἀργυρόπους ἦν, 
ἢ δὲ αὐτοῦ χρυσόπους. Καὶ κεκόσμηντο 
πᾶσαι ἁλουργοῖς καὶ ποικίλοις ἱματίοις 
ὑφῆς βαρβαρικῆς peyativov.—For putria 
compare Plaut. Rudens. 1324, ‘tramas pu- 
tidas,’ ‘rotten woof.’ Hor. Sat. 11. 3, 118, 
‘cui stragula vestis, Blattarum ac tinearum 
epulz, putrescat in area.’ Martial, Ep. v. 
62, 5, ‘nulla tegit fractos nec inanis cul- 
cita lectos, Putris et abrupta fascia reste 
. 26.] The peculiar ware called murrea 
Ϊ or murrina vasa, a manufacture now lost, 
j is well known from frequent allusion to it, 
? to have been highly prized by the Romans. 
| According to Pliny, xxxvii. 2, quoted by 
᾿ς Kuinoel, Parthia was one of the places 
+) where it was made. Supposed specimens 
' of it exist in many museums. The fabric 
of those generally exhibited appears to be 
glass. The Dictionary of Antiquities says, 
© Most recent writers are inclined to think 
that they were true Chinese porcelain,’ and 
the present passage is adduced in support 
of the opinion. Martial also speaks of 
‘myrrhina picta,’ xiii. 110. See also iid. 
ix. 59,14. Becker, Gallus, p. 304, on the 
authority of Pliny, WV. H. xxxvii. 2, 8, con- 
siders the true murrhine vases to have 
been made of fluor spa, and regards those 
mentioned in the text as imitations. 


EL eres 

oa bere 



LIBER’ V. 5. 

Sectaque ab Attalicis putria signa toris, 
Seu que palmiferze mittunt venalia Thebe, 
Murreaque in Parthis pocula cocta focis, 
Sperne fidem, provolve deos, mendacia vincant, 
Frange et damnose jura pudicitie. 
Et simulare virum pretium facit: utere causis: 
Major dilata nocte recurret amor. 
Si tibi forte comas vexaverit utilis ira, 
Post modo mercata pace premendus erit. 
Denique ubi amplexu Venerem promiseris empto, 
Fac simules puros Isidis esse dies. 
Ingerat Apriles Iole tibi, tundat Amycle 




27.] Provolve deos. ‘ Kos pedibus velut 
proculca, a sacrariis proturba, exquisite 
pro, contemne deos.’— Kuinoel. The gene- 
ral sense from vy. 21 is, ‘If you expect 
your wishes to be gratified, you must not 
be scrupulous.’ 

‘Spurn faith, despise divine and human laws ; 
Break virtue’s precepts; ’tis a losing cause.’ 
29.] The obvious sense of this verse, 

‘it pays too to pretend that you are a 
married woman,’ seems preferable to Hertz- 
berg’s explanation: ‘simulatio amatorem 
pretium facit, ¢.e. efficit ut ex viro lucrum 
facias,’ for which he quotes ‘ Nunc pretium 
fecere deos,’ sup. v. 1, 81. The pretended 
difficulty thrown in the way of the lover 
would of course induce him to give larger 
bribes.—utere causis, ‘make the best use of 
reasons for refusal,’ ἐ.6. by rejecting him on 
the particular occasion make him more im- 
portunate, and so more liberal in his offers. 

31.] ‘All the better for you if he ruffles 
your hair in anger: you will make him 
pay for peace, and so keep a tight rein over 
him for the future.’ Hertzberg places a 
comma after vevaverit, and understands 
‘utilis (erit) ira.’ 

84.717 Fac simules, cf. sup. 4, 66.—Tsidis, 
thé correction of Beroaldus, is adopted by 
the best editors for sideris, the sacred fes- 
tival of Isis, on which secwbitus, or the 
separation of the sexes, was rigidly en- 
forced. Ovid, Amor. i. 8, 73, ‘Sape nega 
noctes, capiti modo finge dolorem, Et modo 
que causas prebeat, Isis erit.’ Hertzberg 
thinks sideris dies may mean dies Saturn, 
‘Saturday,’ the sabbata of the Jews, Pers. 
Sat. v. 180. Tibull.i. 3, 18, ‘Saturni aut 
sacrum me tenuisse diem.’ 

35.] Ingerat, ‘force upon your notice.’ 
Tac. Ann. i. 72, ‘nomen patris patrie Ti- 
berius, a populo sepius ingestum, repu- 



Natalem Mais Idibus esse tuum. 
Supplex ille sedet: posita tu scribe cathedra 
Quidlibet: has artes si pavet ille, tenes. 
Semper habe morsus circa tua colla recentes, 

Litibus alternis quos putet esse datos. 


Nec te Medez delectent probra sequacis 
(Nempe tulit fastus ausa rogare prior), 
Sed potius mundi Thais pretiosa Menandni, 
Cum ferit astutos comica moecha Getas. 

In mores te verte viri: si cantica jactat, 

I comes et voces ebria junge tuas. 

Janitor ad dantes vigilet: si pulset inanis, 

Surdus in obductam somniet usque seram. 
Nec tibi displiceat miles non factus amori, 

Nauta nec attrita, si ferat era, manu, 

diavit.’ Pers. Sat. v. 177, ‘cicer ingere 
large Rixanti populo.’ The sense is, ‘ Let 
your maids come in one after the other 
and remind you, in his presence, that you 
expect a present.’ —Apriles, either Kalendas 
or Jdus; an unusual ellipse. There may 
be an allusion to a ceremony performed to 
the statue of Venus by the meretrices, men- 
tioned in Fast.iv. 133 seqq. See also Ars 
Am. i. 417, ‘Magna superstitio tibi sit 
natalis amice, Quaque aliquid dandum est, 
atra sit illa dies.’ On both these occasions 
the lover, of course, was expected to be 
liberal.—tundat, ‘din into you,’ as if you 
had forgotten it.—Matis for malis the later 
editions; J/ais Miiller. 

37.] Supplex &e. Here the art is to be 
tried of pretended indifference. ‘Suppose 
that he sits a suppliant for your favour. 
Well, take your easy chair and write any- 
thing you please. If he shows fear of 
these arts, then you have him.’—guidlibet 
seems to show that the mere act of writing, 
z.e. the inattention thereby implied to the 
lover’s request, rather than the penning of 
an invitation to a rival, is meant. —cathedra 
was the chair especially in use by women, 
—tenes, ἔχεις, ἥρηκας αὐτόν. 

39.] dorsus. Next jealousy is to be 
roused. ‘ Affect to have marks upon your 
face left by some lover's fray, that he may 
think you have been too familiar with his 
rival.’ See sup. 3, 26. 

41.] Nee te &e. ‘And be not too for- 
ward or free in your taunts and reproaches, 
or you will alienate his affections.’—se- 
quacis, ‘persecuting,’ ‘importunate,’ The 


epithet does not seem to refer to the cha- 
racter in the play of Euripides, though 
probra, in its literal sense, suits it well 
enough. Perhaps the poet meant nequitia, 
‘amorousness.’ See Eur. Jed. 265. — 
nempe, cf. inf. 11, 6; ‘in fact, she gained 
for herself dislike by being too forward in 

43.] Sed potius. ‘Rather be the high- 
priced Thais of the elegant Menander, 
when the girl in the comedy makes the_ 
cunning Getan slaves to fall in love with 
her.’—fertt, a metaphor from gladiators. 
So in iv. 3, 50, ‘Qui volet austeros arte 
ferire viros.’ In Plautus, Zrinwm. 247, 
‘ibi illa pendentem ferit;’ perhaps the 
punishment of slaves is alluded to, though 
Jerit means ‘capit,’ ‘fascinates.’—mundi, 
κομψοῦ, neat and eloquent in expression. 

45—6.] ‘ Accommodate yourself to your 
lover’s humours, and be merry when he is 
so disposed.’ So Hor. Epist. i. 18, 40, 
‘nec, cum venari volet 1116, poemata pan- 
ges.’—jactat, ‘if he sports (or spouts) love- 
ditties, accompany him.’ 

47—58.] ‘Above all things take care 
the lover brings money or presents. Never 
mind who he is; look only to what he 
offers.’—ad dantes, ‘at the call of those 
who give,’-—not to himself as a bribe for 
opening the door, but to the inmate whom 
the lover seeks.—inanis, ‘empty-handed.’ 
surdus, ‘let him pretend not to hear, and go 
on sleeping over (leaning on) the bar drawn 
across the door.’ <A graphic picture of one 
who doggedly refuses to wake up when he 
is wanted. See Becker, Gallus, p. 281. 


LIBER V. 5. 


Aut quorum titulus per barbara colla pependit, 
Cretati medio cum saluere foro. 

Aurum spectato, non que manus adferat aurum. 
Versibus auditis quid nisi verba feres ? 

[Quid juvat ornato procedere, vita, capillo 


Et tenues Coa veste movere sinus ?] 

Qui versus, Coz dederit nec munera vestis, 
Istius tibi sit surda sine ere lyra. 

Dum vernat sanguis, dum rugis integer annus, 

Utere, ne quid cras libet ab ore dies. 


Vidi ego odorati victura rosaria Pesti 
Sub matutino cocta jacere Noto.’ 

His animum nostre dum versat Acanthis amice, 
Per tenuem ossa mihi sunt numerata cutem. 

51.] Titulus. ‘Do not reject even a 
slave, who has stood on the catasta with 
a paper round his neck, setting forth age, 
abilities, country, &c., and whose chalked 
feet have danced to show his agility and 
muscular power,’ (1.6. do not spurn one 
who was once a slave, but now is a rich 
libertus). The same practice prevailed till 
lately, if it does not still continue, in the 
slaye-markets of South America. The 
gypsati pedes are mentioned also by Martial 
and Tibullus ii. 2, 59, and allude to a 
custom of so marking foreign slaves by 
way of distinction. This appears from 
Juvenal, i. 111, ‘Nuper in hane urbem 
pedibus qui venerat albis.’ The MSS. 
give celati, whence Jacob, Hertzberg, Keil 
and Miiller, with the Aldine, read ce/ati, 
which they explain ‘tattooed.’ But first, 
it is very doubtful whether such were ever 
exhibited in the slaye-market; and second- 
ly, it seems strange to call such a man 
‘engraved,’ or ‘embossed.’ I have there- 
fore adopted with Lachmann the ingenious 
conjecture of Passerat. See Becker, Gallus, 
p- 200, who remarks that only the inferior 
class of slaves were thus exposed in the 

54.] As verba dare is ‘to cheat,’ so verba 
Serre may mean ‘to be cheated ;’ but with 
the double meaning ‘ you will get nothing 
but words,’ 1.6. nothing more substantial. 

55—6.] All the MSS. here insert a 
distich from i. 2, 1—2, which Lachmann 
and Kuinoel omit with Scaliger, to the 
great indignation of Hertzberg, who calls 
it ‘nervos totius elegie.’ These verses 
may indeed have been a marginal quotation 

added by some copyist; but they may also 
have been repeated by the poet,—though 
not, perhaps, in very good taste,—to apply 
the remark more pointedly to his own case. 
The sense is, ‘He who gives no better 
present than mere compliments, is not to 
be listened to, however fine his poetry may 
be.’—sine @re, t.e. si sine oblato ere sonet. 
The ed. Rheg. gives size arte, which Kui- 
noel adopts. 

59-—62.] ‘Make the best use of your 
youthful charms, and remember that they 
are not lasting.’—annus, ὥρα, the bloom of 
life.—dibet, carpat, deminuat. 

61.] Victwra, ‘which would have lived 
longer,’ 1.6. killed before their time. An 
elegant usage; compare ‘luna moraturis 
sedula luminibus,’ i. 3, 32.—cocta, ‘ with- 
ered,’ ‘shrivelled.”’ The Notus is perhaps 
what is called the Scirocco, though this, 
properly speaking, is the s.z. 

63.] Versat, ‘plies,’ ‘keeps in sus- 
pense.’ So Hor. Sat. i. 8,19, ‘carminibus 
que versant atque venenis Humanos ani- 
mos.’—/is, ‘by the foregoing precepts ;’ 
meaning especially that about admitting 
only the rich. 

64.] This verse is thus given in the 
MSS. and early editions; ‘per tenues ossa 
sunt numerata cutes,’ which Keil retains. 
Miiller gives ‘Ossa inter tenues sunt’ το, 
Kuinoel, Barth, and Lachmann omit it al- 
together, as being thrust in by some copy- 
ist to fill up a lacuna. If genuine, it is 
not easy to restore the metre with anything 
like certainty. Of two conjectures, I pre- 
fer that of Jacob. Hertzberg edits per 
tenues ossa has, &c., which is not only (as 


Sed cape torquatee, Venus o regina, columbee 



Ob meritum ante tuos guttura secta focos. 
Vidi ego rugoso tussim concrescere collo, 
Sputaque per dentes ire cruenta cavos, 
Atque animam in tegetes putrem expirare paternas: 

Horruit algenti pergula curta foco. 


Exequize fuerant rari furtiva capilli 
Vincula et immundo pallida mitra situ, 
Et canis in nostros nimis experrecta dolores, 
Cum fallenda meo pollice clatra forent. 

Sit tumulus lenz curto vetus amphora collo: 

he admits) unrhythmical, but retains the 
unusual plural ewtes, in which the corrup- 
tion seems partly to lie. The sense is, 
‘While Acanthis was thus lecturing Cyn- 
thia on the art of frustrating a lover’s 
hopes, I was pining away with desire.’ 
Cf. i. 9, 29, ‘qui non ante patet, donee 
manus attigit ossa.’ 

65—6.] ‘But, thank Venus, I have 
lived to pay her a tribute for delivering 
me from such a hag,’ &e.—torquata columba, 

a pretty expression for a ring-dove. Kui- 
noel quotes Ovid, Mast. i. 452, ‘ Uritur 

Idaliis alba columba focis.’ ‘ Torquatus 
palumbus’ occurs in Martial, xiii. 67. 
67—70.] A curious and not pleasing, 
though powerful, description of death by 
consumption, as it would seem. ‘I have 
lived to see the cough get more choking 
in that skinny neck, and the blood-tinged 
spittle pass through the hollows between 
her teeth ;—I have seen her gasp out that 
foul breath in the beggarly rags that her 
father wore, while she lay shivering before 
the fireless hearth in a narrow out-house.’ 
The teges was a coarse mat worn by men- 
dicants, as appears from Juyen. Sat. 5, 8, 
‘nusquam pons et tegetis pars Dimidia 
brevior? Mart. Zp. xi. 56, 5, ‘et teges 
et cimex et nudi sponda grabati.’ did. 
32, 2, ‘de bibula sarta palude teges;’ and 
ix. 92, 8, ‘dat tibi securos vilis tegeticula 
somnos.’ Plautus calls it ‘tegillum,’ Rud. 
576. For pergula, a kind of lean-to of 
wood, built on to a house, see Rich’s Com- 
panion to the Dictionary in v., and Becker, 
Gallus, p. 268. Perhaps this, or something 
like it, is the ‘ posticulum’ or ‘ back-house’ 
in Plaut. Zrin. 194. The pergula itself is 
said horrere by a common figure, meaning, 
of course, the occupant of it. The MSS. 
give percula or pocula curva. Lachmann, 


with Barth and Kuinoel, read tegula curta 
after Pucci; cf. inf. 7, 26. 

71—4.] Exequie, here the dress in 
which she was laid out. ‘They buried 
her in the band she had stolen to bind her 
thin grey hairs, and in a cap from which 
the colour had faded from untidy dirt; the 
dog too was there, that had too often been 
wakeful to my vexation, when the latch 
had to be stealthily lifted by the pressure 
of my thumb.’ There is mixed comedy 
and pathos in the description, which is at 
once heartless and clever. The poet vents 
his spite even upon the poor little dog, 
which was her only friend in life and her 
only mourner at her grave.—wmitra, iii. 21, 
15, a kind of night-cap or folded kerchief, 
once coloured, now dim, ἐξίτηλος, through 
the dirt of neglect, mivos.—clatra, the MSS. 
give cultra or caltra, The Romans hardened 
the dental, as in tus, θύος, celitus, for the 
termination θεν. 

75.) Tumulus. ‘May the old bawd have 
no more costly tomb than an old wine-jar 
with a broken neck; and may a vyigor- 
ous wild fig-tree narrow her graye by its 
growth above it.’ Nothing more, perhaps, 
is meant than that some such cheap and 
worthless monument should mark her 
grave, as would encourage the passer-by 
to pelt if with stones, as a half-broken pot 
would do. This was considered a special 
insult; compare Eur. El. 324, πέτροισι 
λεύει μνῆμα λάϊνον πατρός. There may 
also (as sup. ver. 2) be an allusion to the 
old woman’s fondness for drink. The cap- 
rificus, generally spoken of as destructive 
of tombs (Juy. x. 145) by forcing its way 
through the joints of the stones, seems 
here to haye reference to the roots pene- 
trating into the graye beneath which it 

LIBER V. 6. 


Urgeat hune supra vis, caprifice, tua. 
Quisquis amas, scabris hoc bustum czdite saxis, 
Mixtaque cum saxis addite verba mala. 


Sacra facit vates: sint ora faventia sacris, 
Ut cadat ante meos icta juvenca focos. 
Hedra Philetzis certet Romana corymbis, 

77.] Jacob and Hertzberg give cedito, 
the MS. reading being cedito, which Keil 
and Miller retain. The correction may 
easily have been made by copyists in re- 
ference to the singular, guisquis amas; and 
the same motive will account for the MS. 
Groning. giving in the short verse adjice 
for addite. 

78.] Verba mala. ‘Pelt the tomb not 
only with stones, but with imprecations.’ 
Thus the Greeks say θείνειν or βάλλειν 
ὀνείδει, and so Arist. Ach. 686, és τάχος 
παίει ξυνάπτων στρογγύλοις τοῖς ῥήμασι, 
‘with his words rounded like balls for 

VI. This very fine elegy is the earliest, 
and perhaps in some sense the most de- 
tailed and authentic, record of the great 
battle of Actium. Like the Perse of 
Aaschylus, compared with the later and 
more popularised account of the battle of 
Salamis in Herodotus, it is of value beyond 
its mere poetic merit. It contains a splen- 
did eulogy on Augustus for his victory 
over Antony and Cleopatra, 8.0. 31, in 
thanksgiving for which he had rebuilt on 
the spot a temple to Apollo Actius (navalis 
Phebus ν. 1, 3), and instituted games to 
be celebrated every five years, or rather, 
remodelled the ancient Actia which were 
held every three years. Sueton. Octav. 
§ 18, ‘Quoque Actiacz victoriz memoria 
celebratior et in posterum esset, urbem 
Nicopolim apud Actium condidit, ludosque 
alice quinquennales constituit; et ampliato 
vetere Apollinis templo locum castrorum, 
quibus fuerat usus, exornatum navalibus 
spoliis, Neptuno ac Marti consecrayit.’ 
Ibid. § 29, ‘ Publica opera plurima extruxit, 
—templum Apollinis in Palatio, edem To- 
nantis Jovis in Capitolio.’ The reader 
will not confound these two distinct monu- 
ments of the victory. Hertzberg considers 
that there were two local games, 1.6. at 
Actium and at the temple on the Palatine, 
the latter of which are here meant. There 

is some obscurity on this point: perhaps 
the Actia were transferred to Rome, while 
a semblance of the old institution was kept 
up at Actium. The word illic will be 
noticed in the former extract from Sue- 
tonius. The present elegy, as Barth ob- 
serves, seems to have been intended as an 
ἐπινίκιον on the occasion of these games, 
A.v.c. 738, being held for the fourth time. 

1.] Sacra facit, θύει ἐπινίκια. The poet 
represents himself as a priest about to per- 
form a sacrifice; and hence in the succeed- 
ing verses he borrows metaphors strictly 
derived from sacrificial usages.’ On which 
Hertzberg well observes, ‘In allegoria, 
que decem primos versus obtinet, magno- 
pere cavendum est, ne ad vivum resecare 
metaphoras, neve que singula significent, 
anxie querere yvelimus. Quid enim ju- 
venca, quid costum, quid laneus orbis, quid 
denique lymph translatione soluta in 
carmine significent, putidum est explorare.’ 

2.1 I have given wt cadat for et cadat, 
on the ground that the sacrificial custom 
was to command silence for the killing of 
the beast, immediately after which a joyful 
sacrificial shout was raised. 

3.] The sense is, ‘Let Roman verses | 
vie with the elegiac renown of Philetas of 
Cos.’ But the reading is rather doubtful. 
The good copies give cera Philippeis. Most 
editors adopt serta from Scaliger; cf. ili. 
25, 37. Haupt reads ara; but nothing 
seems to me so probable as Hedra, which 
is found in one of the later MSS. Com- 
pare sup. 1, 62, ‘mi folia ex hedera porriga, 
Bacche, tua.’ So aspris for asperis, An. 
11. 579, poplo for populo, Plaut. Amphitr. 
101.—Phileteis is the certain correction of 
Beroaldus. See on iy.1, 1. In v. 4, 
Callimachus of Cyrene is meant, the flow 
of whose verses is compared with lustral 
water, χέρνιψ, used for the purposes of the 
sacred rites. To drink of certain springs 
was thought inspiring to a poet; cf. sup. 
iy. 8, 6; Pindar, O/. vi. 85; Isth. v. 74. 

. Et Cyrenzas urna ministret aquas. 
~Costum molle date et blandi mihi turis honores, 5 

Terque focum circa laneus orbis eat.’ 

Spargite me lymphis, carmenque recentibus aris 
Tibia Mygdoniis libet eburna cadis._ 

Wok yw 

Ite procul fraudes, alio sint wefe noxe: 

Pura novum vati laurea mollit iter. 


Musa, Palatini referemus Apollinis «dem : 
Res est, Calliope, digna favore tuo. 

Cesaris in nomen ducuntur carmina: Czesar 
Dum canitur, queso, Juppiter ipse vaces. 

Est Phoebi fugiens Athamana ad litora portus, 


Qua sinus Ionize murmura condit aque, 
~  Actia Iulez pelagus monimenta carine, 


6.] Laneus orbis is the vitta or infula, 
the woollen chaplet, which is generally 
seen sculptured on the sides of Roman 
altars. See Virg. Eel. viii. 65, and Dict. 
of Antig. in ν. ara. 

7.] Spargite. This too was a Greek 
custom at a sacrifice; see Arist. Pax 972. 
recentibus, νεοδμήτοις, newly built of turf. 

8.] Lachmann, Kuinoel, and Jacob write 
Cadis as a proper name, after Scaliger. 
According to Strabo, xii. p. 220, a town of 
Phrygia was so named, and as the Phryg- 
lans were also called Mygdones, the music 
may be supposed to have been played 
Φρυγιστί. But Hertzberg more probably 
regards it as a continuation of the same 
metaphor, by which the notes of the tibia 
are compared with the libation of wine 
from a jar or crock at a sacrifice. He 
aptly quotes Pindar, Nem. iii. 76, where 
the idea of πόμ᾽ ἀοίδιμον is carried out 
through several verses. Compare also 
νέκταρ χυτὸν, Μοισᾶν δόσιν, Ol. vii. 7. 
We may therefore translate, ‘and let the 
pipe pour forth music from Phrygian stores 
at the altars of fresh turf.’ 

9.1 Fraudes, like nove, here signifies 
generally all that is bad and unworthy to 
be present at a sacrifice. See Aristoph. 
Pax 968. Perhaps from Callimachus, ἑκὰς 
ἑκὰς ὅστις ἀλιτρός.---αἰϊο sint aere, a com- 
mon method of deprecating any evil, ‘let 
it go where it likes if only it does not stay 

10.] Mollit, because the road is strewed 
\thick with leaves.—novum iter, ‘panegy- 
lricus hic elegiacus.’ Hertzberg. — pura 
laurea seems so called in reference to 


Apollo’s attribute φοῖβος, and it is also 
mentioned as the plant of victory. 

11.] LReferemus, ‘our theme shall be the 
building, 7.e. the cause of building, the 
temple of the Palatine Apollo. Barth 
cites Ovid, A. A, iii. 389, ‘visite laurigero 
sacrata Palatia Phoebo; Ille Paretonias 
mersit in alta rates.’ (Paretonias, 1. 6. 
JEgyptias; so called from a town on the 
north coast of Africa). 

14.1 Vaces, sc. carmine ; ‘consent for a 
time not to be honoured in our verse.’ 

15.] -Athamana litora, ‘the shores of ὁ 
Epirus,’ of which the ᾿Αθάμανες were a | 
See on vy. 1, 36. The construction 
of the passage cannot be explained better 
than in the words of Hertzberg: ‘ipse 
sinus eleganti appositione et pelagus dicitur 
(est enim maris pars), et monumenta carine 
lulez, et via facilis nautis. Monumentum 
autem omne est, quo alicujus rei admo- 
nemur. Actia denique attributum vocis 
monumenta, cum proprie ad pelagus deberet 
referri.” ‘Translate, ‘a wide expanse of 
water that records (by the temple on its 
shore) the exploits of the Julian fleet at 
Actium, and a roadway that gives no 
trouble to sailors’ vows,’ z.e. from its open 
and easy access. The plural monumenta 
is worthy of remark, as being used in this 
sense by Tacitus, Ann. iii. 23, 72, and iv. 7. 
The sinus Ambracius is meant, which is of 
considerable size, (about 25 miles long by 
10 wide) otherwise pelagus is properly 
used of the open sea, as mare and pontus 
express inland seas, and oceanus the great 
circumambient external ocean. See Tac. 
Ann. ii. 53. 




caps tl ἔε 


LIBER V. 6. 

horbour a Mee poles eomatiucts® Σ Hu 512 Ls of ta vce bor 


Nautarum votis non operosa via. 
Hue mundi coiere manus: stetit equore moles 

Pinea, nec remis equa favebat avis. 


Altera classis erat Teucro damnata Quirino, 

. - . A 
Pilaque feminea turpiter acta manu: 

Per ty. 

Hine Augusta ratis plenis Jovis omine velis 
Signaque jam patriz vincere docta suze. 

Tandem acies geminos Nereus lunarat in arcus, 


Armorum radiis picta tremebat aqua, 

Cum Pheebus linquens stantem se vindice Delon 
(Nam tulit iratos mobilis una Notos) 

ΠΣ Ἐπ 
eye Or Mic 

Astitit Augusti puppim super, et nova flamma 

Luxit in obliquam ter sinuata facem. 

19.] Mundi manus. Antony’s fleet was 
composed partly of Egyptian auxiliaries, 
partly of eastern nations. Kuinoel refers 
to Virg. Zn. viii. 687, ‘ Hgyptum vires- 
que Orientis et ultima secum Bactra vehit :’ 
ef. vy. 705.—moles pinea: see ibid. viii. 691. 
The notion is, that the fleet, from the size 
of its ships, seemed to stand motionless on 
the sea like some rock or mountain, though 
built of buoyant fir-wood. Virg. dn. vi. 
471, ‘nec magis incepto vultum sermone 
movetur Quam si dura silex aut stet Mar- 
pesia cautes.’—xec equa &c., ‘at non eque 
bonum utrique classierat angurium.’ ‘The 
one fleet (Antony’s) was under the ban of 
the Troy-descended Romulus;and so were 

“the darts that were basely directed against 

Rome by a woman’s hand.’—turpiter, be- 
cause it was discreditable in a woman to 
join a war in (as the poet considered it) an 
unholy cause.—damnata, alluding to the 
custom of solemnly denouncing in the 
senate the enemies of the Roman people. 
Compare iii. 7, 38, ‘ Actia damnatis zequora 

23.] Jovis omine, the favourable breeze 
was regarded as sent by Ζεὺς ovpios.—hine, 
‘on our side.’ 

24.) Vincere docta. In the various 
victories Augustus had already obtained 
by land: compare y. 39. The dative is 
acquisitively used. 

25.) The disposition of the opposing 
fleets in two crescent-shaped lines is re- 
presented as entrusted to the god of the 
sea. Martial, Lib. Spectac. 28, 7, perhaps 
alludes to this in his account of a Nau- 
machia in the Amphitheatre; ‘Dumque 
parat sevis ratibus fera prelia Nereus, 
Abnuit in liquidis ire pedester aquis.’— 


radiis, ‘the sheen of the arms.’ Lachmann 
reads armorum et radiis. The battle is 
just about to commence, when Apollo ar- 
rives from Delos, and takes his place on 
the ship of Augustus in the form of a 
wavy flame on the poop. I have en- 
deavoured to explain the allusion in the 
note on Asch, .4gam. 647. See Humboldt, 
Cosmos, vol. 11. note 90. 

28.] The MSS. have τρια, but the MS. 
Gron. with a dot under the d, showing 
that it should be erased. Jacob, Hertz- 
berg, and Miiller edit wa; Lachmann, 
with Barth and Kuinoel, admit the im- 
probable conjecture of Broukhusius, ante. 
The idea is, that Phoebus had so firmly 
fixed the island, which was the only one 
that had ever been otherwise than fixed, 
and liable to be borne to and fro by the 
angry winds, that he now left it fearlessly 
to take care of itself in his absence.—se 
vindice, ‘under threat of his vengeance,’ 
means that he would have punished it for 
not standing, by finally reducing it to the 
former condition of instability. Or perhaps 
(as inf. 41) ‘under his protection.’ Hence 
‘nam tulit? &e., 1.6. pertulit, perpessa est, 
‘bore the brunt of.’ Or should we read 
tratisqobilis unda notis, ‘the water carried 
it before the winds >’ 

30.] Ter sinuata. Not tripartite, but 
‘thrice deflected from a straight line, after 
the fashion of a torch held aslant;’ by 
which the flame is curved upwards. Lu- 
cian, wep) τῶν ἐπὶ μισθῷ συνόντων, p. 652, 
ridicules the idea of a god ἐπὶ τῷ καρχησίῳ 
καθεζόμενον ἢ πρὸς τοῖς πηδαλίοις ἑστῶτα 
καὶ πρός τινα ἠϊόνα μαλακὴν ἀπευθύνοντα 
τὴν ναῦν, &e. 



a 91 τὸ 

Lyre | 

μπερε δ 




near Detphe r Son τῇ Shp «ἐδ Kveoteug 


Non ille attulerat crines in colla solutos 
Aut testudineze carmen inerme lyre, — 

Sed quali aspexit Pelopeum Agamemnona vultu, 
Egessitque avidis Dorica castra rogis, 

Aut qualis flexos solvit Pythona per orbes 


Serpentem, imbelles quem timuere lyre. ἢ 
Mox ait ‘o longa mundi servator ab Alba, 
Auguste, Hectoreis cognite major avis, 
Vince mari: jam terra tua est: tibi militat arcus, 

Et favet ex humeris hoc onus omne meis. 


Solve metu patriam, que nunc te vindice freta 
Imposuit prorzee publica vota tuz. 

Quam nisi defendes, murorum Romulus augur 
Ire Palatinas non bene vidit aves. 


31.] This noble and spirited passage 
describes the character under which Apollo 
appeared: not as the god of music, waving 
his txtonsos crines, but as the god of war 
and destruction, armed with bow and 

33.] We may either understand ‘sed 
(venerat) quali vultu,’ or ‘sed (attulerat) 
vultum, quali’ &e. Miiller reads ad testu- 
dinee ἕο. This alludes to the pestilence 
described in Homer as having been sent 
by Apollo against the Greeks, 17. i. 40—50. 
egerere castra is a metaphor from digging 
out and carrying away earth or rubbish: 
hence to clear or empty by removing the 
dead to the pyres without,—del δὲ πυραὶ 
καίοντο θαμειαί. Cf. Pers. vy. 69, ‘ecce 
aliud cras Egerit hos annos.’ 

35.] Aut qualis &e. ‘Or as when he 
disabled the serpent Python (the monster 
snake of Delphi) in all his twining coils.’ 
This is the subject of one of Turner’s 
greatest pictures, now in the National 

36.] Imbelles lyre. A sufficiently bold 
expression for the Muses, to whom the 
snake which Apollo scotched had been an 
object of terror. See on iii. 18,18. But 
the termination of this verse has probably 
been repeated by mistake from 382 (see iil. 
18, 18), and we should here read either dee 
or chori. Miller reads, on his own con- 
jecture, inbelles quom tacuere lyre. The 
only way of explaining the vulgate is to 

in mimum Slows und en ade aalin on 

ν : ι bi ie +. 
Preccbe fu Auch | VLA LA vel a Nalw 
ἰς ‘ ( 

Et nimium remis audent; proh turpe Latinis 
Principe te fluctus regia vela pati. 

regard it as a short phrase for ‘Muse non 
arma sed lyras gestantes.’ 

37.] Ab Alba, like ‘pastor ab Amphryso,’ 
Georgie. 111. 2.—cognite, ἐξετασθεὶς, whose 
exploits have proved you to be greater 
than even your Trojan ancestors. 

40.] Hoe onus omne, ὃ. 6. pharetrae. 

42.] Vota, viz. in the form of corone or 

43.] -Auctor is the reading of Lachmann 
and Kuinoel, after Bentley on Hor. iii. 3, 
66. ‘The correction is too obvious to de- 
serve the praise of ingenuity; and the 
great name of the critic to whom it is due 
has given it (as in so many other cases) 
a weight to which its merits do not entitle 
it. The very next verse shows the vulgate 
to be correct.—augur murorum is briefly 
put for cum muris auguria caperet. The 
sense is, ‘If you, Augustus, do not now 
save Rome, it will have been founded 
mala avi, contrary to the belief of all the 
world.’ Compare sup. 1, 49—54. 

45—6.] These obscure verses are ex- 
plained in various ways, according to the 
punctuation adopted. That of Hertzberg 
is somewhat harsh and awkward: ‘regia 
vela nimium audent pati fluctus Latinis 
remis;’ or, in his own words, ‘nimium 
turpe est, quod naves regine, Te principe, 
Romani remigii ope fluctibus committere 
se audent.’ He admits that vela for naves 
is somewhat objectionable when coupled 
closely with vemts, but throws the blame 


LIBER V. 6. 253 

Nec te, quod classis centenis remiget alis, 
Terreat: invito labitur illa mari: 
Quodque vehunt prorze Centaurica saxa minantis, 

Tigna cava et pictos experiere metus. 


Frangit et attollit vires in milite causa; 
Que nisi justa subest, excutit arma pudor. 
Tempus adest, committe rates: ego temporis auctor 
Ducam laurigera Julia rostra manu.’ 

Dixerat, et pharetree pondus consumit in arcus: 


Proxima post arcus Cesaris hasta fuit. 
Vincit Roma fide Phcebi: dat femina pcenas: 
Sceptra per Tonias fracta vehuntur aquas. 
At pater Idalio miratur Cesar ab astro: { 

on the poet. I prefer the following: 
‘turpe est Romanis, quibus tu es princeps, 
fluctus maris, quod sub ipsorum ditione 
est, pati naves regine Cleopatre;’ the 
antithesis lying in the words princeps and 
regina; for rex was a forbidden word, so 
to speak, under the empire. For pro the 
MSS. give prope, which Miiller retains, 
reading en with some late copies for et.— 
The sentence et nimium remis audent, seems 
to imply that Antony’s ships first rowed 
forward for the conflict; perhaps also, that 
they placed too much confidence in their 
oars, and too little in the aid of a god. 

47.] Remiget means, ‘do not be fright- 
ened because you think that each ship in 
the fleet rows with a hundred oars’ (the 
Homeric sense of πτερά). Perhaps remigat 
should be read, like vehwnt in 49; which 
implies the objective fact that it was so.— 
invito mari, ‘the very sea it rides on is 
against it.’ There appears to have been 
rather rough water at the battle of Actium: 
see Martial, Zp. iv. 11, 6, (Antoni nomen) 
‘obruit Actiaci quod gravis ira freti.’ 

49.] ‘And as for the prows carrying 
figures which seem to be heaving stones 
as large as those hurled by the Lapithe 
against the Centaurs,—why, you will find 
them to be mere μορμολυκεῖα, painted 
boards.’ Centauros is the reading of Barth 
and Kuinoel after Guyet; which alters the 
sense materially against the authority of 
all the copies. Hertzberg observes that 
real stones used as missiles against the 
enemy might be meant, quoting Dio. i. 33, 
and Virg. 42n, viii. 693, ‘Tanta mole viri 
turritis navibus instant,’ but that the pen- 
tameter verse seems conclusive against it. 
Probably they were painted figures, as we 

know from Virg. Georg. iv. 289, that the 
Egyptians had this custom, ‘Et circa pietis 
vehitur sua rura phaselis.’ And perhaps 
(as in 4in.x.195) one of the ships was 
called The Centaur. Is vehunt used in- 
transitively for vehuntur, as we say, ‘the 
ship rides on the waves?’ Compare vector, 
‘a rider,’ inf. 7, 84, and the examples of 
vehere for equitare supplied by the Dic- 

52.] Subest, ὑπάρχει. ‘It is the cause 
which weakens or raises the courage in a 
soldier; if there is no justice in it from 
the first, his arms fall from his hands 
through his own sense of shame.’ ‘’Tis 
the cause makes all, Degrades or hallows 
valour in its fall.’— Byron. 

54.] Laurigera manu. Elegantly used, 
as if Apollo were about to put a crown of 
victory on the conquering prows.—temporis 
auctor, ἔγὼ 6 τὸν καιρὸν ὑποθέμενος, Viz. 
the time for commencing the action. 
ΓΘ Fide Phebi, ex promissis, y. 39, 

58.] Sceptra fraeta, i.e. victa classis.— 
vehuntur, ‘rides,’ or perhaps ‘is towed,’ 
viz. as a prize taken. 

59.] Barth and Kuinoel read miratus 
from the Aldine, and en for δέ or est in the 
pentameter, after Markland, in which latter 
both Lachmann and Hertzberg agree. The 
‘Idalian star’ from which the deified Julius 
regarded with admiration the exploits of 
his adopted son, does not mean any parti- 
cular star (much less the planet Venus), 
but the epithet relates to his supposed 
descent from the goddess. 
mentators on Juliwm sidus, Hor. Od. i. 12, 
47, on which passage Orelli, observing 
that mention is made of Julius Cxsar only 

See the com. ἢ 

so 8 SS 



‘Sum deus, et nostri sanguinis ista fides.’ 60 
Prosequitur cantu Triton, omnesque marine 
Plauserunt circa libera signa dee. 
Illa petit Nilum cymba male nacta fugaci 
Hoc unum, jusso non moritura die. 

Dii melius! quantus mulier foret una triumphus, 
Ductus erat per quas ante Jugurtha vias. 

Actius hine traxit Phcebus monimenta, quod ejus 
Una decem vicit missa sagitta rates. 
Bella satis cecini: citharam jam poscit Apollo 

Victor et ad placidos exuit arma choros. 


Candida nune molli subeant convivia luco, 
Blanditizque fluant per mea colla rose, 

Vinaque fundantur preelis elisa Falernis, 
Terque lavet nostras spica Cilissa comas. 

Ingenium potis irritat Musa poetis: 

twice by Horace, and thrice by Virgil, is 
not correct in stating that he is nowhere 
spoken of by Propertius. See also sup. 
iv. 18. 34. The sense of v. 60 is, ‘I ama 
god, and this victory of yours is a guarantee 
that you are born of my race.’ ides is so 
used sup. 1, 98. 

61.] Triton, cf. Hom. 11. xiii. 27, βῆ δ᾽ 
ἐλάαν ἐπὶ κύματ᾽, ἄταλλε δὲ KATE ὑπ᾽ 
αὐτοῦ πάντοθεν ἐκ κευθμῶν, οὐδ᾽ ἠγνοίησεν 
ἄνακτα. Mart. Lid. Spect. 28, 5, ‘ Vidit in 
eequoreo ferventes pulvere currus, Et do- 
mini Triton ipse putavit equos.’ 

62.] Libera signa. ‘Nunc demum, post- 
quam apud Actium debellatum est, non 
amplius ab Antonio oppugnata, vere débera 
dicuntur.’— Hertzberg. 

63.] ila, ‘the queen on her part;’ ef. 
sup. 4, 71, and 5,9. Keilreads ipsa. For 
nixa 1 have ventured to read acta, by 
which hoe wnum obtains something like an 
intelligible syntax. ‘She gained this one 
advantage, though unfairly, by the speed 
of her galley, that she was not destined 
to die on the very day that her conqueror 
had ordered.’ He should properly have 
said non moriendum sibi esse.—jusso die, 
constituto a victore. The only exception 
to her complete defeat was that she eluded 
the conqueror’s hands and put an end to 
her own existence. 

65.] Dii metius, se. nobis consuluerunt. 
The sense is, ‘Heaven willed it otherwise, 
and no doubt for the best: for a woman 
would haye made but a sorry figure as a 


captive in a triumph, which had before 
been graced by such a great king and so 
illustrious an enemy as Jugurtha.’—quan- 
tus, quantillus. Perhaps the mark of a 
question should be placed at vias. 

68.] γι sagitta. So An. yiii. 704, 
‘Actius hee cernens arcum intendebat 
Apollo Desuper’ &ce. Sup. 55. 
perbole is extravagant, of course. 

69.] Citharam, viz. which he had laid 
aside during the fight, sup. 32. 

71.] Luco. The poet, who in the com- 
mencement of the elegy had assumed the 
character of a priest, now speaks of the 
banquet which (says Hertzberg) the college 
of priests used to partake of in the sacred 
grove after the sacrifice had been offered. 
See the commentators on ‘ Saliares dapes.’ 
Hor. Od. i. 37, 2, and on ‘Pontificum ccene,’ 
7b. ii. 14, 28. Kuinoel reads ludo after 
Heinsius. In the pentameter verse, rose 
is the genitive, as Hertzberg points out 
after others. See on τ. 8, 40. 

71—2.] Candida κο. ‘Let the white- 
robed banqueters now enter the turf-clad 
grove, and the soft caress of the rose (or, 
chaplets of dainty roses) droop freely over 
my neck.’ Lachmann’s emendation, b/an- 
de utrimque fluant, has little to commend 

i. 76, for the saffron of Corycus in Cilicia. 
See sup. 1, 14. 

78.) I have adopted Scaliger’s reading 
trritat for irritet, since not the wish, but 

74.] Spica Cilissa, used by Ovid, tia 



The hy- Ϊ | 

, LIBER V. 7. 

Bacche, soles Phcebo fertilis esse tuo. 
Ile paludosos memoret servire Sicambros, 
Cepheam hic Meroen fuscaque regna canat, 
Hic referat sero confessum fcedere Parthum: 

Reddat signa Remi, mox dabit ipse sua: 


Sive aliquid pharetris Augustus parcet Eois, 
Differat in pueros ista tropxa suos. 

Gaude, Crasse, nigras si quid sapis inter harenas: 
Tre per Euphraten ad tua busta licet. 

Sic noctem patera, sic ducam carmine, donec 


Iniciat radios in mea vina dies. 


Sunt aliquid Manes: letum non omnia finit, 

the statement of a fact seems conveyed, 
that wine stimulates the poet’s genius. 
The vulgate might however mean, ‘ Let us 
try the effect of wine in inspiring our 
minds.’ And Lachmann prefers this, re- 
jecting Scaliger’s emendation. 

76.] Fertilis, γόνιμος Arist. Ran. 96, 
‘suggestive.’ The intimate connection 
between Bacchus and Apollo in the patro- 
nage of poetry explains Phebo tuo. Thus 
Parnassus was sacred to both deities. Ju- 
venal (7, 64) speaks of poets as inspired 
‘dominis Cirrhe Nyseque.’ Tibullus, iii. 
4, 44, ‘casto nam rite poete Phcbusque 
et Bacchus Pieridesque favent.’ Ovid, Am. 
1. 3,11, ‘At Phoebus, comitesque novem, 
Vitisque repertor, Hoc faciunt.’ Here, 
however, the poet is implied under the 
name of the god himself. 

77.] ‘Let one poet celebrate (viz. in 
recitations at the ἐπινίκια) the emperor's 
victory over the Germans, another his 
Ethiopian conquests, and a third his ex- 
pedition against the Parthians to recover 
the lost standards of Crassus.’—dabdit, ef. 
inf. 10,12. Meroe is a well-known island 
formed by the Nile, Herod. ii. 29. Strabo 
xvi. 4, xvii. 1, here called Cephean from 

ὦ Cepheus king of Ethiopia, the father of 

' Andromeda. 

79.] Confessum, 7. 6. Romanorum poten- 
tiam, et se ab iis probe victum esse. 

81---2᾽ ‘If Augustus does not entirely 
quell the rebel Parthians, may it be for the 
purpose of leaying his sons something to 
conquer.’ Caius and Lucius Cesar, the 
sons of his daughter Julia by M. Agrippa, 
adopted by Augustus, are here meant. See 
Ovid, 4. 4.i.177. 

83.] Nigras harenas, the alluvial plains 
watered by the Euphrates; though pro- 
perly speaking these did not extend up to 
Parthia. Virg. Georg. iii. 241, ‘Et viridem 
Egyptum nigra fecundat arena.’—si guid 
sapis, 1.6. if there is any consciousness in 
Hades, if your Manes can know that you 
have been avenged. Similarly iii. 4, 42, 
‘Nonnihil ad verum conscia terra sapit.’ 

84.] Ire licet. The way to the east is 
now opened by the Roman arms. Some 
light is thrown on this passage by Tacit. 
Ann. ii. 58, ‘Inter que ab rege Parthorum 
Artabano legati venere. Miserat amici- 
tiam ac foedus memoraturos, et cupere re- 
novari dextras, daturumque honori Ger- 
manici ut ripam Euphratis accederet.’ 

VII. This elegy also is of very great 
pathos and beauty, and is in all respects 
a most instructive and interesting poem. 
The ghost of Cynthia, in all the horrors of 
a half-burnt body from the funeral pile, 
appears to the poet when asleep and dream- 
ing of her, and upbraids him in affecting 
words with his heartless neglect of her in 
death. From the concluding elegies of 
the fourth book the reader is prepared for 
the part Propertius was likely to take in 
the matter. Her continued profligacy had 
in fact at length effectually estranged him. 
Yet it seems singular that he should record 
the just complaints of the deceased against 
himself, unless impelled to do so by re- 
morse. It was evidently composed imme- 
diately after the obsequies, but the exact 
date cannot be determined. 

1.] Sunt aliquid Manes. ‘There are 
then such things as spirits:’ ἦν ἄρα τις 



Luridaque evictos effugit umbra rogos. 

Cynthia namque meo visa est incumbere fulcro, 
Murmur ad extreme nuper humata vie, 

Cum mihi somnus ab exequiis penderet amoris, 5 
Et quererer lecti frigida regna mei. 

Eosdem habuit secum, quibus est elata, capillos, 
Eosdem oculos: lateri vestis adusta fuit, 

Et solitum digito beryllon adederat ignis, — 
Summaque Lethzeus triverat ora liquor: 10 

Spirantisque animos et vocem misit: at illi 
Pollicibus fragiles increpuere manus: 

‘Perfide nee cuiquam melior sperande puelle, 
In te jam vires somnus habere potest ? 

Jamne tibi exciderant vigilacis furta Subure 15 

ψυχή, compare J/. xxiii. 103; Od. xi. 218; 
Juv. 2,149. The doctrine of the immor- 
tality of the soul was perhaps not more 
sincerely held by the majority of well-in- 
formed pagans than the legends of Tartarus 
and future judgment connected with it. 
Of its separate existence, apart from the 
body, and its spiritual essence, the Romans 
understood perhaps less than the Greeks. 
See on v.11, 1. The poet’s scepticism is 
evinced by iy. 5, 45.—evictos rogos, 1.6. qui 
Manes domare non possunt. ‘The grisly 
ghost flies free from the pyre that has 
failed to destroy it.’ isch. Cho. 316, 
τέκνον, φρόνημα τοῦ θανόντος od δαμάζει 
πυρὸς μαλερὰ yvabos.—effugit, clapsa est. 

4.1 Murmur, strepitum preetereuntis 
populi, according to Hertzberg, which be- 
comes a faint murmur in the extrema via, 
the remoter parts; where, we may suggest 
from the tenour of the poem, the poor and 
despised were buried, while such of the 
more wealthy as were not interred swo agro 
had their graves close to the road-way, that 
all might ejaculate st ἰδὲ terra levis &e.— 
Murmur is by others, more correctly, I 
think, explained of the waters of the Anio, 
on the banks of which the via Tiburtina 
ended. See inf.85—6. Marmor ad ex- 
treme &c. is an obyious suggestion, ‘hard 
by the milestone ;’ yet this could only have 
a local meaning which we are not warrant- 
ed in assuming. In either case humata 
refers to burying the cinerary urn, for 
which the more correct expression is se- 
pulta (Becker, Gallus, p. 516). 

δ. Exequiis amoris, ‘my buried love.’ 
Compare i. 17, 20, ‘Ultimus et posito staret 

amore lapis,’ and Theocr. 23, 48, Χῶμα δέ 
μοι κοίλανον, ὅ μευ κρύψει τὸν ἔρωτα, pas- 
sages which Lachmann has well quoted in 
defence of the MS. reading. Barth and 
Kuinoel give amaris after Broukhusius. 

7.1 The dissyllabic eosdem is remark- 
able; cdem and isdem for zidem and tisdem 
are familiar; 7 is a monosyllable iii. 16, 
35. The initial e was pronounced as our y. 
Compare ‘hoc eodem ferro’ ii. 8, 26; ‘hae 
eadem via’ iv. 6, 386. Most of the copies 
here give hosdem. So ἕως Soph. Ajac, 1114. 

8.] Vestis. ‘Her appearance was the 
same as in life, but the tunic was scorched 
on her side (lit. ‘burnt on to it’), and the 
beryl that she used to wear was blistered 
on her finger.’ It appears from inf. 48, 
and from the evidence of gems which have 
evidently passed through the fire (one of 
which I have seen), that the jewels were 
placed on the pyre with the body, though 
sometimes recovered from the ashes. 

10.1 Letheus liquor. Kuinoel appears 
to be right in explaining this of the pallor 
or blackness of the lips, as if she had sipped 
the waters of Lethe before she returned to 

11—12.] animos ἕο. ‘The energy of 
her words and the sounds she uttered were 
those of one living; but the frail hands 
rattled in the finger-joints.’ Cf. sup. 3, 
66, ‘subdolus et versis increpat arcus 

14.] Jam, ‘so soon.’ So the ghost of 
Patroclus says in 77. xxiii. 69, εὕδεις, αὐτὰρ 
ἐμεῖο λελασμένος ἔπλευ ᾿Αχιλλεῦ. 

15.] The MSS. have exciderant (not ex- 
eiderunt), which seems to be correct. See 

iv. 24, 20. 


Et mea nocturnis trita fenestra dolis ? 

Per quam demisso quotiens tibi fune pependi, 
Alterna veniens in tua colla manu! 

Seepe Venus trivio commissa est, pectore mixto 
Fecerunt tepidas pallia nostra vias. 20 

Feederis heu taciti! cujus fallacia verba | 
Non audituri diripuere Noti. 

At mihi non oculos quisquam inclamavit euntis ; 
Unum impetrassem, te revocante, diem. 

Nec crepuit fissa me propter harundine custos, 25 
Lesit et obiectum tegula curta caput. 

Denique quis nostro curvum te funere vidit, 
Atram quis lacrimis incaluisse togam ? 

‘Had you already forgotten, 
when you fell asleep, our stealthy meetings 
in the Suburra>’ This part of Rome was 
disreputable (Pers. Sat. v. 32), and it may 
be adduced among other proofs of Cynthia’s 
ow birth and character. 

.* 21—2.] Fewderis seems a genitive of ex- 

clamation, in imitation of a well-known 
Greek idiom. ‘ Alas for the plighted love 
that found no utterance; for the words, 
destined but to deceive, were wafted away 
by winds that would not hear them.’ The 
notion is, that the promised pledges came 
to nothing, because they were never ex- 
pressed in audible words. 

23.] It requires some sagacity to choose 
between inclamavit, the reading of the 
Naples MS., and inclinavit, which most 
editors have adopted from MS. Gron. and 
ed. Rheg. Hertzberg, Keil, and Miiller 
admit the former, and Jacob also approves 
of it, observing that the pentameter verse 
has no allusion to closing the eyes, but 
evidently implies an earnest appeal to the 
dying, when the eyes are euntes (1.6, la- 
bentes, deficientes), to stay yet awhile with 
the friends who sit by the couch. The 
action is natural; and Jacob observes 

_ ‘posse autem amore, desiderio, voto reti- 

neri fugientem animam putarunt multi.’ 
See iii. 19, 15, ‘Si modo damnatum reyo- 
caverit aura puelle, Concessum nulla lege 
redibit iter.’ It was the custom, when 
the eyes of the deceased had been closed (so 

‘says Becker, Gallus, p. 506), to set up a 

loud clamour or wailing, to recal the de- 
parting spirit, if the person should only be 
in a trance. When no hope remained, 
they said conclamatum est. Does not the 

present passage show that the clamor took 
place also in articulo mortis? In fact, this 
is clear from Ovid, Zvist. iii. 3, 43, quoted by 
Becker himself, and from Lucret. 111, 598, 
‘ubi jam trepidatur, et omnes extremum 
cupiunt vite reprendere vinclum.’ 

25.] Much has been written, and not 
a few conjectures have been proposed on 
these two verses, which Lachmann, Jacob, 
and others have transferred to follow y. 20 
or y. 18, (Jacob in the latter instance sug- 
gesting ac erepuit for nec crepuit), But 
the objection to denique, that it shows 
‘ante exequias actam esse rem,’ is easily 
removed by Hertzberg,*who remarks that 
it is ‘non temporis, sed ordinis vocabulum.’ 
The arrangement in fact is quite a natural 
one: (1) nemo morientem inclamavit. (2) 
Mortuze nemo assedit. (3) Nemo vidit te 
atram togam indutum.—The custos here 
mentioned was appointed to watch by the 
body till it was carried to the pyre (e/atum), 
and he seems to have occasionally sounded 
a shrill note with a pipe, in case the ap- 
parently dead should only be in a trance, 
and so might possibly be aroused to con- 
sciousness. This is stated on the authority 
of Pliny, quoted by Servius on in. v1. 

26.] Tegula curta. Instead of a cushion, 
a broken tile was used to prop the head on 
the Zectus, or funeral bier, which head was 
cut (Jesa) by being rudely jammed against 
it, (obiectum). 

27.] Curvum, bent, weighed down with 
grief. Lachmann adopts the improbable 
alteration of Passerat, furvum, in the sense 
of pullatum. 


Si piguit portas ultra procedere, at illuc 

Jussisses lectum lentius ire meum. 


Cur ventos non ipse rogis, ingrate, petisti ? 
Cur nardo flammz non oluere mee ? 

Hoe etiam grave erat, nulla mercede hyacinthos 
Inicere et fracto busta piare cado ? 

Lygdamus uratur, candescat lamina verne ;— 


Sensi ego, cum insidiis pallida vina bibi;— 
At Nomas arcanas tollat versuta salivas: 

Dicet damnatas ignea testa manus. 
Quze modo per viles inspecta est publica noctes, 

Heec nune aurata cyclade signat humum; 


Et graviora rependit iniquis pensa quasillis, 

30.] ‘If you would not attend me to 
the pyre, at least you might have given 
orders that the bearers (vespillones) should 
carry the bier (sandapila) without such in- 
decent haste.’ It was a common custom 
for the friends to accompany the body only 
as far as the city gate. The bearers per- 
haps hastened their steps after this, just as 
with us a hearse or a mourning coach 
moves quicker when it has passed through 
a town.—lluc, ἐκεῖσε, ‘at least as far as 
the gate.’ Barth reads dlud. 

31.] Jpse, present in person at the 
funeral.—ventos petisti?, Hom. 71. xxiii. 208, 
ἀλλ᾽ ᾿Αχιλεὺς Βορέην ἠδὲ Ζέφυρον κελα- 
δεινὸν ἐλθεῖν ἀρᾶται, καὶ ὑπίσχεται ἱερὰ 

92.1 Nardo, the precious perfume gene- 
rally translated spikenard, and supposed by 
some to have been oil of cloves. It is said 
to have been the produce of a species of 
valerian from the mountains of India. 

34.] I have placed a mark of interro- 
gation at cado, the simplest sense of the 
passage being a continuation of the re- 
proach in the same strain: ‘Was this too 
a trouble to you, to throw on my pyre 
hyacinths at no cost, and to propitiate the 
fire by breaking over it a crock of wine” 
(viz. as a libation to the element; see sup. 
3, 60). Compare Fast. y. 426, ‘ compositi- 
que nepos busta piabat avi.’ Propertius is 
fond of the word pzare in various senses. 

35.] This Lygdamus was Cynthia’s con- 
fidential slave ; see iv. 6, 2. The sense is, 
‘You ought to put Lygdamus to the ordeal 
of the hot iron on suspicion of poisoning 
my wine, and thus give at least a late 
proof of your regard by avenging my 
death.’—/Jamina, the hot plate, μύδρους 

αἴρειν χεροῖν, Soph. Antig. 264.—sensi, “1 
felt the deadly effects as soon as I drank 
the poisoned wine that was handed to me 
by his treachery.’ Sudden attacks of ill- 
ness were generally attributed to the in- 
fluence of some drug. The wine is called 
pallida, from producing a sudden paleness 

when drunk. So divida adipata, Juv. vi. 
37.] ‘Let Nomas, who was an accom- 

plice in the plot, only lay aside her cunning 
trick of spitting on them, and the hot 
tile will declare her hands to be guilty.’ 
The supposed benefit of spitting on the 
hand was magical rather than physical, 
this being a common method of averting 
harm. It seems that Nomas had under- 
gone the trial before, but had been declared 
innocent in consequence, as is now hinted, 
of having had recourse to an unfair ex- 
pedient. 7 
39.] Cynthia here charges the poet with 
having taken into his favour and dressed 
in fine clothes some woman of low degree, 
who punishes with jealous severity any of 
Cynthia’s faithful handmaids who presume 
to say a word or do a deed in compliment 
to their departed mistress,—inspecta est, 
ἴ.6. ut prostibulum. 
40.] Cyclade, a light flowing dress like © 

our ‘muslin shawl,’ with gold embroidery _ 

round the edges. (See Rich, Companion to 
Dict. inv.) The proper dress of the mere- — 
trix was the toga. 

41.] Quasillis, wool-baskets, ταλάροις, 
Tibull. iv. 10, 3, ‘sit tibi cura toge potior 
pressumque quasillo Scortum, quam Servi 
filia Sulpicia.’ (See Rich, in v. Qualus).— 
de facie, se. quam pulchra fuerit. 

Garrula de facie si qua locuta mea est; 

Codicis immundi vincula sentit anus; 

Ceditur et Lalage tortis suspensa capillis, 

Per nomen quoniam est ausa rogare meum. 
Te patiente mez conflavit imaginis aurum, 
Ardenti e nostro dotem habitura rogo. 
Non tamen insector, quamvis mereare, Properti: 

Longa mea in libris regna fuere tuis. 

Juro ego Fatorum nulli revolubile carmen, 
Tergeminusque canis sic mihi molle sonet, 

Me servasse fidem. Si fallo, vipera nostris 
Sibilet in tumulis et super ossa cubet. 

Turbaque diversa remigat omnis aqua. 
Una Clytemnestre stuprum vehit, altera Cresse 

LIBER V. 7. 259 
Nostraque quod Petale tulit ad monumenta coronas, 
Nam gemina est sedes turpem sortita per amnem, 55 
ἢ ξ ἐν. ved abublera 
common as it is with jidwm. Compare v. 

44.] The codex was a clog tied to the 
foot, in this case to keep her from yisiting 
the tomb. See Juvenal, Sat. 11. 57. 

45.] Suspensa capillis. It is not clear 
whether this should be taken together, 
‘hung up by her hair,’ or, in a modified 
sense, capillis correpta; or whether with 
Burmann and Kuinoel we must understand 
‘flagella ex capillis tanquam in funem 
contortis facta.’ The excessive cruelty of 

\ mistresses to their maids is very touchingly 
᾿ described by Juvenal, vi. 490—4, and in a 
‘ beautiful epigram by Martial, ii. 66. 


47.] Conflavit, nova domina tua. See 
on y. 2, 63.—dotem habitura, ‘hoping to 
obtain a dowry from the very flames of 
the pyre,’ 1.6. by rescuing from the fire the 
portrait set in gold. The notion seems to 
be, that riches would bring no luck, derived 
from such a source; see sup. 8, 14. Cyn- 
thia therefore was consumed with her own 
jewellery, as the beryl ring, v.9, and her 
likeness, perhaps in a gem or cameo, ac- 
cording to a common but barbaric usage of 
depositing or consuming with the body the 
most favourite possessions in life. But 
must we not infer from this passage that 
the attendants sometimes filched trinkets 
from the pyre as perquisites for them- 
selves ? 

61.] Nulli revolubile, ‘which cannot be 
untwisted,’ i.e. the weird song sung by the 
Parce as they spin the thread, and which 
‘is not to be unspun. The phrase tezere, 

pices, deducere versum &c, is almost as 

1, 72. The MS. Groning. gives revocadile. 
53.] idem, ‘my promise to be yours.’ 

Fidelity, in the stricter sense, she could not 

profess.—s? fallo, compare inf. 11, 27. 

55.] Sortita, ‘allotted.’ This word, 
both here and inf. 11, 20, appears to bear 
a passive sense. See oni.2,5, The con- 
struction as explained by Hertzberg is 
somewhat complex and harsh: ‘nam turba 
omnis gemina (sc. in duas partes divisa) 
sedes per fluvium sortita est, et diversa 
aqua remigat.’ If the transitive sense be 
insisted on, it will be better to take gemina 
adyerbially (sc. as equivalent to an adverb, 
δίχα) which however amounts nearly to 
the same thing. In either case the mean- 
ing is clear: ‘all who are rowed across are 
conveyed either to Elysium or to penal 
abodes, the one in an opposite direction 
from the other.’ —diversa aqua perhaps 
means, that some go up, others down the 
stream, omnis turba meaning the οὗ πολλοὶ, 
the dead in general.—per amnem seems to 
mean trans amnem. 

57.] The MSS. give wna and altera, 
which has every appearance of being gen- 
uine, though rather difficult to explain. 
For it is argued that Clytemnestra, the 
murderer of her husband, and ; Pasiphae 
from whose unnatural appetite the Mino- 
taur sprung, were only fit to keep company 
in going one road, and that the opposite to 
the Elysian. Hence for altera various 
corrections haye been proposed; atraque, 



Portat mentite lignea monstra bovis. 
Ecce, coronato pars altera vecta phaselo, 

Mulcet ubi Elysias aura beata rosas, 


Qua numerosa fides, quaque era rotunda Cybebes, 
Mitratisque sonant Lydia plectra choris: 

Andromedeque et Hypermnestre, sine fraude marite, 
Narrant historias pectora nota suas,— 

Heee sua maternis queritur livere catenis 


Brachia, nec meritas frigida saxa manus; 
Narrat Hypermnestre magnum ausas esse sorores, 
In scelus hoc animum non valuisse suum. 
Sic mortis lacrimis vita sanamus amores. 

Celo ego perfidiz crimina multa tue. 

unaque, arteque, ausaque, ac rate &e. 
Hertzberg reads, ‘Unda Clytemnestre 
stuprum vehit altera, Cresse Portat,’ &e. 
in which he maintains that the asyndeton 
is not only excusable but even laudable. 
Miller marks both verses as corrupt, but 
proposes ‘unda Clyteemnestre stuprum et 
vehit altera Cressee Portans’ &c. The true 
interpretation seems to be this: the good 
go one way, the bad another: these are 
the two great divisions, the heaven or the 
hell, as it were, of the pagan mythology. 
But, as there are degrees of punishment, 
so Clytemnestra is conveyed in a different 
boat and by a different course from the 
destination of Pasiphae. They are not 
both bad enough or good enough to be 
conveyed in the same boat. The pars 
altera, v.59, has nothing to do with the 
sub-division of the damned implied by wa 
et altera aqua, i.e. eymba. 

58.] The construction is, ‘altera vehit 
Cressee stuprum, mentite (πλασαμένης) 
lignea monstra bovis.’ 

59.] Coronato, in reference, perhaps, to 
the Delian mission-ship, θεωρίς. Plat. 
Phed. p. 57, ο, ἐπειδὰν 6 ἱερεὺς τοῦ ᾿Απόλ- 
Awvos στέψῃ τὴν πρύμναν τοῦ πλοίου.--- 
aura, the soft breeze usually mentioned in 
connection with Elysium. Pind. 02. ii. 71; 
Hom. Od. iv. 567.—mitratis, the turbaned 
choirs; cf. sup. 5, 72. Ar. Ran. 154—7. 

‘But see, one bay-wreathed bark the blest con- 

Where fragrant air ’mid flowers Elysian plays; 

Where lutes resound, where tinkling cymbals 


And mitred choirs to Lydian minstrels sing.’ 

Verse-Translations &c., p.47. 

61.] Quaque era rotunda. This is the 

certain emendation of Scaliger and Turnébe 


for the MS. reading gua guerar (or querar) 
ut unda. 

63.] Sine fraude marite, ‘those guile- 
less wives,’ viz. as contrasted wit